GDB 快速参考手册



字数:0 关键词: 程序调试 手册

GDB QUICK REFERENCE GDB Version 5 Essential Commands gdb program [core] debug program [using coredump core] b [file:]function set breakpoint at function [in file] run [arglist] start your program [with arglist] bt backtrace: display program stack p expr display the value of an expression c continue running your program n next line, stepping over function calls s next line, stepping into function calls Starting GDB gdb start GDB, with no debugging files gdb program begin debugging program gdb program core debug coredump core produced by program gdb --help describe command line options Stopping GDB quit exit GDB; also q or EOF (eg C-d) INTERRUPT (eg C-c) terminate current command, or send to running process Getting Help help list classes of commands help class one-line descriptions for commands in class help command describe command Executing your Program run arglist start your program with arglist run start your program with current argument list run ... outf start your program with input, output redirected kill kill running program tty dev use dev as stdin and stdout for next run set args arglist specify arglist for next run set args specify empty argument list show args display argument list show env show all environment variables show env var show value of environment variable var set env var string set environment variable var unset env var remove var from environment Shell Commands cd dir change working directory to dir pwd Print working directory make ... call “make” shell cmd execute arbitrary shell command string [] surround optional arguments ... show one or more arguments c 1998, 2000, 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permissions on back Breakpoints and Watchpoints break [file:]line b [file:]line set breakpoint at line number [in file] eg: break main.c:37 break [file:]func set breakpoint at func [in file] break +offset break -offset set break at offset lines from current stop break *addr set breakpoint at address addr break set breakpoint at next instruction break ... if expr break conditionally on nonzero expr cond n [expr] new conditional expression on breakpoint n; make unconditional if no expr tbreak ... temporary break; disable when reached rbreak [file:]regex break on all functions matching regex [in file] watch expr set a watchpoint for expression expr catch event break at event, which may be catch, throw, exec, fork, vfork, load, or unload. info break show defined breakpoints info watch show defined watchpoints clear delete breakpoints at next instruction clear [file:]fun delete breakpoints at entry to fun() clear [file:]line delete breakpoints on source line delete [n] delete breakpoints [or breakpoint n] disable [n] disable breakpoints [or breakpoint n] enable [n] enable breakpoints [or breakpoint n] enable once [n] enable breakpoints [or breakpoint n]; disable again when reached enable del [n] enable breakpoints [or breakpoint n]; delete when reached ignore n count ignore breakpoint n, count times commands n [silent] command-list execute GDB command-list every time breakpoint n is reached. [silent suppresses default display] end end of command-list Program Stack backtrace [n] bt [n] print trace of all frames in stack; or of n frames—innermost if n>0, outermost if n<0 frame [n] select frame number n or frame at address n; if no n, display current frame up n select frame n frames up down n select frame n frames down info frame [addr] describe selected frame, or frame at addr info args arguments of selected frame info locals local variables of selected frame info reg [rn]... info all-reg [rn] register values [for regs rn] in selected frame; all-reg includes floating point Execution Control continue [count] c [count] continue running; if count specified, ignore this breakpoint next count times step [count] s [count] execute until another line reached; repeat count times if specified stepi [count] si [count] step by machine instructions rather than source lines next [count] n [count] execute next line, including any function calls nexti [count] ni [count] next machine instruction rather than source line until [location] run until next instruction (or location) finish run until selected stack frame returns return [expr] pop selected stack frame without executing [setting return value] signal num resume execution with signal s (none if 0) jump line jump *address resume execution at specified line number or address set var=expr evaluate expr without displaying it; use for altering program variables Display print [/f ][expr] p [/f ][expr] show value of expr [or last value $] according to format f: x hexadecimal d signed decimal u unsigned decimal o octal t binary a address, absolute and relative c character f floating point call [/f ] expr like print but does not display void x [/Nuf ] expr examine memory at address expr; optional format spec follows slash N count of how many units to display u unit size; one of b individual bytes h halfwords (two bytes) w words (four bytes) g giant words (eight bytes) f printing format. Any print format, or s null-terminated string i machine instructions disassem [addr] display memory as machine instructions Automatic Display display [/f ] expr show value of expr each time program stops [according to format f ] display display all enabled expressions on list undisplay n remove number(s) n from list of automatically displayed expressions disable disp n disable display for expression(s) number n enable disp n enable display for expression(s) number n info display numbered list of display expressions Expressions expr an expression in C, C++, or Modula-2 (including function calls), or: addr@len an array of len elements beginning at addr file::nm a variable or function nm defined in file {type}addr read memory at addr as specified type $ most recent displayed value $n nth displayed value $$ displayed value previous to $ $$n nth displayed value back from $ $ last address examined with x $ value at address $ $var convenience variable; assign any value show values [n] show last 10 values [or surrounding $n] show conv display all convenience variables Symbol Table info address s show where symbol s is stored info func [regex] show names, types of defined functions (all, or matching regex) info var [regex] show names, types of global variables (all, or matching regex) whatis [expr] ptype [expr] show data type of expr [or $] without evaluating; ptype gives more detail ptype type describe type, struct, union, or enum GDB Scripts source script read, execute GDB commands from file script define cmd command-list create new GDB command cmd; execute script defined by command-list end end of command-list document cmd help-text create online documentation for new GDB command cmd end end of help-text Signals handle signal act specify GDB actions for signal: print announce signal noprint be silent for signal stop halt execution on signal nostop do not halt execution pass allow your program to handle signal nopass do not allow your program to see signal info signals show table of signals, GDB action for each Debugging Targets target type param connect to target machine, process, or file help target display available targets attach param connect to another process detach release target from GDB control Controlling GDB set param value set one of GDB’s internal parameters show param display current setting of parameter Parameters understood by set and show: complaint limit number of messages on unusual symbols confirm on/off enable or disable cautionary queries editing on/off control readline command-line editing height lpp number of lines before pause in display language lang Language for GDB expressions (auto, c or modula-2) listsize n number of lines shown by list prompt str use str as GDB prompt radix base octal, decimal, or hex number representation verbose on/off control messages when loading symbols width cpl number of characters before line folded write on/off Allow or forbid patching binary, core files (when reopened with exec or core) history ... h ... groups with the following options: h exp off/on disable/enable readline history expansion h file filename file for recording GDB command history h size size number of commands kept in history list h save off/on control use of external file for command history print ... p ... groups with the following options: p address on/off print memory addresses in stacks, values p array off/on compact or attractive format for arrays p demangl on/off source (demangled) or internal form for C++ symbols p asm-dem on/off demangle C++ symbols in machine- instruction output p elements limit number of array elements to display p object on/off print C++ derived types for objects p pretty off/on struct display: compact or indented p union on/off display of union members p vtbl off/on display of C++ virtual function tables show commands show last 10 commands show commands n show 10 commands around number n show commands + show next 10 commands Working Files file [file] use file for both symbols and executable; with no arg, discard both core [file] read file as coredump; or discard exec [file] use file as executable only; or discard symbol [file] use symbol table from file; or discard load file dynamically link file and add its symbols add-sym file addr read additional symbols from file, dynamically loaded at addr info files display working files and targets in use path dirs add dirs to front of path searched for executable and symbol files show path display executable and symbol file path info share list names of shared libraries currently loaded Source Files dir names add directory names to front of source path dir clear source path show dir show current source path list show next ten lines of source list - show previous ten lines list lines display source surrounding lines, specified as: [file:]num line number [in named file] [file:]function beginning of function [in named file] +off off lines after last printed -off off lines previous to last printed *address line containing address list f,l from line f to line l info line num show starting, ending addresses of compiled code for source line num info source show name of current source file info sources list all source files in use forw regex search following source lines for regex rev regex search preceding source lines for regex GDB under GNU Emacs M-x gdb run GDB under Emacs C-h m describe GDB mode M-s step one line (step) M-n next line (next) M-i step one instruction (stepi) C-c C-f finish current stack frame (finish) M-c continue (cont) M-u up arg frames (up) M-d down arg frames (down) C-x & copy number from point, insert at end C-x SPC (in source file) set break at point GDB License show copying Display GNU General Public License show warranty There is NO WARRANTY for GDB. Display full no-warranty statement. Copyright c 1991, 1992, 1993, 1998, 2000, 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Author: Roland H. Pesch The author assumes no responsibility for any errors on this card. This card may be freely distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License. Please contribute to development of this card by annotating it. Improvements can be sent to GDB itself is free software; you are welcome to distribute copies of it under the terms of the GNU General Public License. There is absolutely no warranty for GDB.



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