[Entity Framework 4 实战].(Entity Framework 4 in Action)



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MANNING Stefano Mostarda Marco De Sanctis Daniele Bochicchio FOREWORD BY NOAM BEN-AMI IN ACTION Entity Framework 4 in Action Entity Framework 4 in Action STEFANO MOSTARDA MARCO DE SANCTIS DANIELE BOCHICCHIO MANNING Shelter Island For online information and ordering of this and other Manning books, please visit www.manning.com. The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in quantity. For more information, please contact Special Sales Department Manning Publications Co. 20 Baldwin Road PO Box 261 Shelter Island, NY 11964 Email: orders@manning.com ©2011 by Manning Publications Co. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. 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Development editor: Sebastian Stirling 20 Baldwin Road Copyeditor: Andy Carroll PO Box 261 Typesetter: Dottie Marsico Shelter Island, NY 11964 Cover designer: Marija Tudor ISBN 978-1-935182-18-4 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – MAL – 16 15 14 13 12 11 v brief contents PART 1 REDEFINING YOUR DATA-ACCESS STRATEGY ....................1 1 ■ Data access reloaded: Entity Framework 3 2 ■ Getting started with Entity Framework 33 PART 2 GETTING STARTED WITH ENTITY FRAMEWORK .............61 3 ■ Querying the object model: the basics 63 4 ■ Querying with LINQ to Entities 80 5 ■ Domain model mapping 119 6 ■ Understanding the entity lifecycle 151 7 ■ Persisting objects into the database 176 8 ■ Handling concurrency and transactions 203 PART 3 MASTERING ENTITY FRAMEWORK...............................225 9 ■ An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL 227 10 ■ Working with stored procedures 253 11 ■ Working with functions and views 284 12 ■ Exploring EDM metadata 296 13 ■ Customizing code and the designer 322 BRIEF CONTENTSvi PART 4 APPLIED ENTITY FRAMEWORK ....................................355 14 ■ Designing the application around Entity Framework 357 15 ■ Entity Framework and ASP.NET 378 16 ■ Entity Framework and n-tier development 396 17 ■ Entity Framework and Windows applications 423 18 ■ Testing Entity Framework 447 19 ■ Keeping an eye on performance 474 vii contents foreword xvii preface xxi acknowledgments xxii about this book xxiv about the cover illustration xxix PART 1 REDEFINING YOUR DATA-ACCESS STRATEGY ...........1 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework 3 1.1 Getting started with data access 4 1.2 Developing applications using database-like structures 5 Using datasets and data readers as data containers 5 The strong coupling problem 8 ■ The loose typing problem 9 The performance problem 10 1.3 Using classes to organize data 10 Using classes to represent data 11 ■ From a single class to the object model 13 1.4 Delving deep into object/relational differences 15 The datatype mismatch 15 ■ The association mismatch 16 The granularity mismatch 18 ■ The inheritance mismatch 20 The identity mismatch 21 ■ Handling the mismatches 22 CONTENTSviii 1.5 Letting Entity Framework ease your life 23 What is O/RM? 23 ■ The benefits of using Entity Framework 24 When isn’t O/RM needed? 26 1.6 How Entity Framework performs data access 26 The Entity Data Model 27 ■ Object Services 29 ■ Entity Client data provider 31 ■ LINQ to Entities 31 ■ Entity SQL 32 1.7 Summary 32 2 Getting started with Entity Framework 33 2.1 Introducing the OrderIT example 34 2.2 Designing the OrderIT model and database 35 Bottom-up vs. top-down design 36 ■ Customers and suppliers 37 Products 39 ■ Orders 41 2.3 Structuring the application 42 Creating the assemblies 42 ■ Designing entities using the database- first approach 43 ■ Designing relationships 50 ■ Organizing the generated code 52 ■ The model-first approach in the designer 54 2.4 A sneak peek at the code 55 Querying the database 55 ■ Updating objects and reflecting changes into storage 56 2.5 Summary 60 PART 2 GETTING STARTED WITH ENTITY FRAMEWORK ....61 3 Querying the object model: the basics 63 3.1 One engine, many querying methods 64 3.2 The query engine entry point: Object Services 64 Setting up the connection string 66 ■ Writing queries against classes 70 ■ LINQ to Entities queries vs. standard LINQ queries 70 ■ Retrieving data from the database 71 Understanding Identity Map in the context 72 ■ Understanding interaction between Object Services and Entity Client 74 Capturing the generated SQL 75 ■ Understanding which entities are returned by a query 76 ■ When is a query executed? 77 Managing the database from the context 79 3.3 Summary 79 CONTENTS ix 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities 80 4.1 Filtering data 81 Filtering data based on associations 82 ■ Paging results 86 Retrieving one entity 87 ■ Creating queries dynamically 89 4.2 Projecting results 90 Projecting with associations 92 ■ Projections and object tracking 95 4.3 Grouping data 96 Filtering aggregated data 100 4.4 Sorting 100 Sorting with associations 101 4.5 Joining data 102 4.6 Querying with inheritance 105 4.7 Using functions 107 Canonical functions 108 ■ Database functions 109 4.8 Executing handmade queries 110 Working with parameters 111 4.9 Fetching 113 Eager loading 114 ■ Lazy loading 115 ■ Manual deferred loading 116 ■ Choosing a loading approach 118 4.10 Summary 118 5 Domain model mapping 119 5.1 The Entity Data Model 120 The Entity Data Model and Visual Studio designer 120 5.2 Creating consumable entities 123 Writing the entities 124 ■ Describing entities in the conceptual schema 127 ■ Describing the database in the storage schema 130 Creating the mapping file 133 5.3 Defining relationships in the model 136 One-to-one relationships 136 ■ One-to-many relationships 140 Many-to-many relationships 142 ■ Some tips about relationships 143 5.4 Mapping inheritance 144 Table per hierarchy inheritance 144 ■ Table per type inheritance 147 CONTENTSx 5.5 Extending the EDM with custom annotations 149 Customizing the EDM 149 5.6 Summary 150 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle 151 6.1 The entity lifecycle 152 Understanding entity state 152 ■ How entity state affects the database 153 ■ State changes in the entity lifecycle 153 6.2 Managing entity state 155 The AddObject method 155 ■ The Attach method 157 The ApplyCurrentValues and ApplyOriginalValues methods 158 The DeleteObject method 159 ■ The AcceptAllChanges method 160 ■ The ChangeState and ChangeObjectState methods 161 ■ The Detach method 161 6.3 Managing change tracking with ObjectStateManager 162 The ObjectStateEntry class 163 ■ Retrieving entries 164 Modifying entity state from the entry 166 ■ Understanding object tracking 167 ■ Understanding relationship tracking 170 Change tracking and MergeOption 174 6.4 Summary 175 7 Persisting objects into the database 176 7.1 Persisting entities with SaveChanges 177 Detecting dirty entities 177 ■ Starting database transactions 178 ■ SQL code generation and execution 178 Database transaction commit or rollback 179 ■ Committing entities 179 ■ Overriding SaveChanges 180 7.2 Persisting changed entities into the database 180 Persisting an entity as a new row 180 ■ Persisting modifications made to an existing entity 182 ■ Persisting entity deletion 187 7.3 Persisting entities graphs 187 Persisting a graph of added entities 188 ■ Persisting modifications made to a graph 192 ■ Persisting deletions made to a graph 196 Persisting many-to-many relationships 199 7.4 A few tricks about persistence 199 Handling persistence exceptions 199 ■ Executing custom SQL commands 200 7.5 Summary 202 CONTENTS xi 8 Handling concurrency and transactions 203 8.1 Understanding the concurrency problem 204 The concurrent updates scenario 204 ■ A first solution: pessimistic concurrency control 205 ■ A better solution: optimistic concurrency control 206 ■ The halfway solution: pessimistic/optimistic concurrency control 207 8.2 Handling concurrency in Entity Framework 208 Enabling optimistic concurrency checking 208 ■ Optimistic concurrency in action 209 ■ Catching concurrency exceptions 213 ■ Managing concurrency exceptions 214 8.3 Managing transactions 220 The transactional ObjectContext 222 ■ Transactions and queries 223 8.4 Summary 224 PART 3 MASTERING ENTITY FRAMEWORK......................225 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL 227 9.1 Query basics 228 9.2 Filtering data 230 Working with associations 230 ■ Paging results 232 9.3 Projecting results 232 Handling projection results 233 ■ Projecting with associations 235 9.4 Grouping data 237 9.5 Sorting data 239 Sorting data based on associations 239 9.6 Joining data 240 9.7 Querying for inheritance 240 9.8 Using query-builder methods 241 Chaining methods 242 ■ Query-builder methods vs. LINQ to Entities methods 243 ■ Using parameters to prevent injection 244 9.9 Working with the Entity Client data provider 246 Connecting with EntityConnection 247 ■ Executing queries with EntityCommand 248 ■ Processing query results with EntityDataReader 248 ■ Going beyond querying with Entity Client 250 9.10 Summary 251 CONTENTSxii 10 Working with stored procedures 253 10.1 Mapping stored procedures 254 Importing a stored procedure using the designer 254 Importing stored procedures manually 256 10.2 Returning data with stored procedures 258 Stored procedures whose results match an entity 258 ■ Stored procedures whose results don’t match an entity 261 ■ Stored procedures that return scalar values 266 ■ Stored procedures that return an inheritance hierarchy 268 ■ Stored procedures with output parameters 271 10.3 Embedding functions in the storage model 274 10.4 Updating data with stored procedures 275 Using stored procedures to persist an entity 276 ■ Using stored procedures to update an entity with concurrency 279 ■ Persisting an entity that’s in an inheritance hierarchy 280 ■ Upgrading and downgrading an entity that’s in an inheritance hierarchy 282 Executing stored procedures not connected to an entity 282 10.5 Summary 283 11 Working with functions and views 284 11.1 Views in the storage model: defining queries 285 Creating a defining query 285 ■ Mapping stored procedures to classes with complex properties 287 11.2 User-defined functions and scalar-valued functions 288 Scalar-valued functions 288 ■ User-defined functions 290 User-defined functions and collection results 294 11.3 Summary 295 12 Exploring EDM metadata 296 12.1 Metadata basics 297 Accessing metadata 297 ■ How metadata is internally organized 300 Understanding when metadata becomes available 301 12.2 Retrieving metadata 301 Understanding the metadata object model 302 ■ Extracting metadata from the EDM 303 12.3 Building a metadata explorer 306 Populating entities and complex types 306 ■ Populating functions 312 ■ Populating containers 313 ■ Populating storage nodes 315 CONTENTS xiii 12.4 Writing generic code with metadata 316 Adding or attaching an object based on custom annotations 317 Building a generic GetById method 319 12.5 Summary 321 13 Customizing code and the designer 322 13.1 How Visual Studio generates classes 323 Understanding template tags 324 ■ Understanding directives 325 ■ Writing code 326 13.2 Customizing class generation 328 Understanding the available POCO template 328 ■ Generating user-defined and scalar-valued functions 329 ■ Generating data- annotation attributes 333 ■ Extending classes through partial classes 335 13.3 How Visual Studio generates database DDL 336 Choosing the workflow 337 ■ Generating SSDL, MSL, and DDL 338 13.4 Customizing DDL generation 339 Understanding the conceptual-to-storage template 340 Understanding the conceptual-to-mapping template 342 Understanding the storage-to-database script template 343 13.5 Creating designer extensions 344 How the property-extension mechanism works 344 ■ Setting up the project containing the extension 345 ■ Creating the property class 346 ■ Creating the factory class 348 ■ Creating the manifest extension file 351 ■ Installing, debugging, and uninstalling the extension 352 13.6 Summary 353 PART 4 APPLIED ENTITY FRAMEWORK...........................355 14 Designing the application around Entity Framework 357 14.1 The application design process 358 14.2 A typical three-layer architecture 359 Filling the product list 359 ■ Calculating order totals and saving them to the database 361 ■ Dealing with higher levels of complexity 363 CONTENTSxiv 14.3 Principles of domain-driven design 363 Entities 364 ■ Value objects 365 ■ Handling associations correctly: domain roots and aggregates 367 ■ Refining the model 368 14.4 Retrieving references to a domain’s entities 371 Repositories at a glance 371 ■ Implementing a repository 372 Getting a reference to a brand new entity 376 14.5 Summary 377 15 Entity Framework and ASP.NET 378 15.1 EntityDataSource, a new approach to data binding 379 A practical guide to data source controls 379 The EntityDataSource control in depth 380 15.2 Using Dynamic Data controls with Entity Framework 384 Registering the model 384 ■ Working with data annotations 386 15.3 The ObjectContext lifecycle in ASP.NET 388 The Context-per-Request pattern 389 ■ Wrapping the context 390 ■ A module to handle the lifecycle 392 Using the repository in a page 393 15.4 Common scenarios involving ASP.NET and Entity Framework 393 15.5 Summary 395 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development 396 16.1 n-Tier problems and solutions 397 Tracking changes made on the client 397 ■ Choosing data to be exchanged between server and client 398 ■ The serialization problem 399 16.2 Developing a service using entities as contracts 400 Persisting a complex graph 403 ■ Optimizing data exchanges between client and server 404 ■ Dealing with serialization in WCF 405 16.3 Developing a service using DTOs 409 Persisting a complex graph 411 16.4 Developing a service using STEs 413 Enabling STEs 414 ■ Inside an STE 415 ■ Inside the context 417 ■ Using STEs 417 ■ STE pros and cons 421 16.5 Summary 422 CONTENTS xv 17 Entity Framework and Windows applications 423 17.1 An example application 424 17.2 Designing model classes for binding 425 Implementing INotifyPropertyChanged 425 ■ Implementing IEditableObject 426 ■ Implementing IDataErrorInfo 429 Using a template to generate the binding code 431 17.3 Binding in Windows Forms applications 432 Showing orders 433 ■ Showing data for the selected order 434 ■ Showing details of the selected order 436 Showing selected detail information 437 ■ Adding code to persist modifications 438 ■ Taking advantage of binding interfaces 440 17.4 Binding in WPF applications 441 Showing orders 441 ■ Showing data for the selected order 442 ■ Showing selected order details 443 ■ Showing selected detail information 443 ■ Adding code to persist modifications 445 17.5 Summary 446 18 Testing Entity Framework 447 18.1 Unit tests at a glance 448 18.2 Writing a test suite in Visual Studio 2010 451 Testing a simple method 451 ■ Advanced features of Microsoft’s Unit Testing Framework 453 18.3 Isolating dependencies 455 Refactoring for testability 456 ■ Using a mocking framework to fake dependencies 458 18.4 Unit-testing the data access layer 461 A test infrastructure for a repository 462 ■ Testing LINQ to Entities queries 466 18.5 Testing the persistence and retrieval of an entity 470 18.6 Summary 473 19 Keeping an eye on performance 474 19.1 Testing configuration and environment 475 The performance test visualizer 476 ■ Building the timer 476 19.2 Database-writing comparison 479 CONTENTSxvi 19.3 Query comparisons in the default environment 481 19.4 Optimizing performance 484 Pregenerating views 484 ■ Compiling LINQ to Entities queries 487 ■ Enabling plan caching for Entity SQL 490 Disabling tracking when it’s not needed 491 ■ Optimizing stored procedures 491 19.5 Summary 492 appendix A Understanding LINQ 494 appendix B Entity Framework tips and tricks 512 index 532 xvii foreword I spend a lot of my time here at Microsoft thinking about complexity—and asking myself lots of questions. My guess is that you do the same. When we design code, we ask ourselves questions such as these: Can I make this code more readable? Can I write this loop with fewer lines? Can I factor out behavior into a separate class? Can I architect this system so that it is more cohesive? When we design user interfaces, we ask similar questions: Are we asking the user to make too many decisions? Did we lay out this UI in the clearest possible way? Can we make error states clearer and easier to avoid? When we design systems, we ask other questions: How many concepts must the user learn? Do those concepts map to things the user knows and cares about? Does everything hang together in a clear, sensible, consistent way? I think about these things a lot. But first I’d like to answer another question that I often get asked: Just how complicated is the Entity Framework? The answer is, that it depends on what you want to do with it. To see how simple the Entity Framework is, let’s spend five minutes making it jump through a simple set of hoops. You’ll need Visual Studio 2010 (the Express editions will work) and SQL Server (again, the Express editions will work just fine). In SQL Server, create a database called “EntityFrameworkIsSimple.” 1 Launch Visual Studio 2010. 2 From the View menu, select Server Explorer. 3 In Server Explorer, add a new connection to your EntityFrameworkIsSimple database. FOREWORDxviii 4 Create a new Console Application project, and call it EntityFrameworkIsSimple. 5 Right-click the project and select Add > New Item. In the Add New Item dialog box, select ADO.NET Entity Data Model. 6 Click Add. 7 In the Entity Data Model Wizard that comes up, select Empty Model and click Finish. 8 The entity designer will appear. Right-click in it and select Add > Entity. 9 In the Add Entity dialog box, set the entity name to Person. This will automati- cally make the entity set People. (The set is the name of the collection to which you’ll add new instances of the Person class.) 10 Click OK. 11 A new entity will appear. Right-click on the Properties bar inside of it and select Add > Scalar Property. (Or just click on the Insert key.) 12 Rename the new property to FirstName. 13 Do this again, creating a new property called LastName. 14 Add another entity and call it Book. 15 To this new entity, add a property called Title. 16 Right-click the “Person” text in the Person entity and select Add > Association. 17 In the Add Association dialog box, change the Multiplicity on the Person end to * (Many), and change the Navigation Property value at right, from Person to Authors. 18 Click OK. 19 At this point, your model should look like this: 20 Now, right-click on an empty area of the designer and select Generate Database from Model. 21 In the Generate Database Wizard that comes up, provide a connection to your database. Because we’ve added a connection to the database at the beginning of this walkthrough, it should show up in the drop-down list of available connections. 22 Click Next. 23 The DDL for a database to hold your model shows up. Click Finish. FOREWORD xix 24 In the T-SQL editor that comes up, right-click and select Execute SQL. Provide your local database information when asked to connect. That’s it! We’ve got a model. We’ve got code. We’ve got a database. We’ve even got a connection string in App.Config that the designer creates and maintains for you. Let’s take this model for a test drive. Let’s name the model: 1 In the designer, right-click in an empty area of the canvas and select Properties. 2 In the Properties window, find the property called Entity Container Name and change its value to SimpleModel. 3 In Program.cs, enter the following code into the body of the Main function: //Create and write our sample data using (var context = new SimpleModel()) { var person1 = new Person() { FirstName = "Stefano", LastName="Mostarda" }; var person2 = new Person() { FirstName = "Marco", LastName="De Sanctis" }; var person3 = new Person() { FirstName = "Daniele", LastName="Bochicchio" }; var book = new Book() { Title = "Microsoft Entity Framework In Action"}; book.Authors.Add(person1); book.Authors.Add(person2); book.Authors.Add(person3); context.People.AddObject(person1); context.People.AddObject(person2); context.People.AddObject(person3); context.Books.AddObject(book); context.SaveChanges(); } //Query our sample data using (var context = new SimpleModel()) { var book = context.Books.Include("Authors").First(); Console.Out.WriteLine("The authors '{0}' are:", book.Title); foreach(Person author in book.Authors) { Console.Out.WriteLine(" - {0} {1}", author.FirstName, author.LastName); } } Console.Read(); 4 Compile and run this code. You should see the following output: As you can see, we’ve created a system that issues queries and updates three different tables. And not a single join statement in sight! Of course, in the real world, we have many other concerns: How do we bind these types to UI elements? How do we send and update them across distributed applica- tion tiers? How do we handle concurrency, dynamic querying, and stored proce- dures? While the Entity Framework may be simple to get started with, the real world is not simple, and the Entity Framework has a host of features for dealing with real- world situations. FOREWORDxx Including an example like this may not be standard for a foreword to a book, but I did so to show how easy getting started with Entity Framework is and also to show you where this book comes in. Entity Framework 4 in Action will take you from handling transactions to understanding how to deal with performance problems and using ESQL to writing dynamic queries. And it will answer all of your questions along the way—even ones you did not know you had! I look forward to seeing what you will do with the Entity Framework and to hearing what you want us to work on next. The authors are as excited as I am to show you what is in store in the future! NOAM BEN-AMI PROGRAM MANAGER ENTITY FRAMEWORK TEAM, MICROSOFT xxi preface Yatta, we did it! We wrote a book about Entity Framework! It’s not our first book, but it’s the first one written in English and distributed worldwide. It was a great challenge, but having the opportunity to spread the word about Entity Framework made it worth the effort. Entity Framework is a great tool that speeds up the development of data access code and that can save you days and days of coding. We know coding is our job, but wouldn’t you prefer to be more productive while writing less and better code? Entity Framework is a great O/RM tool that’s integrated into the .NET Framework, meaning not only is it free, it’s also maintained and improved in each .NET Frame- work release. The result is that it’s a great platform today, and tomorrow it will be an outstanding one that will likely rule over all other O/RM platforms. When we started planning this book, we had a clear idea in mind: we didn’t want to create a reference book; we wanted to create a practical one. We wanted you to read about real-world problems and learn real-world solutions. That’s why we developed an example and improved on it throughout the book, avoiding common pitfalls and solv- ing problems that you’d face on the job. This is a book that we felt was missing among those that are available. You won’t find a detailed description of all classes and properties here, but you’ll learn the best way to use them and how to combine features to get the most out of Entity Framework. We’d love to hear what you think about the book—you can reach us online at the various addresses listed in the “About this book” section on page xxiv. It took a long time to write this book, but now that it’s in your hands we can stop spending endless nights in front of our monitors and finally sit down and spend more time with our families. Now it’s your turn. Enjoy the read, get your hands dirty, and have fun. xxii acknowledgments We can’t begin to count all the individuals who contributed to this book, each one helping to improve the final product. All of them deserve a warm thank-you. While we can’t name everyone here, we would like to offer special thanks to the following indi- viduals who were particularly helpful: Sebastian Stirling, our developmental editor at Manning—Sebastian worked with us from the beginning and masterfully transformed a bunch of words and images into an appealing book. Thank you. Elisa Flasko, Program Manager of the Entity Framework team at Microsoft—Elisa provided valuable information and routed our questions to the right person when she didn’t have the answers. Without her, this book wouldn’t be so thorough. Thank you. Noam Ben-Ami, Program Manager of the Entity Framework team at Microsoft— Noam pointed us to the right solutions to many problems, and was especially helpful when we were writing chapter 13. He also wrote the foreword to our book. Thank you. Alessandro Gallo, an ASP Insider, consultant, and lead author of Manning’s ASP.NET Ajax in Action—Alessandro didn’t contribute to the content of this book, but he was the spark that started everything. Thank you. Many individuals at Manning worked hard to make this book possible. First of all, special thanks to Michael Stephens and Marjan Bace for believing in us. Others who contributed are Karen Tegtmeyer, Mary Piergies, Maureen Spencer, Andy Carroll, Dottie Marsico, Tiffany Taylor, Susan Harkins, Janet Vail, and Cynthia Kane. Our reviewers deserve special mention—their suggestions were invaluable. We thank Jonas Bandi, David Barkol, Timothy Binkley-Jones, Margriet Bruggeman, Nikander Bruggeman, Gustavo Cavalcanti, Dave Corun, Freedom Dumlao, Rob Eisenberg, Marc Gravell, Berndt Hamboeck, Jason Jung, Lester Lobo, Darren Neimke, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxiii Braj Panda, Christian Siegers, Andrew Seimer, Alex Thissen, Dennis van der Stelt, and Frank Wang. We’d also like to thank Deepak Vohra, our technical proofreader, for the outstanding job he did reviewing the final manuscript during production. Last, but not least, thank you, dear reader, for your trust in our book. We hope that it will help you in your everyday job and will encourage you to fall in love with the world of O/RMs. In addition to the people we’ve already mentioned, there are others who are important in our lives. Even if they didn’t contribute to the book, they contributed to keeping us on track during the writing process. We acknowledge them below. STEFANO MOSTARDA I’d like to thank my wife Sara for her support and patience, as well as my family (yes, the book is finally done!). Special thanks to my closest friends (in alphabetical order): Federico, Gabriele, Gianni, and Riccardo. Of course, I can’t help mentioning Filippo, who already bought a copy of the book. And a big thank-you to William and Annalisa for their friendship and invaluable support. My last words are for Marco and Daniele: thank you, guys! MARCO DE SANCTIS My thanks to Stefano and Daniele. It was a privilege to work with such smart and funny guys. And thanks to the whole ASPItalia.com team. I’m proud to be a part of it. Special thanks to my family, and to Barbara, for their support and their patience. You have all my love. DANIELE BOCHICCHIO I would like to thank my wife Noemi for her support and patience, and for giving me our beautiful sons, Alessio and Matteo. A big thank-you to my parents for letting me play with computers when I was a kid, and to my family for supporting me. A special thank-you to Stefano for the opportunity to help with this book. And thanks to both Stefano and Marco for sharing their passion for Entity Framework. You guys rock! xxiv about this book Entity Framework is the Microsoft-recommended tool to read and persist data inside a relational database. With this software, Microsoft has entered the O/RM market with a reliable product that significantly eases data access development. This book will take you from the apprentice to the master level in the Entity Framework technology. You can think of this book as a guided tour through Entity Framework features and best practices. When you have finished reading Entity Frame- work 4 in Action, you’ll be able to confidently design, develop, and deliver applications that rely on Entity Framework to persist business data. WHO SHOULD READ THIS BOOK? This book was written for all Entity Framework developers, whether you develop small home applications or the largest enterprise systems. Everything from home DVD library applications to e-commerce solutions that interact with many heterogeneous systems and store lots of information can benefit from Entity Framework, and this book will show you how. ROADMAP This book will walk you through the creation of an application from scratch, and will show you how to keep improving it with various Entity Framework features. This Entity Framework tour will cover all of Framework’s features over the course of nineteen chapters, grouped in four parts. In part 1 we introduce the basics of the O/RM pattern and show you the funda- mentals of Entity Framework as we create the foundation for an application. Chapter 1 provides a high-level overview of the O/RM pattern and of the Entity Framework components. By the end of this chapter, you’ll understand why O/RM tools are so useful and how Entity Framework accomplishes its tasks. ABOUT THIS BOOK xxv Chapter 2 shows how you can create an application from scratch and how to persist objects in the database. First, you’ll learn two ways of designing an application using Entity Framework. Then, after the application is created, you’ll learn how to read, manipulate, and persist data. By the end of this chapter, you’ll have a clear under- standing of the advantages of adopting Entity Framework. In part 2 of the book, we discuss the main building blocks of Entity Framework in detail: mapping, querying, and persistence. Chapter 3 covers the basics of querying. Here you’ll learn about the main compo- nent that enables Entity Framework to work with objects. You’ll also discover how Entity Framework enables you to write queries against your model that will success- fully hit the database. Chapter 4 focuses on querying with LINQ to Entities. In this chapter, you’ll learn how to filter, group, project, and join data using the main query language of Entity Framework. By the end of this chapter, you’ll be able to perform any type of query. Chapter 5 discusses mapping between entities in the model and the database. Here you’ll learn how to accomplish this visually with the designer, but you’ll also learn how to manually modify the mapping file. By the end of this chapter, you’ll have a full knowledge of the mapping mechanism in Entity Framework. Chapter 6 tours the entity lifecycle. You’ll learn how Entity Framework treats enti- ties, what state an entity can be in, how to modify the state, and how state affects an entity’s persistence. By the end of the chapter, you’ll be able to write code that pre- pares your objects for persistence into the database. Chapter 7 discusses persisting objects into the database. In chapter 6 you learned how to prepare entities for persistence; here you’ll learn how to actually save them. This subject has many intricacies and pitfalls, especially where related entities are involved. This chapter focuses on these potential problems so that you can under- stand and avoid them. By the end of the chapter, you’ll be able to persist any entity in any way you need. Chapter 8 covers Entity Framework’s concurrency and transaction features. In the first part of the chapter, you’ll be introduced to the concept of concurrency and what problems it solves when data is saved to the database. Then you’ll learn how Entity Framework lets you easily manage concurrency. Finally, you’ll learn how Entity Frame- work manages transactions to persist multiple entities, and how you can extend a transaction’s lifetime to execute custom commands. Part 3 of the book will show you how to take advantage of Entity Framework’s most advanced features. Chapter 9 introduces Entity SQL. Entity SQL is Entity Framework’s other query- ing language, and it’s still the most powerful (although less appealing than LINQ to Entities). In this chapter, we’ll take the LINQ to Entities examples from chapter 4 and rewrite them in Entity SQL. You can see them side by side and choose the approach that is eas- ier for you. By the end of this chapter, you’ll have a full knowledge of all the querying techniques Entity Framework offers. ABOUT THIS BOOKxxvi Chapter 10 covers stored procedures. Here you’ll learn how to have Entity Frame- work call stored procedures to query and update entities instead of having it generate SQL for you. By the end of this chapter, you’ll be able to create your own set of stored procedures and have Entity Framework invoke them, so that your DBA is happy. Chapter 11 discusses views and functions embedded in mapping. You’ll see how to create internal views that can be queried easily, and how to create functions that can be reused when querying with both LINQ to Entities and Entity SQL. By the end of this chapter, you’ll be able to write queries that are easy to maintain and reusable. Chapter 12 discusses how to retrieve mapping information. Chapter 5 explains how to map your model classes to database tables and views; in this chapter you’ll learn how to retrieve this mapping information. You’ll also see some real-world exam- ples that will demonstrate why this technique is valuable. After finishing this chapter, you’ll be able to write powerful generic code that takes data from mapping files. Chapter 13 covers code generation. Here you’ll discover how Entity Framework is integrated with Visual Studio, and how this integration lets you create code and even generate database scripts starting with mapping information. You’ll also discover how to customize the Entity Framework designer inside Visual Studio. After you’ve fin- ished this chapter, you’ll be able to fully customize the designer, adding behaviors that simplify development. In part 4 of the book, we’ll show you how to best use Entity Framework with differ- ent types of applications: Windows, web, and web services applications. Chapter 14 discusses application design. You’ll learn about the classic three-layer pattern and then go on to the Domain Model pattern. Finally, you’ll read about the famous Repository pattern, and learn why it’s a great choice for many applications. By the end of this chapter, you’ll be able to create a well-designed and layered application. Chapter 15 explains how to integrate Entity Framework into ASP.NET applications. In this chapter, you’ll read about ASP.NET controls and about best practices for han- dling objects. This will enable you to create web applications using the correct patterns. Chapter 16 discusses how to create web service applications. Here you’ll learn about specific features dedicated to the web service environment and how and when to use them instead of resorting to other techniques. By the end of this chapter, you’ll have a strong understanding of web services and Entity Framework integration. Chapter 17 explains how to integrate Entity Framework into Windows applica- tions. Here you’ll discover how to let your model classes implement a specific inter- face so that they are integrated with the data-binding capabilities of Windows Form and WPF applications. By the end of this chapter, you’ll be able to face everyday prob- lems involving these types of applications. Chapter 18 covers testing. Here you’ll learn how to test the code that accesses the database and your repositories, and how to create batteries of tests to reveal if your modifications have broken something. Chapter 19 discusses performance. You’ll learn how Entity Framework perfor- mance compares to performance in the classic ADO.NET approach. You’ll also learn ABOUT THIS BOOK xxvii some tricks and tips to improve performance in various situations. By the end of the chapter, you’ll be able to boost the performance of your data access code to the edge. Appendix A introduces LINQ. LINQ to Entities is the most popular querying lan- guage for Entity Framework. It’s a dialect of LINQ, so to better understand it you should have a good knowledge of LINQ. That’s what this appendix offers. Appendix B presents some good Entity Framework tips. You won’t learn about new features here, but you’ll learn how to merge existing features to produce powerful behaviors. This is your ultimate resource in understanding how much power Entity Framework hands you. CODE CONVENTIONS All source code in listings or set off from the text is in a fixed-width font like this to separate it from ordinary text. The .NET code is provided in both C# and Visual Basic so that you should be comfortable with it, whatever your development language. For longer lines of code that won’t fit on the page, a code-continuation character (➥) is used to indicate lines that are broken on the page but shouldn’t be broken in the code. Code annotations accompany many of the listings, highlighting important con- cepts. In some cases, numbered bullets link to explanations that follow the listing. SOURCE CODE DOWNLOADS All the examples in this book can be downloaded from http://www.entityframe workinaction.com/download.aspx or from the publisher’s website at www.manning .com/EntityFramework4inAction. The code comes in both VB and C# versions. The code comes with a Visual Studio 2010 solution file so you only need Visual Stu- dio 2010 to run the examples. We did not try to open the solution file with Visual Studio Express 2010 (that is the free version), but it’s likely to work. AUTHOR ONLINE The purchase of Entity Framework 4 in Action includes free access to a private forum run by Manning Publications where you can make comments about the book, ask techni- cal questions, and receive help from the authors and other users. You can access and subscribe to the forum at http://www.manning.com/EntityFramework4inAction. This page provides information on how to get on the forum once you’re registered, what kind of help is available, and the rules of conduct in the forum. Manning’s commitment to our readers is to provide a venue where a meaningful dialogue between individual readers and between readers and the authors can take place. It isn’t a commitment to any specific amount of participation on the part of the authors, whose contributions to the book’s forum remain voluntary (and unpaid). We suggest you try asking the authors some challenging questions, lest their interest stray! The Author Online forum and the archives of previous discussions will be accessible from the publisher’s website as long as the book is in print. ABOUT THIS BOOKxxviii In addition to the Author Online forum available on Manning’s website, you may also contact us about this book, or anything else, through one of the following avenues: Stefano’s blog—http://blogs.5dlabs.it/author/mostarda.aspx Daniele’s blog—http://blogs.5dlabs.it/author/bochicchio.aspx Marco’s blog—http://blogs.aspitalia.com/cradle All comments sent to these blogs are moderated. We post most of the comments, but if you include your email address or phone number, we won’t post the comment out of respect for your privacy. ABOUT THE AUTHORS STEFANO MOSTARDA is a Microsoft MVP in the Data Platform category. He’s a software architect mainly focused on web applications, and is a cofounder of 5DLabs.it, a con- sulting agency specializing in ASP.NET, Silverlight, Windows Phone 7, and the .NET Framework. Stefano is a professional speaker at many Italian conferences on Micro- soft technologies and he’s a well-known author. He has written many books for the Italian market and is a coauthor of Manning’s ASP.NET 4.0 in Practice. He’s one of the leaders of the ASPItalia.com Network and a content manager of the LINQNItalia.com website dedicated to LINQ and Entity Framework. You can read his technical deliri- ums both on his blog and on Twitter at http://twitter.com/sm15455/. MARCO DE SANCTIS has been designing and developing enterprise applications in dis- tributed scenarios for the last seven years. He started developing with ASP.NET as soon as it came out, and since then has become an application architect. Through the years he specialized in building distributed services, widening his knowledge to encompass technologies like Workflow Foundation, Windows Communication Foundation, LINQ, and ADO.NET Entity Framework. Today he works as a senior software engineer for major Italian companies in the IT market. In his spare time, he’s a content manager at ASPItalia.com and has recently been named a Microsoft Most Valuable Professional in ASP.NET. You can read his thoughts on twitter at http://twitter.com/crad77. DANIELE BOCHICCHIO is a cofounder of 5DLabs.it, a consulting agency specializing in ASP.NET, Silverlight, Windows Phone 7, and the .NET Framework. He has worked on a lot of cool projects with many different technologies. Daniele is a well-known profes- sional speaker and author, and you can find him at developer-focused events world- wide. He has written several books, both in Italian and English, including ASP.NET 4.0 in Practice, published by Manning. He is also the network manager of the ASPIta- lia.com Network, the largest Italian .NET Framework community. Daniele’s personal website is located at http://www.bochicchio.com/ and he shares his thoughts in 140 chars or less at http://twitter.com/dbochicchio/. xxix about the cover illustration The figure on the cover of Entity Framework 4.0 in Action is captioned “Limonaro,” or a vendor of lemons. The illustration is taken from a collection of Italian Fine Arts, Prints, and Photographs that includes hand-colored drawings of Italian regional dress cos- tumes from the nineteenth century. Wearing a white linen shirt, blue breeches, and a wide-brimmed straw hat, and carrying a basket of lemons in one hand and a jug of lemonade in the other, the itinerant limonaro was a welcome figure in the streets of Italian towns and villages, especially in the hot summer weather. The diversity of the drawings in the collection speaks vividly of the uniqueness and individuality of the world’s towns and provinces just 200 years ago. Isolated from each other, people spoke different dialects and languages. In the streets or in the country- side, it was easy to identify where they lived and what their trade or station in life was just by what they were wearing. Dress codes have changed since then and the diversity by region, so rich at the time, has faded away. It is now often hard to tell the inhabitant of one continent from another. Perhaps, trying to view it optimistically, we have traded a cultural and visual diversity for a more varied personal life. Or a more varied and interesting intellectual and technical life. We at Manning celebrate the inventiveness, the initiative, and the fun of the com- puter business with book covers based on the rich diversity of regional life of two cen- turies ago brought back to life by the pictures from collections such as this one. Part 1 Redefining your data-access strategy Welcome to Entity Framework 4 in Action. Entity Framework is the O/RM tool that Microsoft introduced with .NET Framework 3.5 Service Pack 1 and has now updated to version 4.0. This book will enable you to use Entity Framework 4.0 to quickly build data-centric applications in a robust and model-driven way. If you’re an Entity Framework novice, you’ll learn how to create an application from scratch and build it correctly. If you’re an experienced Entity Framework developer, you’ll find lots of in-depth coverage that will improve your knowledge of this powerful tool. The book is divided into four parts, and part 1 dives right into the fundamen- tals of Entity Framework. In chapter 1, you’ll discover what an O/RM tool is, and when and why it should be used. You’ll then learn about the modules that make up the Entity Framework architecture and how they interact with each other and with you. Chapter 2 will show you how to build an application from scratch using Entity Framework. Here you’ll be introduced to the example application we’ll use throughout the book, and you’ll learn how to create its model and automatically generate code. In the last section, you’ll get an overview of how to read data from and persist data to a database. 3 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework When you design an application, you have to decide how to access and represent data. This decision is likely the most important one you’ll make in terms of applica- tion performance and ease of development and maintainability. In every project we’ve worked on, the persistence mechanism was a relational database. Despite some attempts to introduce object databases, the relational database is still, and will be for many years, the main persistence mechanism. Nowadays, relational databases offer all the features you need to persist and retrieve data. You have tables to maintain data, views to logically organize them so that they’re easier to consume, stored procedures to abstract the application from the database structure and improve performance, foreign keys to relate records in different tables, security checks to avoid unauthorized access to sensitive data, the This chapter covers  DataSet and classic ADO.NET approach  Object model approach  Object/relational mismatch  Entity Framework as a solution 4 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework ability to transparently encrypt and decrypt data, and so on. There’s a lot more under the surface, but these features are ones most useful to developers. When you must store data persistently, relational databases are your best option. On the other hand, when you must temporarily represent data in an application, objects are the best way to go. Features like inheritance, encapsulation, and method overrid- ing allow a better coding style that simplifies development compared with the legacy DataSet approach. Before we delve into the details of Entity Framework, we’ll take the first three sec- tions of this chapter to discuss how moving from the DataSet approach to the object- based approach eases development, and how this different way of working leads to the adoption of an object/relational mapping (O/RM) tool like Entity Framework. When you opt for using objects, keep in mind that there are differences between the relational and object-oriented paradigms, and the role of Entity Framework is to deal with them. It lets the developer focus on the business problems and ignore, to a certain extent, the persistence side. Such object/relational differences are hard to overcome. In section 1.4, you’ll discover that there is a lot of work involved in accom- modating them. Then, the last sections of the chapter will show how Entity Frame- work comes to our aid in solving the mismatch between the paradigms and offering a convenient way of accessing data. By the end of this chapter, you’ll have a good understanding of what an O/RM tool is, what it’s used for, and why you should always think about using one when creating an application that works with a database. 1.1 Getting started with data access Data in tables is stored as a list of rows, and every row is made of columns. This effi- cient tabular format has driven how developers represent data in applications for many years. Classic ASP and VB6 developers use recordsets to retrieve data from data- bases—the recordset is a generic container that organizes the data retrieved in the same way it’s physically stored: in rows and columns. When .NET made its appearance, developers had a brand new object to maintain in-memory data: the dataset. Although this control is completely different from the recordset we used before the .NET age, it has similar purposes and, more important, has data organized in the same manner: in rows and columns. Although this representation is efficient in some scenarios, it lacks a lot of features like type safety, performance, and manageability. We’ll discuss this in more detail when we talk about datasets in the next section. In the Java world, a structure like the dataset has always existed, but its use is now discouraged except for the simplest applications. In the .NET world, we’re facing the beginning of this trend too. You may be wondering, “If I don’t use general-purpose containers, what do I use to represent data?” The answer is easy: objects. Objects are superior to datasets in every situation because they don’t suffer from the limitations that general-purpose structures do. They offer type safety, autocompletion 5Developing applications using database-like structures in Visual Studio, compile-time checking, better performance, and more. We’ll talk more about objects in section 1.2. The benefits you gain from using objects come at a cost, resulting from the differ- ences between the object-oriented paradigm and the relational model used by data- bases. There are three notable differences:  Relationships—In a tabular structure, you use foreign keys on columns; with classes, you use references to other classes.  Equality —In a database, the data always distinguishes one row from another, whereas in the object world you may have two objects of the same type with the same data that are still different.  Inheritance —The use of inheritance is common in object-oriented languages, but in the database world it isn’t supported. This just touches the surface of a problem known as the object/relational mismatch, which will be covered in section 1.4. In this big picture, O/RM takes care of object persistence. The O/RM tool sits between the application code and the database and takes care of retrieving data and transform- ing it into objects efficiently, tracks objects’ changes, and reflects them to the data- base. This ensures that you don’t have to write almost 80 percent of the data-access code (that’s a rough estimate based on our experience). 1.2 Developing applications using database-like structures Over the last decade, we have been developing applications using VB6, Classic ASP, Delphi, and .NET, and all of these technologies use external components or objects to access databases and maintain data internally. Both tasks are similar in each language, but they’re especially similar for internal data representation: data is organized in structures built on the concept of rows and columns. The result is that applications manage data the same way it’s organized in the database. Why do different vendors offer developers the same programming model? The answer is simple: developers are accustomed to tabular representation, and they don’t need to learn anything else to be productive. Furthermore, these generic structures can contain any data as long as it can be represented in rows and columns. Potentially, even data coming from XML files, web services, or rest calls can be organized this way. As a result, vendors have developed a subset of objects that can represent any infor- mation without us having to write a single line of code. These objects are called data containers. 1.2.1 Using datasets and data readers as data containers At the beginning of our .NET experience, many of us used datasets and data readers. With a few lines of code, we had an object that could be bound to any data-driven con- trol and that, in case of the data reader, provided impressive performance. By using a data adapter in combination with a dataset, we had a fully featured framework for reading and updating data. We had never been so productive. Visual Studio played its 6 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework role, too. Its wizards and tight integration with these objects gave us the feeling that everything could be created by dragging and dropping and writing a few lines of code. Let’s look at an example. Suppose you have a database with Order and Order- Detail tables (as shown in figure 1.1), and you have to create a simple web page where all orders are shown. Figure 1.1 The Order table has a related OrderDetail table that contains its details. The first step is creating a connection to the database. Then, you need to create an adapter and finally execute the query, pouring data into a data table that you bind to a list control. These steps are shown in the following listing. C# using (SqlConnection conn = new SqlConnection(connString)) { using (SqlDataAdapter da = new SqlDataAdapter("Select * from order", conn)) { DataTable dt = new DataTable(); da.Fill(dt); ListView1.DataSource = dt; ListView1.DataBind(); } } VB Using conn As New SqlConnection(connString) Using da As New SqlDataAdapter("Select * from order", conn) Dim dt As New DataTable() da.Fill(dt) ListView1.DataSource = dt ListView1.DataBind() End Using End Using By doing a bit of refactoring, you get the connection and the adapter in a single method call, so the amount of code is further reduced. That’s all you need to do to display the orders. After playing with the prototype, your customer changes the specifications and wants to see the details under each order in the list. The solution becomes more chal- lenging, because you can choose different approaches: Listing 1.1 Displaying a list of orders 7Developing applications using database-like structures  Retrieve data from the Order table and then query the details for each order. This approach is by far the easiest to code. By intercepting when an order is bound to the ListView, you can query its details and show them.  Retrieve data joining the Order and OrderDetail tables. The result is a Cartesian prod- uct of the join between the tables, and it contains as many rows as are in the OrderDetail table. This means the resultset can’t be passed to a control as is, but must be processed locally first.  Retrieve all orders and all details in two distinct queries. This is by far the best approach, because it performs only two queries against the database. You can bind orders to a control, intercept when each order is bound, and filter the in- memory details to show only those related to the current order. Whichever path you choose, there is an important point to consider: you’re bound to the database structure. Your code is determined by the database structure and the way you retrieve data; each choice leads to different code, and changing tactics would be painful. Let’s move on. Your customer now needs a page to display data about a single order so it can be printed. The page must contain labels for the order data and a ListView for the details. Supposing you retrieve the data in two distinct commands, the code would look like this. C# using (SqlConnection conn = new SqlConnection(connString)) { using (SqlCommand cm = new SqlCommand("Select * from order ➥ where orderid = 1", conn)) { conn.Open(); using (SqlDataReader rd = cm.ExecuteReader()) { rd.Read(); date.Text = ((DateTime)rd["OrderDate"]).ToString(); shippingAddress.Text = rd["ShippingAddress"].ToString(); shippingCity.Text = rd["ShippingCity"].ToString(); } using (SqlDataReader rd = cm.ExecuteReader()) { details.DataSource = rd; details.DataBind(); } } } VB Using conn As New SqlConnection(connString) Using cm As New SqlCommand("Select * from order ➥ where orderid = 1", conn) conn.Open() Using rd As SqlDataReader = cm.ExecuteReader() Listing 1.2 Displaying data for a single order 8 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework rd.Read() [date].Text = DirectCast(rd("OrderDate"), DateTime).ToString() shippingAddress.Text = rd("ShippingAddress").ToString() shippingCity.Text = rd("ShippingCity").ToString() End Using Using rd As SqlDataReader = cm.ExecuteReader() details.DataSource = rd details.DataBind() End Using End Using End Using The way you access data is completely unsafe and generic. On the one hand, you have great flexibility, because you can easily write generic code to implement functions that are unaware of the table field names and rely on configuration. On the other hand, you lose type safety. You identify a field specifying its name using a string; if the name isn’t correct, you get an exception only at runtime. You lose control not only on field names, but even on datatypes. Data readers and data tables (which are the items that contain data in a dataset) return column values as Object types (the .NET base type), so you need to cast them to the correct type (or invoke the ToString method as well). This is an example of the object/relational mis- match we mentioned before. Now that you’ve seen the big picture of the generic data-container world, let’s investigate its limitations and look at why this approach is gradually being discontin- ued in enterprise applications. 1.2.2 The strong coupling problem In the previous example, you were asked to determine the best way to display orders and details in a grid. What you need is a list of orders, where every order has a list of details associated with it. Data readers and data tables don’t allow you to transparently retrieve data without affecting the user interface code. This means your application is strongly coupled to the database structure, and any change to that structure requires your code to do some heavy lifting. This is likely the most important reason why the use of these objects is dis- couraged. Even if you have the same data in memory, how it’s retrieved affects how it’s internally represented. This is clearly a fetching problem, and it’s something that should be handled in the data-access code, and not in the user interface. In many projects we have worked on, the database serves just one application, so the data is organized so the code can consume it easily. This isn’t always the case. Sometimes applications are built on top of an existing database, and nothing can be modified because other applications are using the database. In such situations, you’re even more coupled to the database and its data organization, which might be extremely different from how you would expect. For instance, orders might be stored in one table and shipping addresses in another. The data access code could reduce the impact, but the fetching problem would remain. 9Developing applications using database-like structures And what happens when the name of a column changes? This happens frequently when an application is under development. The result is that interface code needs to be adapted to reflect this change; your code is very fragile because a search and replace is the only way to achieve this goal. You can mitigate the problem by modifying the SQL and adding an alias to maintain the old name in the resultset, but this causes more confusion and soon turns into a new problem. 1.2.3 The loose typing problem To retrieve the value of a column stored in a data reader or a data table, you usually refer to it using a constant string. Code that uses a data table typically looks something like this: C# object shippingAddress = orders.Rows[0]["ShippingAddress"]; VB Dim shippingAddress As Object = orders.Rows(0)("ShippingAddress") The variable shippingAddress is of type System.Object, so it can contain potentially any type of data. You may know it contains a string value, but to use it like a string, you have to explicitly perform a casting or conversion operation: C# string shippingAddress = (string)orders.Rows[0]["ShippingAddress"]; string shippingAddress = orders.Rows[0]["ShippingAddress"].ToString(); VB Dim shippingAddress As String = _ DirectCast(orders.Rows(0)("ShippingAddress"), String) Dim shippingAddress As String = _ orders.Rows(0)("ShippingAddress").ToString() Casting and converting cost, both in terms of performance and memory usage, because casting from a value type to a reference type and vice versa causes boxing and unboxing to occur. In some cases, conversion can require the use of the IConvertible interface, which causes an internal cast. Data readers have an advantage over data tables. They offer typed methods to access fields without needing explicit casts. Such methods accept an integer parame- ter that stands for the index of the column in the row. Data readers also have a method that returns the index of a column, given its name, but its use tends to clutter the code and is subject to typing errors: C# string address = rd.GetString(rd.GetOrdinal("ShippingAddress")); string address = rd.GetString(rd.GetOrdinal("ShipingAdres")); //exception VB Dim address As String = _ rd.GetString(rd.GetOrdinal("ShippingAddress")) Dim address As String = _ rd.GetString(rd.GetOrdinal("ShipingAdres")) 'exception 10 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework The problem resulting from column name changes, discussed in the previous section, involves even the loss of control at compile time. It’s not desirable to discover at run- time that a column name has changed or that you have mistyped a column name. Compilers can’t help avoid such problems because they have no knowledge of what the name of the column is. 1.2.4 The performance problem DataSet is likely one of the most complex structures in the .NET class library. It con- tains one or more DataTable instances, and each of these has a list of DataRow objects made of a set of DataColumnobjects. A DataTable can have a primary key consisting of one or more columns and can declare that certain columns have a foreign key rela- tionship with columns in another DataTable. Columns support versioning, meaning that if you change the value, both the old and the new value are stored in the column to perform concurrency checks. To send updates to the database, you have to use a DbDataAdapter class (or, more precisely, one of its derived classes), which is yet another object. Although these features are often completely useless and are ignored by develop- ers, DataSet internally creates an empty collection of these objects. This might be a negligible waste of resources for a standalone application, but in a multiuser environ- ment with thousands of requests, like a web application, this becomes unacceptable. It’s useless to optimize database performance, tweaking indexes, modifying SQL, add- ing hints, and so on, if you waste resources creating structures you don’t need. In contrast, DataReader is built for different scenarios. A DataTable downloads all data read from the database into memory, but often you don’t need all the data in memory and could instead fetch it record by record from the database. Another situa- tion is in data updates; you often need to read data but don’t need to update it. In such cases, some features, like row versioning, are useless. DataReader is the best choice in such situations, because it retrieves data in a read-only (faster) way. Although it boosts performance, DataReader can still suffer from the casting and conversion problems of DataSet, but this loss of time is less than the gain you get from its use. All of these problems may seem overwhelming, but many applications out there benefit from the use of database-like structures. Even more will be developed in the future using these objects without problems. Nonetheless, in enterprise-class projects, where the code base is large and you need more control and flexibility, you can lever- age the power of object-oriented programming and use classes to organize your data. 1.3 Using classes to organize data We’re living in the object-oriented era. Procedural languages still exist, but they’re restricted to particular environments. For instance, COBOL is still required for appli- cations that run on mainframe architectures. Using classes is a natural choice for most applications today. Classes are the foun- dation of object-oriented programming. They easily represent data, perform actions, 11Using classes to organize data publish events, and so on. From a data organization point of view, classes express data through methods and properties (which, in the end, are special methods). By using classes, you can choose your internal representation of data without wor- rying about how it’s persisted—you need to know nothing about the storage mecha- nism. It could be a database, a web service, an XML file, or something else. Representing data without having any knowledge of the storage mechanism is referred to as persistence ignorance, and the classes used in this scenario are called POCOs (plain old CLR objects). The use of classes offers several benefits that are particularly important in enter- prise applications:  Strong typing —You no longer need to cast or convert every column in a row to get its value in the correct type (or, at least, you don’t have to do it in the inter- face code).  Compile-time checking —Classes expose properties to access data; they don’t use a generic method or indexer. If you incorrectly enter the name of a property, you immediately get a compilation error. You no longer need to run the application to find typos.  Ease of development—Editors like Visual Studio offer IntelliSense to speed up development. IntelliSense offers the developer hints about the properties, events, and methods exposed by a class. But if you use DataSet, editors can’t help you in any way, because columns are retrieved using strings, which aren’t subject to IntelliSense.  Storage-agnostic interface—You don’t have to shape classes to accommodate the structure of the database, which gives you maximum flexibility. Classes have their own structure, and although it’s often similar to that of the table they’re related to, it doesn’t need to be. You no longer have to worry about database organization and data retrieval, because you code against classes. Data-retrieval details are delegated to a specific part of the application, and the interface code always remains the same. To get a look at these concepts in practice, let’s refactor the example from the previous section. 1.3.1 Using classes to represent data Let’s start from scratch again. The customer wants to display orders in a grid. The first step is to create an Order class to con- tain order data, as shown in figure 1.2. The Order class has the same structure as the related database table. The only obvious difference here is that you have .NET types (String, Int32, DateTime) instead of database types (int, varchar, date). Figure 1.2 The Order class contains data from the Order table. 12 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework The second step is to create a class with a method that reads data from the data- base and transforms it into objects, as in the following listing. The container class is often in a separate assembly, known as data layer. C# public List GetOrders() { using (SqlConnection conn = new SqlConnection(connString)) { using (SqlCommand comm = new SqlCommand("select * from orders", conn)) { conn.Open(); using(SqlDataReader r = comm.ExecuteReader()) { List orders = new List(); while (rd.Read()) { orders.Add( new Order { CustomerCode = (string)rd["CustomerCode"], OrderDate = (DateTime)rd["OrderDate"], OrderCode = (string)rd["OrderCode"], ShippingAddress = (string)rd["ShippingAddress"], ShippingCity = (string)rd["ShippingCity"], ShippingZipCode = (string)rd["ShippingZipCode"], ShippingCountry = (string)rd["ShippingCountry"] } ); } return orders; } } } } ... ListView1.DataSource = new OrderManager().GetOrders(); ListView1.DataBind(); VB Public Function GetOrders() As List(Of Order) Using conn As New SqlConnection(connString) Using comm As New SqlCommand("select * from orders", conn) conn.Open() Using r As SqlDataReader = comm.ExecuteReader() Dim orders As New List(Of Order)() While rd.Read() orders.Add(New Order() With { .CustomerCode = DirectCast(rd("CustomerCode"), String), .OrderDate = DirectCast(rd("OrderDate"), DateTime), .OrderCode = DirectCast(rd("OrderCode"), String), Listing 1.3 Creating a list of orders 13Using classes to organize data .ShippingAddress = DirectCast(rd("ShippingAddress"), String), .ShippingCity = DirectCast(rd("ShippingCity"), String), .ShippingZipCode = DirectCast(rd("ShippingZipCode"), String), .ShippingCountry = DirectCast(rd("ShippingCountry"), String) }) End While Return orders End Using End Using End Using End Function ... ListView1.DataSource = New OrderManager().GetOrders() ListView1.DataBind() “What a huge amount of code!” That’s often people’s first reaction to the code in list- ing 1.3. And they’re right; that’s a lot of code, particularly if you compare it with listing 1.1, which uses a dataset. If your application has to show simple data like this, the data- set approach is more desirable. But when things get complex, classes help a lot more. Let’s take a look at the next required feature: displaying a single order in a form. After the order is retrieved, displaying its properties using classes is far more straight- forward: C# shippingAddress.Text = order.ShippingAddress; shippingCity.Text = order.ShippingCity; VB shippingAddress.Text = order.ShippingAddress shippingCity.Text = order.ShippingCity The final step is showing the orders and related details in a grid. Doing this requires in-depth knowledge because it introduces the concept of models. You can’t represent orders and details in a single class—you have to use two separate classes the same way you do with tables. In the next section, we’ll discuss this technique. 1.3.2 From a single class to the object model You have now seen how to develop a single standalone class and how to instantiate it using data from a database, but the real power comes when you create more classes and begin to link them to each other (for instance, when you create an OrderDetail class that contains data from the OrderDetail table). In a database, the relationship between an order and its detail lines is described using a foreign key constraint between the OrderId column in the Order table and the OrderId column in the OrderDetail table. From a database design point of view, this is the correct approach. In the object-oriented world, you have to follow another path. There’s no point in creating an OrderDetail class and giving it an OrderId property. The best solution is to take advantage of a peculiar feature of classes: they can have properties whose type 14 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework is a user-defined class. This means the Order class can hold a reference to a list of OrderDetail objects, and the OrderDetail class can have a reference to Order. When you create these relationships, you’re beginning to create an object model. An object model is a set of classes related to each other that describe the data consumed by an application. The Object Model and Domain Model patterns The Object Model and Domain Model patterns are often considered to refer to the same thing. They may initially look exactly the same, because both carry data extracted from storage. But after digging a bit, you’ll find that they have differences: the object model contains only the data, whereas the domain model contains data and exposes behavior. The Order class that we’ve been looking at is a perfect expression of an object model. It has properties that hold data and nothing more. You could add a computed property that reports the full address by combining the values of other properties, but this would be a helper method. It wouldn’t add any behavior to the class. If you want to move on from an object model to a domain model, you have to add behavior to the class. To better understand the concept of behavior, suppose you need to know if an order exceeds the allowed total amount. With an object model, you have to build a method on another class. In this method, you call the database to retrieve the maximum amount allowed, and then compare it with the amount of the order. If you opt for a domain model, on the other hand, you can add an IsCorrect method to the Order class and perform the check there. This way you’re adding behavior and expressiveness to the Order class. Creating and maintaining a domain model isn’t at all easy. It forces the software architect to make choices about the design of the application. In particular, classes must be responsible for their own validation and must always be in a valid state. (For instance, an order must always have a related customer.) These checks may contrib- ute to code bloating in the classes; so, to avoid confusion, you may have to create other classes that are responsible for validation, and keep those classes in the domain model. The details of the Object Model and Domain Model patterns are beyond the scope of this book and won’t be covered, but plenty of books focus on this subject and all its implications. We recommend Domain Driven Design by Eric Evans (Addison-Wesley Professional, 2004). We’ll discuss the Domain Model pattern and Entity Framework in chapter 14. The real power of the object model emerges when you need to show orders and their related details in a single grid. In section 1.2.1, there was a fetching problem with a spectrum of solutions. Every one was different, but what’s worse is that every one required a different coding style on the interface. Using classes, your interface code is completely isolated from fetching problems because it no longer cares about the database. A specific part of the application will fetch data and return objects. This is where the storage-agnostic interface feature of using classes comes into play. 15Delving deep into object/relational differences The example we’ve looked at so far is oversimplified. You’ll have noticed that the Order class has a CustomerId property and the OrderDetail class has a ProductId property. In a complete design, you’d have Customer and Product classes too. Likely, a customer has a list of applicable discounts based on some condition, and a product belongs to one or more categories. Creating a strong object model requires a high degree of knowledge, discipline, and a good amount of practice. At first sight, it may seem that a one-to-one mapping between classes and database tables is enough. Going deeper, though, the object-oriented paradigm has much more expressiveness and a different set of features compared with the database structure. Inheritance, many-to-many-relationships, and logical groups of data are all features that influence how you design a model. More importantly, such features create a mis- match between the relational representation and the model; in literature, this prob- lem is known as the object/relational mismatch, and it’s discussed in the next section. 1.4 Delving deep into object/relational differences Understanding the differences between the object-oriented and relational worlds is important, because they affect the way you design an object or domain model and the database. The mismatch can be broken down into different parts relating to datatypes, asso- ciations, granularity, inheritance, and identity, and in the following sections we’ll look at them in turn. To better illustrate this mismatch, we’ll make use of the example introduced in previous sections. 1.4.1 The datatype mismatch The datatype mismatch refers to the different data representations and constraints that are used in the object and relational worlds. When you add a column to a table in a database, you have to decide what datatype to assign to it. Any modern database sup- ports char, varchar, int, decimal, date, and so on. When it comes to classes, the situ- ation is different. Database int and bigint types fit naturally into .NET Int32 and Int64 types, but other database types don’t have an exact match in .NET. In the database, when you know that the value of a column has a maximum length, you set this constraint into the column to enforce the business rule. This is particu- larly desirable when the database serves several applications, and yours isn’t the only one that updates data. In .NET, varchar doesn’t exist. The nearest type to varchar is String, but it doesn’t support any declarative limitations on its length (it can contain 2 GB of data). If you want to check that the value of the String isn’t longer than expected, you have to implement this check in the setter of the property, or call a check method before sending the data back to the database. Another example of this mismatch involves binary data. Every database accepts binary data, but the column that contains the data doesn’t know anything about what the data represents. It might be a text or PDF file, an image, and so on. In .NET, you could represent such a column using an Object, but it would be nonsense, because 16 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework you know perfectly well what kind of data you have stored in the binary column. If the value is a file, you can use a Stream property, whereas the Image type is your best choice for images. One last example of the datatype difference emerges when you use dates. Depend- ing on the database vendor and version, you have lots of datatypes you can use to store a date. For instance, until version 2005 of SQL Server, you had DateTime and Small- DateTime. SQL Server 2008 has introduced two more datatypes: Date and Time. As you can imagine, the first contains only a date and the second only a time. In .NET, you have only a DateTime class that represents both date and time. Handling this mis- match isn’t difficult, but it requires a bit of discipline when instantiating the object from database data and vice versa. As you can see, the datatype mismatch is trivial and doesn’t cause developers to lose sleep at night. But it does exist, and it’s something you must take care of. The second difference, which already emerged in section 1.2, is the association between classes. Databases use foreign keys to represent relationships, whereas object- oriented applications use references to other objects. In the next section, we’ll go deeper into this subject. 1.4.2 The association mismatch When talking about associations, the biggest mismatch between the relational and object worlds is how relationships are maintained. Database tables are related using a mechanism that is different from the one used by classes. Let’s examine how the cardi- nality of relationships is handled in both worlds. ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIPS The Order table contains all the data about orders. But suppose the application needs to be improved, and an additional column has to be added to the Order table. This may initially seem like a minor improvement, because adding a column isn’t too dan- gerous. But it’s more serious than that. There may be lots of applications that rely on that table, and you don’t want to risk introducing bugs. The alternative is to create a new table that has OrderId as the primary key and contains the new columns. On the database side, that’s a reasonable tradeoff, but repeating such a design in the object model would be nonsense. The best way to go is to add properties to the Order class, as shown in figure 1.3. Figure 1.3 The Order2 table contains columns for the new data and is related to the Order table. In the object model, there’s no new class—just a new property on the Order class. 17Delving deep into object/relational differences The method that interacts with the database will handle the differences between the two schemas. Such a method isn’t complicated at all; it performs a join between the two tables and updates data in both to handle the mismatch: Select a.*, b.* from Orders a join Order2 on (a.orderid = b.orderid) This association difference leads to the granularity mismatch, which will be dis- cussed later in this section. ONE-TO-MANY RELATIONSHIPS You’ve already seen a one-to-many relationship when we linked details to an order. In a database, the table that represent the “many” side of the relationship contains the primary key of the master table. For example, the OrderDetail table contains an OrderId column that links the detail to its order. In database jargon, this column is called a foreign key. By nature, database associations are unique and bidirectional. By unique, we mean that you have to define the relationship only on one side (the OrderDetail side); you don’t need to define anything in the Order table. Bidirectional means that even if you modify only one side, you have automatically related the master record to its details and a detail to its master. This is possible because SQL allows you to perform joins between tables to get the order related to a detail and all details related to an order. In the object-oriented world, such automatism doesn’t exist because everything must be explicitly declared. The OrderDetail class contains a reference to the order via its Order property, and this behavior is similar to the database. The real difference is that you also need to modify the Order class, adding a property (OrderDetails) that contains a list of OrderDetail objects that rep- resent the details of the order. In figure 1.4, you can see this relationship. So far, you have handled orders and their details. Now, let’s move on to handle products and their suppliers. A product can be bought from more than one supplier, and a single sup- plier can sell many products. This leads to a many-to-many association. MANY-TO-MANY RELATIONSHIPS The many-to-many relationship represents an association where each of the endpoints has a multiple relationship with the other. This means there’s no master-detail rela- tionship between tables—both of them are at the same level. For example, if you have Product and Supplier tables, you can’t express the rela- tionship between them simply by creating a foreign key in one of the tables. The only way to link them is to not link them at all. Instead, you create a middle table, known as a link table, that contains the primary key of both tables. The Product and Supplier tables contain only their own data, whereas the link table contains the relationship between them. This way, the two main tables aren’t directly connected, but rely on a third one that has foreign keys. Figure 1.4 The relationship between Order and OrderDetail in the object model is expressed with properties. 18 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework In an object model, the concept of a link table doesn’t exist because the relation- ship is represented as a list of references to the other class on both sides. Because you have Product and Supplier tables in the database, you create Product and Supplier classes in the model. In the Product class, you add a Suppliers property that contains a list of Supplier objects representing those who sell the product. Similarly, in the Supplier class you add a Products property that contains a list of Product objects that represent the products sold by the supplier. Figure 1.5 shows such associations. Figure 1.5 In the database, the Product and Supplier tables are related via the ProductSupplier table. In the model, the Product and Supplier classes are directly related using properties. Like one-to-one relationships, many-to-many relationships are one of the causes of the granularity problem that appears in the object model. The other cause of the granularity problem is covered in the next section. 1.4.3 The granularity mismatch The granularity problem refers to the difference in the number of classes compared with the number of tables in the database. You’ve already seen that depending on the types of relationships, you might end up with fewer classes than tables. Now we’re going to explore another cause for the granularity mismatch: value types. Let’s get back to our example. The Order table has a shipping address that’s split into four columns: address, city, zip code, and country. Suppose you need to handle another address, say the billing address, and you decide to add four more columns to the Order table, so it looks like the one shown in figure 1.6. The Order class already has four properties for the ship- ping address, so adding further properties won’t be a prob- lem. But although it works smoothly, these new properties let the class grow, making it harder to understand. What’s more, customers and suppliers have an address, the product store has an address, and maybe other classes have addresses too. Classes are reusable, so wouldn’t it be good to create an AddressInfo class and reuse it across the entire model? Figure 1.6 An excerpt of the new Order table with the new billing address field 19Delving deep into object/relational differences With a bit of refactoring, you can modify the Order class to remove the address- related properties and add two more: ShippingAddress and BillingAddress. The code after refactoring looks like this. C# public class AddressInfo { public string Address { get; set; } public string City { get; set; } public string ZipCode { get; set; } public string Country { get; set; } } public class Order { public Address ShippingAddress { get; set; } public Address BillingAddress { get; set; } } VB Public Class AddressInfo Public Property Address() As String Public Property City() As String Public Property ZipCode() As String Public Property Country() As String End Class Public Class Order Public Property ShippingAddress() As Address Public Property BillingAddress() As Address End Class As you see, the code after the refactoring is easy to understand. Avoiding overnormalization We have seen solutions where the database has been overnormalized. The addresses were moved into a different table with its own identity, and foreign keys were used to link the customer table to the address. From a purist database designer point of view, this approach might be correct, but in practice it doesn’t perform as well as if the columns were stored in the customer table. It’s very likely that you’ll need address information each time you retrieve an order, so every access will require a join with the address table. This design might or might not have optimized the overall database design, but from a developer’s perspective it was a painful choice. This design affected the design of the object model too. The AddressInfo class was originally a mere container of data, but it was turned into an entity that has its own correspondence with a database table. The consequences were a higher number of lines of code to maintain the new data- base table, and slower performance because SQL commands increased (updating a customer meant updating its personal data and address). Forewarned is forearmed. Listing 1.4 The AddressInfo and Order classes 20 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework Another cause of the different levels of granularity is the inheritance feature of OOP. In a model, it’s common to create a base class and let other classes inherit from it. In relational databases, though, the concept of inheritance doesn’t exist, so you have to use some workaround to handle such scenarios, as we’ll see next. 1.4.4 The inheritance mismatch The inheritance mismatch refers to the impossibility of representing inheritance graphs in a database. Let’s go back to the example to see why this difference repre- sents a problem. Let’s refine the object model to add the Customer class, and we’ll let it and the Supplier class inherit from Company. It’s highly likely that these entities share col- umns, such as address, VAT number, name, and so on, so using inheritance is the most natural way to design such classes. Figure 1.7 shows these classes. Figure 1.7 The Supplier and Customer classes inherit from Company. In a relational database, you can’t simply declare a Customer table and say that it inher- its from another table. That isn’t how relational organization works. You can create a single table that contains both customer and supplier data, or create one for each type. Whatever your decision is, there will be a mismatch between database and model. In the model, you have a Product class. A store can sell different types of products such as shoes, shirts, golf equipment, swimming equipment, and so on. All these prod- ucts share some basic types of data, like price and color, and they’ll also have other information that’s specific to each product. Even in this case, inheritance comes to your aid. To reflect this situation, you write a Product class, and then you create a class for each specific product. The biggest problem emerges when you design the OrderDetail class. In that class, you’ll need a property indicating what product the detail refers to; this property is of type Product even if at runtime the concrete instance of the object might be of type Shoes, Shirts, or any type that inherits from Product. Figure 1.8 shows this inheritance hierarchy in the model. Figure 1.8 Shirt and Shoes inherit from Product, which is referenced by OrderDetail. This type of association is referred to as polymorphic, and it’s absolutely impossible to natively represent in a database. Furthermore, to retrieve the product related to an order detail, you need a polymorphic query, which isn’t supported in a database. Fortunately, after years of experience, developers have found a way to use a combi- nation of database design, SQL statements, and code to simulate the effect of a poly- morphic query. This means that you can write a query and get instances of objects of 21Delving deep into object/relational differences the correct type based on the data in the OrderDetail table. Naturally, you don’t just need polymorphic queries; you need polymorphic inserts, updates, and deletes too. Indeed, the code that interacts with the database has to both retrieve and update data, so you need to solve both sides of the mismatch. The last difference we’ll talk about is identity. Databases and objects have different concepts of equality. Databases base identity on the primary key column, whereas objects use a pointer comparison. 1.4.5 The identity mismatch The identity mismatch refers to the different ways that objects and databases deter- mine equality. The identity of a row in a table is represented by the value of its primary key col- umns. As a result, you have to pay attention when choosing a primary key for a table. Sometimes you may want to use a natural key, such as a product code, but this choice can introduce troubles instead of simplifying things. For example, suppose you need to change a product code because you entered an incorrect one. The product code is a foreign key column in the OrderDetail table, so you have to update it too. The problem is that you can’t update the product code col- umn in the OrderDetail table, because if you change it to a value that doesn’t yet exist in the Product table, you’ll receive an error. On the other hand, you can’t change the value in the Product table because it would violate the foreign key constraint. Lots of steps are necessary to solve this problem; what seems to be a simple update turns out to be a nightmare. That’s likely the most annoying problem, but there’s another reason to avoid the use of natural keys. A product code might be a relatively long string, and almost all databases are optimized for storing and searching integer values, so the most effective primary key is a surrogate key that’s a meaningless value to the business. By using a sur- rogate key, you leave the burden of creating it to the database, and you can concen- trate on the data. The use of surrogate keys allows you to change data in any column in the table without affecting any other table; you don’t have to perform a compli- cated series of steps to change the product code. NOTE We have opted for an integer key, but GUID keys are good too. In many scenarios, GUIDs are a better choice than integers. There’s no abso- lute rule about this; it must be considered on a case-by-case basis. So far, we can state that an object is the object-oriented representation of a table row, and that the primary key property is what links the object to the row. The problem is that if you compare two different objects of the same type, they turn out to be differ- ent even if they contain the same data. Why are objects with the same data different? Because, by default, two variables that point to different objects representing the same row of a table are different. If the two variables point to the same instance, then they are equal. This is called equality by reference. 22 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework An approach that changes this default behavior is certainly more desirable. If two different objects contain the same data, their comparison should return true. In .NET, such equality can be achieved by overriding the Equals and GetHashCode methods, and stating the equality rules in these methods. The most natural way to represent equality is to compare properties that represent the primary key on the table, but there are complex cases where this approach can’t be followed. 1.4.6 Handling the mismatches Now that you’ve seen all of the differences between the relational and object worlds, you’ll have an idea of what writing code that accesses the database in object-model– based applications involves. We haven’t talked about the techniques for handling the mismatches, but you may easily guess that a flexible system requires a lot of lines of code. Naturally, if you focus on solving the problems for an individual application, the solution is simpler; but if you want to create something reusable, complexity increases. In our experience, one of the most difficult features to implement is polymorphic queries. You need to accommodate the design of the database to create (sometimes very complex) ad hoc SQL queries and to write a huge amount of code to correctly transform the data extracted by the query into objects. Relationships come at a cost too. As stated before, it’s easy to write code that retrieves the orders. If you need to retrieve orders and details, it requires a bit more work, but nothing too difficult. Whichever path you choose, you’ll have to write a lot of code to handle fetching features. Even if this code isn’t too complicated to write, you still have to write it. Fortunately, the datatype and granularity mismatches are trivial to solve. Handling the datatype differences just requires a bit of discipline to check that database con- straints aren’t violated when data is sent back for updates. The granularity problem is even simpler to handle and doesn’t need particular attention. Sometimes the way you shape classes can’t be represented in a database, or it results in a poor database design. Even if databases and models represent the same data, the way they’re organized can be so different that some compromise is required. In our experience, designing an application so it works as well as it can often involves bending and twisting both database and object model (mainly the latter) so that they might look tricky in places. Someone looking at them could say that the appli- cation isn’t well designed. These are words often spoken by purists of one of the two models who only consider their side. Always remember: the best design is the one that accommodates both models without losing too much of their benefits. As you can see, an application that uses a model has many intricacies when dealing with a database. The next question is who has to deal with this complexity. The answer is that if you’re crazy, you can reinvent the wheel on your own. Otherwise, you can adopt an O/RM tool. More precisely, you can use Entity Framework. 23Letting Entity Framework ease your life 1.5 Letting Entity Framework ease your life The key to delivering an application that’s maintainable and easy to evolve is to sepa- rate the concerns into different logical layers and sometimes into different physical layers (tiers). You can gain many benefits from adopting such a technique. First of all, there is the separation of concerns. Each layer has its own responsibilities: the interface layer is responsible for the GUI; the business layer maintains business rules and coordinates the communication between the GUI and the data layer; and the data layer is responsible for the interaction with the database. After the interface between the layers is defined, they can evolve independently, allowing parallel development, which always speeds things up. Another great advantage of using different logical layers is the ease of maintaining and deploying the application. If you need to change how you access the database, you only have to modify the data layer. When deploying the new packages, you deploy only the modified assemblies, leaving the others untouched. Obviously, the data layer is the one affected by the adoption of an O/RM tool. In a well-designed application, the GUI and the business layer don’t need to know that an O/RM tool is in use. It’s completely buried in the data-layer code. Let’s move on and look at what an O/RM tool can do for us. 1.5.1 What is O/RM? O/RM is an acronym that stands for object/relational mapping. In a nutshell, an O/RM framework is used to persist model objects in a relational database and retrieve them. It uses metadata information to interface with the database. This way, your data-layer code knows nothing about the database structure; the O/RM tool becomes middle- ware that completely hides the complexity. The heart of O/RM is the mapping—the mapping technique is what binds the object and relational worlds. By mapping, you express how a class and its properties are related to one or more tables in the database. This information is used by the O/RM tool’s engine to dynamically build SQL code that retrieves data and transforms it into objects. Similarly, by tracking changes to objects’ properties, it can use mapping data to send updates back to the database. The mapping information is generally expressed as an XML file. As an alternative, some O/RM tools use attributes on the classes and their properties to maintain mapping data. An O/RM tool is a complex piece of software that saves the developer from the bur- den of managing the interaction with the database. It handles the collision between object and relational worlds, it transforms query data into objects, it tracks updates to objects to reflect changes in the database, and a lot more. The idea of coding these features manually is absurd when you have a tool that does it for you. There are plenty of O/RM tools on the market, both free and commercial. So far, NHibernate has been the most powerful and stable one. The stability was inherited from its parent (NHibernate is the .NET port of Hibernate, which is an O/RM tool written in Java, available since 2001), and the fact that it’s an open source project has 24 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework encouraged its adoption. Now, its leadership is being threatened by the new version of Entity Framework. In the next section, we’ll look at why Entity Framework is a valid alternative. 1.5.2 The benefits of using Entity Framework “Why should I adopt an O/RM tool, and more specifically Entity Framework? What benefits will I gain from its use? Is it a stable technology? Why should I add another complex framework to my application?” These are the most common questions we’re asked by people who approach this technology for the first time. If you’ve read the whole chapter so far, you should be convinced that O/RM technology is worth a chance (if you have a model in your application). To get the complete answers to the preceding questions, you’ll have to read at least the first two parts of this book. But here are some quick answers, in case you can’t wait:  Productivity—In our experience, persistence code that doesn’t rely on an O/RM tool can take up to 35 percent of the entire application code. The use of an O/RM tool can cut that percentage down to 5 percent in some edge cases, and to 15–20 percent in a normal situation. The API that Entity Framework introduces make the developer’s life easier than ever. In spite of its limitations, the designer integrated into Visual Studio dramatically simplifies the mapping process.  Maintainability—The fewer lines of code you have, the fewer lines of code you have to maintain. This is particularly true in the long run, when refactoring comes into play and a smaller code base is easier to inspect. Furthermore, the ability of an O/RM tool to bridge the gap between the object and relational models opens interesting scenarios. You can refactor the database structure or model definition without affecting the application code, and only changing the mapping. If you think about the code needed to manually handle persistence and to refactor a database or classes, you’ll immediately understand that main- tainability increases if you adopt an O/RM tool.  Performance—This is one of the most-discussed subjects relating to O/RM. The complexity of O/RM introduces an obvious slowdown in performance. In most cases, though, this is an acceptable trade-off because the slowdown is almost irrelevant. We have seen only one edge case where the performance decrease was unbearable. The preceding features are shared by all O/RM tools available. Now let’s look at the benefits that Entity Framework adds to your development phase.  It’s included in the .NET Framework. Microsoft fully supports Entity Framework and guarantees bug fixes, documentation, and improvements at a pace its com- petitors can’t keep up with. Often, customers choose Entity Framework instead of NHibernate because Entity Framework’s presence in the .NET Framework reassures them about the overall quality of the project. What’s more, because the .NET Framework is free, Entity Framework is free as well. 25Letting Entity Framework ease your life  It’s integrated into Visual Studio. When you install Visual Studio 2010, you have wizards and a designer to manage the mapping phase visually, without worrying about the implementation details. As you’ll see throughout the rest of the book, Visual Studio allows you to reverse-engineer existing databases to automatically create object model classes and mapping files and keep them updated when the database design changes. It allows even the reverse process: creating the object model and then creating the database to persist it. Should you make any modi- fications to the object model, you can immediately re-create the database.  The current version solves most of the problems of the past. Microsoft has listened attentively to community feedback. Since the release of Entity Framework v1.0, Microsoft has engaged a board of experts, including Jimmy Nilsson, Eric Evans, Martin Fowler, and others, to make Entity Framework a great competitor. The first release of Entity Framework was struck by a vote of no confidence on the web, but the current version solves all of the problems raised at that time. Although its version number is 4.0, this is the second version of Entity Frame- work. In the past, Microsoft has confused developers with version numbers. The company shipped .NET Framework 3.0, which was not a new version but a set of classes including WCF, WPF, and WF; but the CLR was still at version 2.0. When .NET Framework 3.5 shipped, the CLR was again version 2.0. Old assemblies remained in version 2.0, whereas those shipped in version 3.0 and the new ones were upgraded to version 3.5. This versioning policy introduced so much confu- sion that with .NET Framework 4.0, Microsoft realigned everything to version 4.0. This is why we have Entity Framework 4.0 instead of 2.0.  It’s independent from the type of database you use. The persistence layer uses the Entity Framework API to interact with the database. Entity Framework is respon- sible for translating method calls to SQL statements that are understood by the database. But even if all modern databases support standard SQL, lots of fea- tures differ between vendors. Sometimes there are subtle differences even between different versions of the same product. SQL Server 2005 introduced a huge number of improvements, and a good O/RM tool has to generate opti- mized SQL for both SQL Server 2005/2008 and SQL Server 7/2000 platforms. Entity Framework guarantees that the correct SQL code is (almost) always gen- erated, and it relieves the developer of checking which database is in use at every command. This helps a lot, but it doesn’t mean you can forget about SQL code—you always have to check the SQL code produced by Entity Framework to be sure it respects your performance prerequisites.  It uses LINQ as a query language. You can express your queries using LINQ, and Entity Framework will take care of translating your LINQ query into SQL code. This means you can write queries with IntelliSense, strong typing, and compile- time checking! At the moment, no other O/RM tool on the market (apart from the ghost of the LINQ to SQL project) allows that. 26 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework  Entity Framework is recommended for data access by Microsoft. Microsoft clearly states that the future of data access for the .NET platform is Entity Framework. This is why the company is working so hard to make Entity Framework so pow- erful. Microsoft is also working on other products to make them rely on Entity Framework for accessing the database. An O/RM tool is useful, but it isn’t going to save your life. There are many cases where its use isn’t feasible. In the next section, we’ll delve into this subject. 1.5.3 When isn’t O/RM needed? In the last couple of years, the thrust toward O/RM has dramatically increased. Now, many developers think that an O/RM tool is the silver-bullet solution to all problems, and they tend to use it in every project. Sometimes its use isn’t the right choice. Despite the huge improvement in productivity it offers, O/RM is just a framework. It’s something you have to study and test in several situations, and it takes time to cor- rectly use it. In projects with a limited budget or where the delivery date is relatively soon, time is something you don’t have, and you’ll have to resort to hand-coding the data access layer. The type of application you’re developing is another thing you have to take into account when choosing whether to adopt an O/RM tool. If you’re developing a web application that’s mainly focused on displaying data, an O/RM tool may be a waste, because you get the best out of it when you have to both retrieve and persist objects. Even if it gives great flexibility in retrieving data, you may not need it if you know exactly what the fetching level is. For instance, applications that generate statistical reports won’t get any benefit from O/RM. They probably wouldn’t benefit from a model either. If your application must perform bulk inserts, O/RM isn’t what you need. Data- bases have internal features that allow bulk inserts, so you’re better off relying on those features. In short, you should always plan ahead before adopting an O/RM tool. This isn’t news; in our field, everything must be planned for in advance. So far, you’ve seen that working with objects improves application stability and makes them easier to maintain. You’ve also learned that there is a mismatch between data organized in objects and data organized in relational databases, and that this mis- match can easily be handled by O/RM tools like Entity Framework. In the next sec- tion, we’ll look at the components Entity Framework is made up of, and how those components interact with each other to solve data-access problems. 1.6 How Entity Framework performs data access Entity Framework is a complex piece of software. Its overall architecture consists of several components, each fulfilling a specific task. Figure 1.9 illustrates Entity Frame- work’s key components and gives an idea of where each fits in. Storage model Mapping Conceptual model LINQ to Enes Enty SQL Object Services Database Enty Client data provider ADO.NET data provider EDM Figure 1.9 The overall architecture of Entity Framework: The query languages lie on top of Object Services, which relies on Entity Client to interact with the database. Entity Client uses the standard ADO.NET providers to physically communicate with the database. The EDM is a layer that’s referenced by all the others and is used by them to obtain metadata about classes. 27How Entity Framework performs data access The Entity Data Model (EDM) is the layer where the mapping between the classes and the database is expressed. This component consists of the three mapping files shown in figure 1.9. LINQ to Entities and Entity SQL are the languages used to write queries against the object model. Entity SQL was the first language to be developed, because when Entity Framework first appeared, LINQ was still in a prototype phase and a dedicated lan- guage for querying was necessary. During development, LINQ reached stability, so the team decided to include a LINQ dialect for Entity Framework. That’s why we now have two query languages in Entity Framework. The Object Services layer is the gateway to accessing data from the database and sending it back. As a result, this component is the most important for developers. Object Services is responsible for materialization —the process of transforming the data obtained from the Entity Client data provider, which has a tabular structure, into objects. Another important part of this layer is the ObjectStateManager object, or state manager, which tracks any changes made to the objects. The Entity Client data provider, which we’ll refer to as the Entity Client from now on, is responsible for communication with the ADO.NET data providers, which in turn communicate with the database. The main task of this layer is to convert Entity SQL and LINQ to Entities queries into SQL statements that are understood by the underly- ing database. Furthermore, it converts the results of queries from database tabular structure into a model tabular structure that’s then passed to Object Services. Now that you have a general idea of what the parts of the software do, let’s discuss them in greater detail, starting with the EDM. 1.6.1 The Entity Data Model The EDM is the link between the model and the database. Here you describe the data- base and the model structure and how to map them. The great thing about the EDM is that it decouples your application from the underlying store. Database and model can have completely different structures, but they’re always related by the EDM. The EDM consists of three XML files, each with a precise task. These files are sum- marized in table 1.1. At runtime, these files are parsed and their data is stored in classes that can be que- ried to obtain metadata about the classes, the database, and their mapping. The main 28 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework application that uses the data in these classes is Entity Framework itself. When it mate- rializes objects from a query, it asks the EDM for metadata. We’ll discuss mapping in detail in chapter 12. NOTE One of the most despised features of Entity Framework is the extreme verbosity of the EDM. Creating the classes and describing them in the model is a useless duplication. The same objection is made against the storage model, because the engine could analyze the database struc- ture and retrieve the schema on its own. If it did, the only task the user would need to do is create the mapping file, as is the case in other frame- works. There are several reasons why the team included all the files in the EDM; the main reasons are for performance and maximum decoupling from the physical structures. THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL The conceptual model is where you describe the model classes. This file is split into two main sections: the first is a container that lists all the entities and the relationships that are managed by Entity Framework, and the second contains a detailed descrip- tion of their structure. One important peculiarity of this file is that it can be separated into several files. This may become helpful when your model gets too large and the performance of the Visual Studio designer becomes unacceptable. We’ll return to this subject in chapter 19, which is dedicated to performance. THE STORAGE MODEL The storage model is the equivalent of the conceptual model, but it describes the database organization. Not only is this file conceptually similar to the previous one, but it also uses the same XML nodes. Unlike the conceptual model, it isn’t possible to split this model into several physical files. The first section of this file lists all the tables, views, stored procedures, and foreign keys that are affected. The second section describes the items listed in the first node. Regarding tables and views, the columns and primary keys are described. When it comes to stored procedures, input and output parameters are described. The descrip- tion of a foreign key contains information about the table involved, the cardinality, and the delete and update rules. Table 1.1 The mapping files of the EDM Filename Description Alternative name Extension Conceptual model Describes the model classes and their relationships Conceptual schema, conceptual side CSDL Storage model Describes the database tables, views, and stored procedures, and their keys and relationships Storage schema, storage side SSDL Mapping model Maps the conceptual and storage models Mapping schema, mapping side MSL 29How Entity Framework performs data access THE MAPPING MODEL The mapping file is completely different. Its job isn’t to describe something but to compensate for the differences that exist between the two previous models. This is where the real magic of mapping happens: you map a class to one or multiple tables, map one table to one or multiple classes, define inheritance mapping, and map stored procedures for both updates and object retrieval. There is only one important node in this file: it associates the class to a table and can be repeated more than once to ensure that a class can be mapped against multi- ple tables, and vice versa. Like the storage description file and unlike the conceptual file, the mapping file can’t be split into multiple files. THE VISUAL STUDIO MAPPING FILE As you’ll see in the next section, Visual Studio has a wizard that automatically gener- ates the mapping information from the database, and a designer that allows you to modify the mappings visually, without worrying about the underlying files. To easily integrate the mapping requirements and the designer in Visual Studio, there is a new file with the EDMX extension. The EDMX file merges the three EDM files into one, adding designer-required information. The Entity Framework designer team invented the EDMX file to allow visual modifications to be made to object model classes and their mappings against the database, whereas the EDM is the real mapping layer. At compile time, the EDMX file is split up, and the three mapping files are generated. In terms of the object/relational mismatch, the mapping layer is where all the problems enumerated in section 1.4 are resolved. But mapping only provides meta- data to solve the problem—the code lies in the Object Services and Entity Client lay- ers. In the next section, we’ll discuss the former. 1.6.2 Object Services Object Services is the layer responsible for managing objects in Entity Framework. Entity Framework is mostly interested in handling the mismatch between database and objects, so there are lots of tasks to be performed against objects. The first key feature of Object Services is that it exposes the API to generate the objects that queries are written against. Fortunately, the Visual Studio wizard helps a lot in generating the code necessary to write queries, so you only have to worry about the query and not about the plumbing. When a query is executed, the Object Services layer translates it into a command tree that’s then passed on to the underlying Entity Client. The process is slightly dif- ferent depending on which query technology you use. If you use LINQ to Entities, the LINQ provider generates an expression tree that’s then parsed and transformed in the command tree. If the query was developed using Entity SQL, Object Services parses the string and generates another command tree. This process is known as query transformation. 30 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework When the query against the database has been executed and the underlying layer has reorganized the data using the mapping, Object Services is responsible for creating objects using the input structure. The input data is organized as rows and columns, but in a conceptual-model way and not in a database manner. This means each row represents an object, and if it has a property that references another class, the column contains the overall row for the class. Figure 1.10 illustrates how the data is organized. Figure 1.10 How data is received by the Object Services layer Due to this organization of data, the process of creating objects is fairly simple. This process is object materialization. When the objects are ready to be consumed, the context comes into play. By context we mean the lifetime of the communication between the application and Entity Framework. It’s established using a well-known class (ObjectContext, or context), and it’s active as long as the class is referenced in the code or it isn’t disposed of. The con- text class is used from the beginning because this class creates the entry point for que- rying the object model. After the objects are materialized, they’re automatically added to the context memory, but this behavior can be overridden for performance reasons. During the materialization process, if the object that’s going to be created already exists in the context memory, it’s skipped by the engine, and a reference to the in-memory object is returned to the code executing the query. This means the context acts as a sort of local cache. The objects that are attached to the context are automatically tracked by the state manager component. This mechanism ensures that any modifications made to objects are correctly managed and recorded in the database. To do this, the state manager stores the original data of every object that’s loaded so it can compare them and per- form an optimized update. This component gives you many options to customize its behavior. Finally, the Object Services layer coordinates the updates to the data store, query- ing the state manager for modifications, and it controls the creation of the plumbing code needed to execute the commands. Each of the preceding steps will be discussed in detail in chapters 4, 6, 7, and 8. But now that you know how objects are handled, it’s time to investigate the layer that interacts with the database. 31How Entity Framework performs data access 1.6.3 Entity Client data provider The Entity Client is responsible for communicating with the database. To simplify its architecture, this layer isn’t physically connected to the database, but relies on the well-known ADO.NET data-provider infrastructure. Whereas Object Services manages objects using the conceptual model of the EDM, the Entity Client uses all the EDM files. It needs the mapping and storage model files to convert the command tree into SQL commands to execute against the database. It then needs the conceptual model file to convert the tabular database results into con- ceptual shaped data, as shown in figure 1.9, which is later moved into objects by Object Services. At this point, you should have a clear understanding of how the system handles queries, uses them to hit the database, and converts the resulting data to objects. In particular situations, where maximum performance is required, you may query this layer directly, ignoring Object Services. The great boost in performance is obtained not only by jumping one layer in the chain, but also by avoiding the materialization process, which is the slowest task of query execution. For obvious reasons, LINQ to Entities can’t be used when you directly query Entity Client, because LINQ manipu- lates objects, and this layer knows nothing about them. Entity SQL is the only language you can use in such a scenario. Let’s now move on to the first querying option: LINQ to Entities. 1.6.4 LINQ to Entities LINQ to Entities is the LINQ dialect that enables typed queries against the model. Thanks to the LINQ syntax, you can write a typed query against the model and have an object returned with compile-time checking. Even though LINQ to Entities operates on objects, it must still be translated into the SQL that’s finally launched against the database. Many of the LINQ methods or overloads can’t be represented in SQL. For instance, the ElementAt method isn’t sup- ported but is still syntactically valid. A call to this method won’t cause a compile-time error but will produce a NotSupportedException at runtime. Similarly, the overload of the Where method that accepts an integer as the second parameter can’t be trans- lated to SQL, so its use causes only a runtime exception. Apart from unsupported methods, you’ll encounter other cases where the compile-time checking isn’t enough, but they’re pretty rare and are well documented in MSDN. NOTE It’s important to emphasize that LINQ to Entities isn’t Entity Framework. Many developers tend to see LINQ to Entities as a technology opposed to LINQ to SQL, but that’s a mistake. LINQ to SQL is a full- featured O/RM tool that shipped with .NET Framework 3.5, whereas LINQ to Entities is only a query language inside Entity Framework. LINQ to Entities is the main querying language in Entity Framework, but Entity SQL is still a great tool to have in your toolbox. 32 CHAPTER 1 Data access reloaded: Entity Framework 1.6.5 Entity SQL Entity SQL is the second way of querying the object model. Like LINQ to Entities que- ries, Entity SQL queries are always expressed against the model. The difference is that Entity SQL is string-based, so it may be preferable in some scenarios. Entity SQL is one of the most complicated languages we have ever met. When the Entity Framework team had to create a query language for Entity Framework (before LINQ was available), they wanted to create a language that was easy for developers to understand and opted for a SQL-like syntax (which is why it was called Entity SQL). As Entity Framework evolved, and more and more features were added, the spectrum of query capabilities widened, and new functions in the language were required. It cur- rently includes over 150 functions and has maintained only a little compatibility with the original SQL syntax. Although it’s complex, Entity SQL is ahead of LINQ to Entities in some situations. First, it’s string-based, so it’s easier to create queries at runtime based on conditions. Second, Entity SQL is the only language that can be used to retrieve data at low level, directly using the Entity Client. Finally, there are functions that can’t be invoked using LINQ to Entities but can using Entity SQL. You’ll learn more about that in chapter 9. 1.7 Summary In this chapter, you’ve seen what O/RM is, what problems it solves, and how it fits into application design. You’ve learned the basics of data access using ready-to-use structures like datasets and data readers, and why they’re used in some environments and discouraged in oth- ers. In scenarios where tabular structures aren’t applicable, an object/domain model is the obvious replacement, because the use of classes lets you take advantage of the power of object-oriented programming. Naturally, the introduction of a domain model carries a new set of problems with it, due to the many differences that exist between object and relational representa- tions of data. Handling such differences is sometimes easy for small to medium-sized business applications, but it may result in overwhelming code as the applications grow. This is where O/RM tools like Entity Framework come into play. As you’ve seen, O/RM tools make database-interaction code easier to develop and maintain. Although O/RM tools aren’t the silver bullet for any application, a wide spectrum of applications can benefit from the adoption of O/RM. Finally, you’ve learned about the core components of Entity Framework and how they interact to solve the object/relational mismatches. You haven’t seen Entity Framework in action yet, but in the next chapter we’ll start tackling its complexity and learning how to work with it. 33 Getting started with Entity Framework Now that you have a good idea of what Entity Framework is and why it might be use- ful, it’s time to start digging into it. In this chapter, we won’t go deep into the tech- nology; what we’re going to look at is how to create an application from scratch and how to perform basic tasks, so you’ll get a feel for the power of Entity Framework. The walkthrough in this chapter will also help you get started creating any kind of application you’ll need to write on the job. This chapter has three main parts. First, we’ll look at the example that runs through this book in terms of both the model and the database, and we’ll explain why we took certain approaches. Then we’ll look at how to use the designer to cre- ate the classes (the entities) and have it automatically generate the code. At the end of the chapter, the code will finally make its appearance. You’ll learn how to create a basic application that reads data and updates it in the database. This chapter covers  Introducing the book’s example application  Database-first and model-first design  Introducing the Visual Studio Entity Framework designer  An overview of Entity Framework’s capabilities 34 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework By the end of this chapter, you’ll be able to create an application from the ground up and perform basic operations on data. You’ll discover why in chapter 1 we said that productivity is one of the winning points of Entity Framework. 2.1 Introducing the OrderIT example Many books have a running example, and this one is no exception. We’ll use a classic order application called OrderIT that manages products, orders, customers, and so on. Here’s the list of the requirements:  OrderIT must store data about customers. Each customer has a name, billing address, and shipping address. The address isn’t plain text but consists of four separate pieces of data: street, city, ZIP code, and country. What’s more, custom- ers can access a web service to place or update orders, so they’ll need a user- name and password to access the web service.  OrderIT must store data about suppliers. Each supplier has a name, an International Bank Account Number (IBAN), and payment terms (the number of days the customer has to pay the invoice).  OrderIT must store data about products. The system must be able to sell any prod- uct, from shoes to T-shirts, from a computer mouse to a table-tennis paddle, and so on. The application must be ready to accept new types of products with a minimal effort and with no impact on the previous products and related orders.  OrderIT must track the number of items currently in stock. Every time an item is sold or bought, the inventory quantity must be updated. The user must also be able to add new items to the current quantity.  OrderIT must be able to store whatever products are sold by the suppliers. A single sup- plier can sell many products, and a single product can be bought from many suppliers.  OrderIT must manage any incoming orders from customers. Every order must store data about the customer who made it and give that customer the option to use a shipping address different from the one held in the database. A customer can buy many products at once, so an order can contain multiple details.  OrderIT must calculate the applicable discount. The policy for discounts states that if the customer buys more than five of the same product, there is a discount of 10 percent for each subsequent item. Should the discount be applicable, the order must contain two details: the first contains data about the first five items with no discount, and the other contains data about the additional items and the related discount.  OrderIT must allow the user to change the price of items easily and quickly. Sometimes the user needs to change the price of one product, and other times prices need to be updated based on some characteristic (such as the type of product or the brand).  OrderIT must allow the customer to retrieve and modify account details and orders. OrderIT exposes a web service that customers can use to place, modify, or delete orders. Customers can modify their own account details too. 35Designing the OrderIT model and database Figure 2.1 illustrates the OrderIT use cases based on the preceding requirements. Sells products Customer Supplier Administrator Reorder out-of-stock products Manages orders Manages customers and suppliers Manages products OrderIT Insert or update order Update account details Figure 2.1 OrderIT use cases OrderIT supports only a subset of the features that a real-world order-management application should. But even providing only these features will require you to use most of Entity Framework’s features. It’s important to note that some of the requirements can be handled using an object/relational mapping (O/RM) tool, but you’ll have a bet- ter experience, both in terms of simplicity of development and runtime performance, if you hand-craft SQL and execute it against the database. As you build up the example, we’ll explain when and why handmade SQL is better than using Entity Framework. Now that you know what to do, let’s explore how to do it. We’ll start with the design of the model and the database, so that you’ll have a well-established context to work in. 2.2 Designing the OrderIT model and database Lots of things have changed since we started developing applications in early 1990s. For instance, languages have evolved, object-oriented environments have overcome procedural ones, web services have appeared, and workflow frameworks have been introduced. During this period, only one thing hasn’t changed: relational databases. Due to their stability, databases are familiar to most developers, and designing a good one is relatively simple for them. Designing a good object model may be simple too, but sometimes it requires strong discipline and lots of experience, especially when you take a domain-driven design (DDD) approach to building your application. In small organizations, it’s likely that a small group of developers creates the archi- tecture, designs the components, and creates the database and the object model. In bigger firms, you likely have a DBA who takes care of the database and developers who design the other components. In the smaller organizations, developers tend to design the object model consider- ing its needs and ignoring the needs of the database. The business the object model represents is the heart of the application, and it comes first. This is referred to as top- down design. In larger organizations, DBAs tend to put data organization first. This means that data could be stored in a different way from how it’s represented in the application. This is referred to as bottom-up design. 36 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework Both bottom-up and top-down design have their pros and cons, so there isn’t a firm rule to follow. Which you use depends on your knowledge and needs. Let’s look at each technique in detail. 2.2.1 Bottom-up vs. top-down design When you start designing an application, you have to decide what to create first: the database or the object model. Putting the database first assumes that strong data organization is a central requirement. Data is organized independently from the way the application model may need it. Likely the application model will be bent to accommodate the design of the database. This is the bottom-up technique, and it’s the most-used approach for two reasons: first, data is the core of any application; and second, model-oriented design is a relatively new technique in the Microsoft stack, so the idea of designing the model before the database isn’t widespread yet. Also, as mentioned previously, DBAs often have a great decisional power, especially in big companies where a huge amount of data is persisted, and DBAs always consider the database first. Bottom-up design guarantees the best performance and storage optimization. If the DBA works well, you’ll likely interact with the database only though stored proce- dures, keeping the underlying database structure hidden. On the other hand, this approach means that data is organized according to database needs, which means it could be fragmented and difficult for the application to use. That’s why a new approach has emerged over the years. Designing the model before the database places more importance on the business. This is the top-down approach, where data is first organized in the model, and later the database comes in. Even in this case, when it comes to accommodating differences between the object model and the database, the object model is twisted more than the database; but you lose little expressiveness compared to the bottom-up approach, where the object model isn’t considered at all. The main advantage of the top-down approach is that the application can shape its model almost independently from how the database persists the data. The con is that sometimes this doesn’t produce the best database organization, and performance may be hurt. This is why we suggest you always follow this rule: “Never forget completely about the database.” The database is a vital part of the application—you can’t treat it like a mere storage mechanism. That would be like creating a Ferrari with the engine of a Smart. The model and database should be designed to work together seamlessly so you can make the most out of them. Top-down design puts more emphasis on the model and the business it represents than on data organization, but if it hurts database performance too much, it must be abandoned in favor of a bottom-up approach. We think the top-down approach is the best one. The benefits you gain are enor- mous and, with a bit of practice, the database performance screams too. Even though the bottom-up approach is still more widespread, top-down design is increasing in popularity because of the benefits it offers. 37Designing the OrderIT model and database The Entity Framework designer allows you to adopt both paths. You can visually create model classes and then let the designer generate the mapping information and the database script for you (a top-down, model-first approach), or you can import the database and let the designer generate classes that map one-to-one with the tables (a bottom-up, database-first approach). Later, in section 2.3, you’ll see how to use both techniques to realize a model. The first two steps in creating an application are designing entities and tables. In the next sections, we’ll look at creating them, starting with the customers and suppliers. 2.2.2 Customers and suppliers OrderIT’s requirements state that customers and suppliers have only the name prop- erty in common, but in a real-world scenario they might have contact information, addresses, and so on. Creating a base class that holds common properties and a set of specialized ones for each concrete entity is the best way to represent data. More pre- cisely, you can create a base abstract class named Company, and then the Customer and Supplier classes can inherit from Company. Customers have shipping and billing addresses. Orders have shipping addresses, and in the future even suppliers might have an address. This makes the address a good candidate being created as a complex type. You can create an AddressInfo com- plex type and reuse it across entities. NOTE Complex type is the Entity Framework term for what is known as a value object elsewhere. Because they’re exactly the same thing and this book is about Entity Framework, we’ll use the complex type term. When it comes to designing the database, you have to find a way to persist inheritance information. This is a typical feature of object-oriented programming, but it has no counterpart in relational databases. There are three possible approaches:  Table per concrete type (TPC)—Create two separated tables, one for customers and one for suppliers. This solution is appealing. Unfortunately, it complicates mapping, especially when associations between entities come into play. What’s worse, although this approach is supported in the EDM, it’s not supported by the designer. Although TPC is a good solution, we generally disregard this option because of its limita- tions and the lack of support in the designer.  Table per type (TPT)—Create one Company table that contains all data shared by customers and suppliers, and one table for each concrete entity: Supplier and Customer. The additional tables contains only data specific for the entity. In the end, there is a one-to-one correspondence between entities and the tables. This solution is fine, but it’s overkill here. The most noticeable drawback is that to retrieve a customer or a supplier, you need to perform a join. You opti- mize storage, but performance could degrade. Nevertheless, this solution would be ideal in other situations. 38 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework  Table per hierarchy (TPH)—Create one table that contains all customer and sup- plier information, with a flag column to identify what entity type the row belongs to. This is by far the best approach. It performs well, because you don’t need joins to retrieve customers and suppliers, and the storage is only slightly com- promised. Unfortunately, because a row contains columns for both customer and sup- plier data, you can’t enforce null constraints. For instance, in a row that holds a customer, the IBAN column isn’t set, and the same happens for the shipping address column in supplier rows. This means that both columns must accept null values, although this isn’t allowed by the business rules. Another problem arises with associations. An order must be related to a customer and not to a supplier. There is no way to enforce such a business rule unless you resort to database-specific features like triggers. Entity Framework handles all these problems; but if other applications write data to this table, you’re obliged to enforce constraints on the database too. In this scenario, it’s best to use TPH. You can create a Company table, putting in it the columns needed for customers and suppliers. Furthermore, you can add a Type col- umn, which is the discriminator specifying whether the row belongs to a supplier or a customer. The primary key column is CompanyId, and it’s an identity column, mean- ing the database automatically generates its value using a sequential integer. Figure 2.2 shows the database table and the structure of the model classes. Figure 2.2 On the left is the Company table; on the right is the model with its inheritance hierarchy. Now that you’ve designed the first piece, it’s time to move on to the second requirement: the products. Most of the considerations we made for the customer and supplier are valid in this situation too. There are little differences, but you’ll find that creating the model and mapping it in this scenario is quite easy, now that you have learned the basics. 39Designing the OrderIT model and database 2.2.3 Products The big difference between the customers and suppliers compared with the products is that there are a finite number of customers and suppliers, whereas the number of products might potentially be infinite, and each one has its own information. You could have a shirt, shoes, gloves, socks, and whatever else the human imagination can create. From the model point of view, this isn’t a big problem because inheritance is born to handle such circumstances. You can create a Product base class that contains data shared among all entities (the price, the brand, and the number of items in stock). Then, you can create a new class for each product you need to sell. These classes will inherit from Product and add item-specific information. From the database perspective, placing data about each product in a single table, as you did for the customer and supplier, will make it grow too much, potentially over- coming modern database limitations on the number of columns. The optimal approach is to create a single table that contains shared information, and a specialized table for each product. The TPT approach is exactly what you need. NOTE The drawback with TPT is that as products grow in number, so do the tables in the database. Depending on your workload, this may be unacceptable, and you might need to revert to a TPH strategy. Decide cautiously whether to opt for TPH or TPT. There’s also a third completely different approach: using metadata. Instead of using a column to main- tain a single piece of data about a product, you can use it to store an XML fragment containing all the product information. At runtime, you can re- create the classes from this XML. This approach is fine, but for the pur- poses of this book, following the TPT approach is equally good. You can create a Product table that contains shared information about all products (you can think of it as a base table) and then create a table for each product, contain- ing only specific data about for that product. For this example, you can create Shirt and Shoe tables. The primary key for all these tables will be the ProductId column. The one in the Product table is an identity column, and the others aren’t. To correctly relate the records, the primary key in the Product table must match the ones in the child tables. For instance, if a shirt has a record in the Product table with ID 1, there must be a record in the Shirt table with the same ID. The type of the product is detected by the join between tables, so a discriminator column isn’t needed. Figure 2.3 shows the structure of the table and model classes. One of the requirements for OrderIT states that you must keep track of the prod- ucts sold by each supplier. Because a product can be bought by more than one sup- plier, and a supplier sells multiple products, you have a many-to-many relationship. Modeling this kind of relationship is simple. You add a Suppliers property, of type ICollection, to the Product class, and then add a Products property, of type ICollection, to the Supplier class. That’s all there is to it. Figure 2.3 Mapping between the product tables and entities. Each class has its own mapped table (TPT). 40 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework Designing the database is slightly more difficult. You can’t add a foreign key to the child table because there isn’t a child table. In fact, there aren’t any parent-child rela- tionship here; the tables are at the same level. The only way to link them is to add a third table (a link table), say ProductSupplier, which contains the IDs of both supplier and product, which together compose the pri- mary key. This table resolves the problem of the many-to-many scenario, but it does create a granularity problem, because there are now three database tables and two model classes, as shown in figure 2.4. Don’t worry, Entity Framework will handle the mismatch. Figure 2.4 The relationship between suppliers and products is held in a link table in the database; there’s a direct relationship in the model. The last requirement to analyze concerns orders and their details. From an entity point of view, this is the simplest scenario. What makes it interesting is the high level of relationships between the involved entities. An order must have a customer and at least one detail, which in turn must be linked to a product. Let’s look at how you can represent all of these associations. 41Designing the OrderIT model and database 2.2.4 Orders The order and details example is likely the most abused in the world. This isn’t a limi- tation but a strength, because its simplicity will help you understand the scenario bet- ter. There’s only one reasonable way to handle such data, and it’s easy to apply. In the model, you generate a class named Order and another one named Order- Detail. The first carries order information and the second its details. Because the user can select a different shipping address from the one stored in customer account, you have to add a ShippingAddress property to the order. Regarding relationships, navigating from an order to its details is a must, so you need to add an OrderDetails navigation property to the Order class. The same way, moving from a detail to its order can be useful, so you add an inverse navigation prop- erty called Order to the OrderDetail class. An order must have a customer, so you need a Customer navigation property for the Order class. We said before that navigat- ing from a customer to its orders isn’t useful, so you leave the Customer class untouched. Finally, each order detail carries a product, so a Product navigation prop- erty is required in the OrderDetail class (the property type should be of type Product because it can contain any product). On the opposite side, navigating from a product to the order details is useless, so there should be no navigation property. NOTE In Entity Framework terminology, properties that express an asso- ciation are called navigation properties. Navigation properties point to instances of other classes in the object model. They enable you to navi- gate inside the model, moving from one class to another. For instance, you can start from an order and navigate to its products, passing through the details. In the database, you can create a table for the orders and another one for the details. The primary keys are identity columns, as in the Product and Company tables. The Order table will contain information about the address, as the class does. When it comes to maintaining the relationships between tables, you’ll have to add some foreign keys:  CustomerId column in the Order table—To link the order and its customer  OrderId column in the OrderDetail table—To link the order and its details  ProductId column in the OrderDetail table—To link the order detail and its product In a perfect world, such foreign keys shouldn’t be part of the object model. Consider the customer-order relationship. The Order class references the Customer class via the Customer property. The Customer class has the CompanyId property, which carries the primary key, so it’s pointless having the CustomerId property in the Order class. But in Entity Framework, it’s not always like that. One of the most painful characteristics of Entity Framework v1.0 is its extreme complexity when dealing with relationships. In v4.0, the limitations are still there, but using the new foreign-keys feature makes life much easier. In addition to adding the 42 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework Customer navigation property to the Order class, you need to add the CustomerId for- eign key property to the Order class and map it in a certain way, and you’re fin- ished. This relationship is clearly visible in figure 2.5. When you maintain relationships using only the navigation property, you use what’s called independent association. When you add foreign-key properties, you use foreign-key associations. This terminology has been coined by the Entity Framework team, so it’s standard. Foreign-key associations aren’t very use- ful when retrieving entities. But when it comes to updating data in a database, they make things easy. In chapter 7, we’ll dig deeper into this subject, and you’ll discover why using foreign-key associations is a good practice. The model is now coming to life. The entities and the related tables in the data- base are designed; now you need to create them. You’ll see how to do that in the next section. 2.3 Structuring the application Before creating the entities, you must do something more important: create the appli- cation structure inside Visual Studio. We’ll keep the overall design pretty simple because we’re focusing on Entity Framework’s capabilities, not on how it suits a real- world architecture. That subject is covered in chapter 14, which is dedicated to appli- cation design and domain-driven design. The following sections will walk you through the steps involved in creating the structure of the application, creating a new Entity Framework model, mapping it to the database, and generating the code. We’ll start with the assemblies. 2.3.1 Creating the assemblies The design is made of just one core assembly containing the model, the mapping information, and the generated code. Later, you’ll create a set of client applications that use it. The client can be an ASP.NET application, a console application, a Win- dows Presentation Foundation (WPF) application, and so on. For this example, you’ll use a Windows Form, but in later chapters we’ll show you how get the best out of Entity Framework with other technologies. To create the core assemblies, follow these steps: 1 In Visual Studio, create an empty solution named OrderIT. 2 Add a new Class Library project named OrderIT.Model. Figure 2.5 The Order and OrderDetail classes have their corresponding tables. 43Structuring the application 3 Delete the Class1 file. 4 Add a new Windows Form application named OrderIT.WinGUI. 5 Rename the Form1 file to Main. 6 In the OrderIT.WinGUI project, add a reference to OrderIT.Model. At the end of the process, the Solution Explorer will look like figure 2.6. That’s it. Now that the plumbing is ready, you’ll introduce Entity Framework into the application. 2.3.2 Designing entities using the database-first approach The entity-creation process can be broken into two phases. Initially, you create entities and complex types, and map them against the database. Then, you create the naviga- tion properties in the entities and instruct Entity Framework about the foreign keys in the related tables. Earlier, we said that you can create entities and complex types and then let the designer generate mapping information and the database script. What we didn’t say is that this process suffers from some limitations:  The SQL script only generates tables, primary keys, and foreign keys. Every optimization to improve storage or performance capabilities must be made manually.  Every time you modify classes and regenerate the script, it contains SQL state- ments that drop all existing objects and re-create them from scratch. All hand- crafted changes and data are lost.  The designer creates a table for each class. At first this might seem fine, but when you have an inheritance hierarchy, it’s persisted using TPT. Sometimes that’s what you want, as in the product scenario, but other times you’ll need TPH, as in the customer and supplier scenario. The designer is fully extensible, meaning that you can create your own extensions to overcome such limitations, but it’s not simple. Fortunately, the Entity Framework team has created a toolkit that provides designer extensibility features. This is great for two reasons:  It solves the third problem in the previous list.  It gives you great guidance for building your own extensions. If you download and study its code, you’ll learn a lot about the part of the designer that enables database-generation extensibility. NOTE The toolkit isn’t in the RTM but it is available as a free separate download. Look for the Entity Designer Database Generation Power Pack in the Microsoft Visual Studio Gallery (http://visualstudiogallery .msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/). We’ll introduce it in chapter 13. Figure 2.6 The design of OrderIT 44 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework Getting back to entity creation, there are many ways to do this, but this is likely the best method: 1 Create the database using your favorite tool. (This task isn’t related to Entity Framework, but the following steps require a database.) 2 Import the database into the designer so that it automatically generates classes. 3 Delete, re-create from scratch, and map entities that are completely different from the database (such as the Customer and Supplier classes). 4 Modify entities that have small differences from what the designer has gener- ated (for instance, modify the Order class to refactor the shipping address prop- erties into the AddressInfo complex type). This approach offers the best tradeoff. The fact that you import the database into the designer before creating the classes doesn’t mean you’re putting the database first— it’s only a technical way to ease your use of the designer. Furthermore, because the designer is aware of the database structure, you can map the entities as soon as you create them, eliminating the need to regenerate the database each time the model is modified. NOTE It would be wonderful if we could design classes using our favorite tools, generate their code, add them to Visual Studio, and then make the designer aware of that code. Unfortunately, this isn’t currently possible. As an alternative, the Entity Framework team is working on a new feature called code first. With this feature, you can generate classes and then map them against the database with code, which is a great alternative to map- ping via the designer. This feature isn’t in the Entity Framework RTM, but it’s in the Entity Framework Feature CTP, which means that as we write this, it’s not ready yet. Let’s walk through how you can enable Entity Framework in the project. As you saw in the previous list, the first step is creating the database, but that’s not an Entity Framework– related task. You can easily create the database using a tool like SQL Server Manage- ment Studio. The subsequent steps are discussed in the following sections. IMPORTING THE DATABASE Follow these steps to import the database (the pages of the wizard used in these steps are visible in figure 2.7): 1 In the OrderIT.Model assembly, add a new item; and from the wizard, select ADO.NET Entity Data Model. In the Name box, type Model.edmx. Click Next. 2 On the Choose Model Contents page, select Generate from Database, and click Next. 3 On the Choose Your Data Connection page, select the database from those available or create a new one on the fly that points to OrderIT. Leave the con- nection string name text box untouched, and click Next. 45Structuring the application 4 On the Choose Your Database Objects page, select all tables, and select the Include Foreign Key Columns in the Model check box to propagate foreign keys in the model. Leave the Pluralize or Singularize Generated Object Names check box unchecked, and click Finish. The check box you left unchecked in step 4 is extremely interesting. It allows you to singularize the class name when a table has a plural name, and vice versa. This might look like a silly detail, but when you have to import many tables, you can save lots of time by letting the wizard generate the correct names. Microsoft implemented this feature in response to user feedback. At this point, you have an entity for each table (the one exception being the ProductSupplier table, which doesn’t require a counterpart in the object model). What you need to do now is to modify entities to match the design from section 2.2. To do that, you have to make small changes to entities that are similar enough to the database tables that they were generated nearly correctly (such as the order- and Figure 2.7 The wizard for importing the database 46 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework product-related entities), and re-create entities from scratch where they differ a lot from the database structure (such as the company-related entities). We’ll start with the last task—creating entities from scratch—because it will cover many Entity Framework features. You’ll see how to create new entities from scratch and map them against the database; you’ll discover how to handle inheritance in the designer, and you’ll learn how to create complex types. CREATING ENTITIES FROM SCRATCH There’s a lot to do in creating entities from scratch. Follow these steps: 1 Delete the Company entity. A prompt asks if you want to delete database informa- tion along with the entity. Click No, so that the entity is deleted but the database information remains in the EDMX file. 2 Right-click in the designer, and select Add > Entity. 3 A new wizard opens, and it asks for the Entity Name, an optional Base Type, and the Entity Set name, as shown in figure 2.8. In the Entity Name field, enter Company; leave the Base Type combo box untouched. In the Entity Set field, plu- ralize the name of the entity: Companies. In the second part of the form, set the property that maps to the key of the table. Finally, click OK. TIP The entity set is important, and for clarity we recommend that you set it to the plural of the entity name. At the end of this chapter, you’ll get a sneak peek at what the entity set is used for, and you’ll understand why we suggest this. Figure 2.8 The Add Entity wizard for adding the Company entity 47Structuring the application 4 A box representing the Company entity is shown in the designer. Right-click it, and select Properties. In the Properties window, set Abstract to true. 5 Right-click the entity, and select Add > Scalar Property. 6 A new text box is added to the properties section of the entity; type Name, and press Enter. Doing so adds the Name property to the Company class. 7 Right-click the Name property you just added, and select Properties. In the Prop- erties window, set Max Length to 50 (it must match the length of the mapped column in the database). That creates the Company entity. Before creating the Customer entity, let’s create AddressInfo so you can reuse it in Customer: 1 Right-click in a blank section of the designer, and select Add > Complex Type. 2 The Model Browser window opens and the new complex type is highlighted. Right-click the highlighted node, select Rename, and then change the name to AddressInfo. 3 Right-click the complex type, and select Add > Scalar Property > String. 4 The new property is added and highlighted. Right-click it, select Rename, and change the name to Address. 5 Right-click the property again, select Proper- ties, and change Max Length to 30.  Repeat steps 3 through 5 with the appropriate types and values to add the City, Country, and ZipCode properties (see figure 2.9). Now that you have the Company and AddressInfo types, you’re ready to create the Customer: 1 Right-click in a blank section of the designer, and select Add > Entity. 2 In the wizard, enter Customer in the Entity Name text box, and select Company as the base type. The Entity Set field and Key Property section are disabled because those settings are taken from Company. Click OK. 3 Right-click the entity, and select Add > Complex Property. 4 In the text box, type BillingAddress, and press Enter. 5 Right-click the BillingAddress property, and select Properties. 6 In the Properties window, set the Type property to AddressInfo. 7 Repeat steps 3 to 6 for the ShippingAddress property. That creates the Customer entity. You can now repeat these steps to create the Supplier entity. Now that the entities have been created, they must be mapped to the database. Let’s look at how this process works: Figure 2.9 The AddressInfo complex type in the Model Browser window 48 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework 1 Right-click the Company entity and select Table Mapping. 2 In the Mapping Details window (shown in figure 2.10), select the Company table. The left column shows all the table columns, and the right column shows the mapped properties. When a property name matches the column name, the mapping is automatically performed. If the names don’t match, you have to map them manually by clicking the right column and selecting the appropriate property for that database column. 3 Right-click the Customer entity, and select Table Mapping. 4 In the Mapping Details window, select the Company table. In the right column of the BillingAddress row, select the BillingAddress.Address property. This way, you can map all the simple properties in a complex type. 5 Repeat step 4 for each column in the Customer entity. 6 Click the Add a Condition] row, and select the Type column from the drop- down list. 7 On the right (for the value/property), enter the value C. This condition states that when the Type column (the discriminator) has the value C, the row is for a customer. The window looks like figure 2.11. 8 In the designer, right-click the Supplier entity, and select Table Mapping. Figure 2.10 Mapping the Company entity Figure 2.11 Mapping the Customer entity 49Structuring the application 9 In the right column for the IBAN field, open the drop-down list and select the IBAN property. Repeat this step for PaymentDays. 10 Click the Add a Condition row, and select the Type column from the drop-down list. 11 On the right, enter the value S. This condition states that when the Type col- umn (the discriminator) has the value S, the row is for a supplier. That’s all. You now know how to create an entity, how to handle inheritance, and how to map entities persisted using the TPH inheritance strategy. That’s a lot of stuff. The next step is modifying the Order and OrderDetail classes so they match the design you created before. It turns out to be pretty easy. MODIFYING ENTITIES THAT ARE SIMILAR TO DATABASE TABLES The Order class doesn’t need much work. You have to delete the address-related prop- erties, add a complex property of AddressInfo type, and map the inner properties to the Order table. When it comes to the OrderDetail entity, it’s even easier: you have to do absolutely nothing. The class is created exactly as you designed it. Easy as pie, isn’t it? The product-related classes are almost fine as they are. The problem is that the wiz- ard that generates entities knows nothing about inheritance, so it maps Shoe and Shirt as if they were related to Product, and that’s not what you need. The solution is fairly simple: 1 Right-click the association between Product and Shirt, and select Delete. The association is removed. 2 Repeat step 1 for the association between Product and Shoe. 3 Right-click the Product entity, and select Add > Inheritance. 4 The designer opens a dialog box where you can specify the base entity and the derived entity. Set Product as the base entity (already set by the designer), and set Shirt as the derived entity, as in figure 2.12. 5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the inheritance between Product and Shoe. 6 Delete the ProductId property from Shirt (it’s inherited from Product). 7 Select the Shirt entity, open the Mapping Details window, and map the ProductId column to the ProductId inherited property. 8 Repeat steps 6 and 7 for the Shoe entity. Figure 2.12 The dialog box for creating inheritance between existing entities 50 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework By performing these simple steps, you’ve mapped a TPT hierarchy. It’s pretty easy. You must make a little tweak to the AvailableItems property. Its value must not be handled by Entity Framework because it would create concurrency problems. In chap- ter 6, we’ll discuss this subject in depth, and you’ll understand the reasons for this choice. The best way to accomplish this task is to make the property effectively read-only and set it using a stored procedure or custom SQL command. Unfortunately, changing the setter visibility to protected won’t accomplish this, because Entity Framework will still try to persist the property. The only way to make it really read-only is to set its StoreGeneratedPattern property to Computed in both the conceptual schema and the storage one. Making this change on the conceptual side is easy because it can be done in the Properties window. Modifying the value in the storage schema requires you to manu- ally modify the EDM. I won’t show you how to do it here—you’ll learn about it in chap- ter 5, which is dedicated to mapping. At this point, you’re only missing the relationships between entities. Setting this up involves several steps. Adding navigation properties and foreign keys (if needed) is just part of the game; you also need to instruct Entity Framework what columns in the database act as foreign keys so it can retrieve related data correctly. 2.3.3 Designing relationships Creating a relationship is a two-step job. First you create the navigation properties, and then you map the columns that establish the relationship in the database. For instance, you create a Customer navigation property in the Order entity, and then you map it to the CustomerId column in the Order table. This is what the SQL-generation engine needs to create the correct SQL joins when performing data retrieval (for instance, when you need to retrieve the customer for an order). Here’s how to create such relationships. 1 Right-click the Customer entity, and select Add > Association. 2 In the left End box of the dialog box, leave Customer selected in the Entity drop-down list, select 1 (One) in the Multiplicity drop-down list, and uncheck the Navigation Property check box. This ensures that the navigation property from Customer to Order isn’t created (that is exactly what you want). 3 In the right End box in the dialog box, select Order in the Entity drop-down list, and select * (Many) in the Multiplicity drop-down list. Leave the Navigation Property check box selected, and leave Customer in the text box below. This instructs the designer to create the Navigation Property Customer in Order. 4 Deselect the Add Foreign Key Properties to the ‘Order’ Entity check box, because you already have the CustomerId column in the Order entity (it’s been imported by the wizard). If you’re creating a relationship from scratch, you should select this check box so the relationship is created and mapped at the same time. 51Structuring the application 5 The completed dialog box is shown in figure 2.13. Click OK to add the associa- tion and the navigation properties. 6 A line representing the link between the entities is added to the designer. Double-click it. 7 In the Referential Constraint dialog box that’s displayed, select Customer from the Principal drop-down list. This represents the master entity in the relationship. 8 In the grid below, the designer shows the principal entity’s key properties (CompanyId in this case). Select the CustomerId property of the Order entity as the foreign key. This indicates that the other side of the relationship (Order) is linked to the master primary key via the CustomerId property. Figure 2.14 shows what the dialog box looks like at this point. Click OK to map the association. 9 Right-click the association link, and select Properties. Set the End1 on Delete property to Cascade. This specifies that when a customer is deleted, the dele- tion must propagate to its orders. Figure 2.13 Creating the association between Customer and Order Figure 2.14 Mapping the association between Customer and Order 52 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework This process applies only to one-to-* associations. In many-to-many scenarios, there is no master-detail relationship, so foreign keys can’t be used in the model. This means the relationship must use an independent association. NOTE You can use foreign-key associations in many-to-many relation- ships, but that implies creating an entity that maps to the link table in the database. It’s the solution adopted by LINQ to SQL, but it’s a poor design, and we strongly discourage this practice. Let’s look at how you can map a many-to-many relationship: 1 Create an association between the Product and Supplier entities. 2 Right-click the link between the entities, and select Table Mapping. 3 In the Mapping Details window, map the association to the ProductSupplier table. 4 ProductId is automatically mapped by its name. Select the SupplierId column for the supplier side, as shown in figure 2.15. This was the only way to map associations in v1.0, and it’s possible to map any associa- tion using this mechanism. For instance, to map the association between a customer and its orders, you’d select the Order table and then map the CustomerId column as the foreign key. NOTE An association can’t be mapped using both techniques. You must choose between using foreign keys (recommended) and independent associations. The model is now designed, but there are still questions to be answered. Where is the code for the designed classes? How can you customize the generated code? How can you access the database? That’s all covered in the next section. 2.3.4 Organizing the generated code By default, the designer generates a file and places all the code into it. The file is named after the designer file with a .vb or .cs extension, depending on the language. For instance, a model.edmx designer file creates a model.edmx.vb or model.edmx.cs file. In the Solution Explorer window, this file is nested in the designer file. If you examine the code, you’ll see that it’s a mess. All the classes are in a single file, and there are plenty of attributes on classes and properties, as well as lots of partial methods. What’s worse, classes inherit from EntityObject, and relationships Figure 2.15 Mapping the many-to-many association between Product and Supplier 53Structuring the application between classes are expressed using properties of type EntityCollection and EntityReference. This is how Entity Framework v1.0 code must be organized. Entity Framework v4.0 maintains this behavior only for compatibility purposes. Sometimes, keeping code like this may be fine—many successful projects are based on v1.0. But sometimes you’ll need more flexibility, and this can be achieved only by using the plain old CLR object (POCO) approach, which frees you from any persis- tence mechanism. Fortunately, the code-generation process is completely customizable. In Visual Stu- dio 2008, Microsoft introduced a text-template processor, and the designer uses it to create the classes’ code. In fact, the code that’s generated by default comes from a template file. NOTE If you want to look at the default file, it’s in a zip file named AdoNet- EntityDataModelT4CodeGenCSharp.zip located in %ProgramFiles%\ Microsoft Visual Studio 10.0\Common7\IDE\ItemTemplatesCache\ CSharp\ Code\1033\. You could create a custom template that solves the problem of generating messy code, like the one required by v1.0. It could create useful methods for each class, split classes into separate files, create POCO classes, and so on. But writing a template isn’t always an easy task, as you’ll discover in chapter 13. Fortunately, the Entity Framework team has released a template that already solves most of these problems. This template isn’t included in the RTM, but it’s available as a separate download. You can download and automatically install it through the Exten- sion Manager window in Visual Studio by following these steps: 1 Select Tools > Extension Manager. 2 In the Extension Manager window, select the Online Gallery tab on the left, and then type POCO in the top-right text box. Press Enter. The window will look like figure 2.16. 3 If the extension has already been installed, it has a green checkmark beside it in the middle column of the window. Otherwise, the Download button is shown. Click the Download button to automatically download and install the extension. When it’s installed, the extension adds a new template item in the wizard. Here’s how you can use it to better organize your code: 1 Right-click the designer, and select Add Code Generation Item. 2 Select the ADO.NET POCO Entity Generator item, type Entities.tt in the Name text box, and click OK. Two new files are added to the project: Entities.tt and Entities.Context.tt. 3 Right-click both files, and select Run Custom Tool. Doing so triggers the code generation. 4 Click the model.edmx file, and in the Properties window set Code Generation Strategy to None to disable default code generation. 54 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework At this point, you have code and mapping information ready to be used. The code generated by the Entities.Context.tt template even contains a class that uses the Object Services features, enabling access to the database. All of this has been done by using the designer, without writing a single line of code. That’s productivity. There’s more than that. By customizing the available templates, you can create an n-layered or a domain-driven design application. This means that with small changes, you can create both simple and robust applications. As we’ve mentioned, in Entity Framework terminology, the bottom-up approach is called the database-first approach and the top-down approach is called model-first. Database-first is the approach used in the past few sections; but for completeness, let’s look at how to use the model-first approach, where you design the classes and then let the designer generate the database script. 2.3.5 The model-first approach in the designer When you opt for the model-first approach, you don’t have a database to map entities against. This means you create the entities, and then the mapping is automatically handled by the designer. How does it work? When you’ve finished designing the entities, right-click the designer and select Generate Database Script from Model. A wizard appears, asking for the connection string. After you enter it, the wizard returns the script. Just launch the SQL script on the database, and you’re ready to go. What’s great about this technique is that while generating the database script, the designer generates the mapping and storage information too. More precisely, the designer generates the Store Schema Definition Language (SSDL) and the Mapping Figure 2.16 The Extension Manager window shows downloadable POCO templates as well as those that are already installed on the machine. 55A sneak peek at the code Specification Language (MSL) sections of the EDMX and finally the database script (using the generated SSDL). This behavior can be overridden so that you can modify the way the mapping is generated and adapt the script to serve other databases than SQL Server. Accomplish- ing this is hard because many steps are involved and, more important, a workflow activity must be written. Don’t worry, we’ll talk about this in chapter 13. We consider the model-first approach to be useless as it is now. Until it’s modified to update the database structure instead of re-creating it from scratch, we’ll keep recommending the database-first approach. (OK, you could create a designer exten- sion to accomplish the task of updating, instead of re-creating the database, but doing so wouldn’t be simple.) Now that all the plumbing is ready, you can put everything into action. In the next section, we’ll take a quick tour of the main features of Entity Framework. If you’re new to O/RM, you’ll be surprised to see how little code is required for most operations, and how simple it is. If you’re already accustomed to using an O/RM tool, you’ll be pleased to see that querying with LINQ to Entities is far more effective than using any other approach. 2.4 A sneak peek at the code In this “Hello World” example, you’re going to learn how to accomplish the most basic tasks, like querying the database and persisting modifications made to entities. At the end of this section, you’ll understand how much data-access code Entity Frame- work lets you eliminate. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of Entity Framework is its query capabilities, because it engages the power of LINQ to simplify data retrieval. Let’s start with querying. 2.4.1 Querying the database Suppose you want to create a form that shows all orders in a grid. This is easy because you only have to create an instance of the context class (more on this in the next chap- ter), use its properties to access the orders, and bind them to the grid. C# using (OrderITEntities ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { grd.DataSource = ctx.Orders; } VB Using ctx As New OrderITEntities() grd.DataSource = ctx.Orders End Using Listing 2.1 Displaying orders in a grid 56 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework OrderITEntities is the class that lets you interact with the database. It’s the Object Services layer’s main class (the context class). The Orders property is the entity set. Roughly speaking, you can think of the entity set as the equivalent of a database table. Naturally, records aren’t physically loaded into the entity set; it’s only used for query- ing purposes. Now, let’s create a more complex query that shows only the orders placed in the current month. If you’re familiar with the LINQ syntax, you’ll have no problem under- standing the following listing. For brevity, only the query is shown here. C# from o in ctx.Orders where o.OrderDate.Year == DateTime.Now.Year && o.OrderDate.Month == DateTime.Now.Month select o; VB From d In ctx.Orders Where d.OrderDate.Year = DateTime.Now.Year AndAlso d.OrderDate.Month = DateTime.Now.Month Select d When users select an order, they need to see it in a detailed form. The form needs only a single instance and not a list. This can be achieved by using the LINQ First method. Here it’s used to retrieve the order with ID 1. C# Order order = (from o in ctx.Orders.Include("OrderDetails") where o.OrderId == 1 select o).First(); VB Dim order = (From o In ctx.Orders.Include("OrderDetails") _ Where o.OrderId = 1 _ Select o).First() Notice the use of the Include method. It retrieves the details along with the order. The string argument represents the navigation property that must be loaded. You’ve now seen the main data-retrieval features of Entity Framework. But in a real-world application, it’s likely that the user will not only view data, but also update it. We’ll look at that next. 2.4.2 Updating objects and reflecting changes into storage Entity Framework gracefully manages any modifications made to objects so they’re correctly reflected in the database. You can apply three types of modifications: inserts, updates, and deletes. Let’s look at them one by one. Listing 2.2 Displaying orders placed in the current month Listing 2.3 Retrieving a single order 57A sneak peek at the code INSERTS Suppose you have to create a form where the user can insert, edit, delete, and display an order. When the user inserts an order, you create an Order object and as many OrderDetail instances as there are details. Next, you instantiate the context that man- ages and coordinates the updates to the database. Finally, you invoke the AddObject method to notify the Orders entity set that the order must be inserted into the data- base. AddObject doesn’t communicate with the database; it only notifies the context about the persistence operation. The real operation on the database is triggered when the SaveChanges method is invoked. All these steps are put into action in the following listing. C# Order o = new Order { ... }; o.OrderDetail.Add(new OrderDetail { ... }); o.OrderDetail.Add(new OrderDetail { ... }); o.OrderDetail.Add(new OrderDetail { ... }); using (OrderITEntities ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { ctx.Orders.AddObject(o); Adds order to context B ctx.SaveChanges(); } VB Dim o As New Order With { ... } o.OrderDetails.Add(New OrderDetail With { ... }) o.OrderDetaila.Add(New OrderDetail With { ... }) o.OrderDetails.Add(New OrderDetail With { ... }) Using ctx As New OrderITEntities() ctx.Orders.AddObject(o) Adds order to context B ctx.SaveChanges() End Using The process of creating the Order and OrderDetail entities is a common practice; the real power shines in the last two lines of code. The code creates an order and three details, but the context is notified only about the order B. When the SaveChanges method is invoked, the context scans the Order object and all of its properties, includ- ing those referencing other objects. Because the order is linked to a list of details, the context recognizes that the entire object graph must be persisted. This feature is called persistence by reachability. In this scenario, the persistence of the object graph requires four inserts in the database. They must be executed in a transactional context to ensure that everything works in an all-or-nothing way. In listing 2.4, there is no trace of a transaction, nor of any other database-related code. The missing plumbing is boxed inside the SaveChanges method, leaving you only the burden of invoking it. If you compare listing 2.4 with the code necessary to create this feature manually, you’ll understand how much Entity Framework can help in reducing and simplifying the data-access layer of your applications, making it more robust and less error prone. Listing 2.4 Inserting a new order 58 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework UPDATES If you find that persisting new objects into the database is pretty simple, you’ll be sur- prised to discover that propagating the modifications made to objects into the data store is even easier. Suppose the page used for displaying an order is also used for modifying existing orders. After the user has finished modifying the data, your code must update the database. You have two possible ways to perform the updates:  Re-create the objects and add them to the context, indicating that they must be updated (the disconnected approach).  Query the database again to retrieve the objects, and then modify them (the connected approach). The disconnected approach is used most in scenarios where the context in which you retrieve data is different from the context you use to modify it (such as a web applica- tion or a web service). The connected approach is used most in scenarios where the context is a long-running concept (a Windows Form or Windows Presentation Foun- dation based application). The following code uses the connected approach. Later, in chapter 7, we’ll go deeper into both techniques. C# var order = (from o in ctx.Orders where o.OrderId == 1 select o).First(); order.ShippingDate = DateTime.Now.Today; order.OrderDetails.Add(new OrderDetail { ... }); ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim order = (From o In ctx.Orders Where o.OrderId = 1 Select o).First() order.ShippingDate = DateTime.Now.Today order.OrderDetails.Add(New OrderDetail With { ... }) ctx.SaveChanges() The first query is necessary to load the order from the database into the context. The properties of the order and its details are modified with user-entered data. After the properties have been changed, there’s no need to notify the context about modifica- tions because it keeps track of any modifications made to loaded objects and their ref- erences. When the SaveChanges method is invoked, the context determines which objects and properties have been modified and prepares the statements to be exe- cuted against the database. Because the context knows what has been modified, the SQL generated for updates is highly optimized—it contains only the changed columns. If you think about how much code and time you would spend implementing such a feature, you’ll understand that this process of updating data is extremely powerful. Listing 2.5 Updating an existing order 59A sneak peek at the code DELETES Deleting an object is likely the simplest task. You need an object with its key properties set to the ID of the record to be deleted, and then you notify the context that such an object must be removed from the table in the database. You can choose freely between the disconnected and the connected methods. Unless you’re worried about concurrency, we recommend using the disconnected approach as your default choice. We’ll look at both options. In the disconnected case, you create an Order object and set the property corre- sponding to the key of the table to the ID of the record you want to delete. Then, you create the context, attach the order to it (with the Attach method), and use DeleteObject to notify the context that the row in the table related to the order must be deleted. Finally, the SaveChanges method issues the DELETE statement from the database. C# Order order = new Order { OrderId = 1 }; ctx.Orders.Attach(order); ctx.Orders.DeleteObject(order); ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim order = New Order With { .OrderId = 1 } ctx.Orders.Attach(order) ctx.Orders.DeleteObject(order) ctx.SaveChanges() In some situations, you’ll have the object, because you’ve already loaded it (from a query, for instance). Re-creating a new instance is completely useless in this case. You can pass the instance you already have directly to the DeleteObject method without having to attach it to the context. This is the classic connected scenario. C# Order order = (from o in ctx.Order where o.OrderId == 1 select o).First(); ctx.Orders.DeleteObject(order); ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim order = (From o In ctx.Order Where o.OrderId = 1 Select o).First ctx.Orders.DeleteObject(order) ctx.SaveChanges() Listing 2.6 Deleting an existing order in a disconnected way Listing 2.7 Deleting an existing order in a connected way 60 CHAPTER 2 Getting started with Entity Framework As you’d expect, the details are automatically deleted because of the database’s delete- cascade constraint. To ensure that Entity Framework correctly checks the relation- ships, the cascade constraint is enforced in the EDM too. You’ve now seen how little code you have to write to persist an object graph. It doesn’t make any difference whether you have to insert, update, or delete data, because the basic idea is always the same: build or retrieve the object, modify its prop- erties, and send it back to Entity Framework to persist the modifications. 2.5 Summary You’ve now seen all the basics needed to start up a new project. In this first part of the book, you’ve learned what an O/RM tool is, you’ve seen where it stands in terms of appli- cation design, and you’ve even taken a sneak peek at how it speeds up development. What you’ve seen so far isn’t just for demo purposes. The design of this chapter’s application is surely oversimplified, but it’s still effective in many scenarios that have little complexity. Furthermore, the choice of importing the database and later modify- ing the classes isn’t taken from documentation: it’s the result of experience in devel- oping several projects. At this point, you’re just beginning your discovery of Entity Framework. You have a solid background of what necessities it covers, but you need to get your hands dirty and explore all of its features. It’s time to go deeper into the three main building blocks of Entity Framework: mapping databases and classes, querying databases, and persisting modifications made to objects. By the end of the next part of the book, you’ll be able to design and develop real-world applications using Entity Framework. The first subject we’ll face in the next chapter is querying. Get ready for the show. Part 2 Getting started Entity Framework is Microsoft’s answer to the O/RM needs in data-driven applications. In part 1 of this book, you learned which scenarios Entity Frame- work addresses and how it works internally to accomplish its tasks. In this part of the book, you’ll use the components you’ve already seen to develop an applica- tion that covers all possible requests. To fully cover data access, an application must be able to retrieve data, trans- form the data into objects, track any data modification, and persist the data to the database. All this must be done in a transactional and concurrency-safe way. Chapter 3 introduces the basics of querying, covering the components that play a role in this function. Chapter 4 tours the LINQ to Entities dialect and dem- onstrates how all the tasks you can accomplish in SQL can be carried out with this new language. Chapter 5 shows how mapping works in Entity Framework. You’ll learn how to use the designer to design classes and how designer actions are reflected in the EDM. Chapter 6 discusses the entity lifecycle. Here you’ll learn how Entity Frame- work manages the entities it retrieves from the database and the entities you attach to the context. You’ll discover how an entity can change its state and how that affects the way it’s persisted. Chapter 7 uses the features explained in chapter 6 and examines how modifi- cations made to entities are persisted to the database. Here you’ll learn how to persist simple entities as well as complex ones. Finally, chapter 8 explains how to deal with transactions and how to avoid concurrency problems, which are a com- mon concern in many applications. 63 Querying the object model: the basics In the first part of this book, you gained a strong understanding of where Entity Framework stands and how it can be integrated into your application. Now it’s time to start digging deep into the technology to understand the most important thing: how you use it. In this chapter, you’ll learn about the most basic feature in Entity Framework: querying. In particular, you’ll learn how the Object Services layer enables you to query the database and which other components collaborate with it. What’s more, you’ll learn how to inspect the SQL generated by Entity Framework so that you can decide whether to use it or to handcraft a custom SQL command. By the end of this chapter, you’ll understand how querying works under the covers and the theory behind it. This chapter covers  Entity Framework querying techniques  Capturing the generated SQL  Insights into the Entity Framework query engine  Common query pitfalls 64 CHAPTER 3 Querying the object model: the basics 3.1 One engine, many querying methods In chapter 2, you saw a couple of LINQ to Entities queries, but those just scratched the surface of the Entity Framework querying system. There is more than one method for querying the model, and more than one structure that can be used to execute queries. These are the possible ways of querying with Entity Framework:  LINQ to Entities through Object Services—You write LINQ to Entities queries, and the Object Services layer is responsible for handling the returned entities’ lifecycles.  Query builder methods and Entity SQL through Object Services—You use query builder methods to create Entity SQL queries. The Object Services layer is then respon- sible for handling the returned entities’ lifecycles.  Entity SQL through Object Services—You write the full Entity SQL query on your own, without resorting to query builder methods, and then submit it through Object Services, which takes care of the entities’ lifecycles.  Entity SQL through Entity Client—You bypass the Object Services layer and retrieve the data not as objects, but as a conceptual shaped set of DbDataRecord instances. This chapter and the next focus on Object Services and LINQ to Entities, so we’ll only cover the first option here. The other methods are covered in chapter 9, which is ded- icated to Entity SQL and Entity Client. 3.2 The query engine entry point: Object Services In chapter 1, you learned that the Object Services layer’s task is managing objects’ life- cycles from retrieval to persistence. The main class of the Object Services layer is ObjectContext. As you saw in chapter 2, it’s the most useful class for your code because it provides the only entry point for executing LINQ to Entities queries. One of the features of the Visual Studio designer is that, along with generating entities, it generates another class that inherits from ObjectContext and that has a set property for each object model class (with some exceptions). This property repre- sents the entity set. You can think about the entity set as a database table—it doesn’t actually contain data, but the entity set is what you write queries against. Later, in sec- tion 3.2.4, you’ll see how a query written against the entity set is turned into SQL and returns the data. For the moment, though, let’s focus on entity sets. The property representing an entity set is of type ObjectSet. The generic parameter corresponds to the type of the class that the entity set exposes. In OrderIT, the property that enables order retrieval is Orders; its type is ObjectSet, and it has the following definition. C# public partial class OrderITEntities : ObjectContext { public ObjectSet Orders Listing 3.1 The Orders property definition in the context class 65The query engine entry point: Object Services { get { return _orders ?? (_orders = CreateObjectSet("Orders")); } } private ObjectSet _orders; } VB Public Partial Class OrderITEntities Inherits ObjectContext Public ReadOnly Property Orders() As ObjectSet(Of Order) Get If _orders Is Nothing Then _orders = CreateObjectSet(Of Order)("Orders") End If Return _orders End Get End Property Private _orders As ObjectSet(Of Order) End Class ObjectSet inherits from ObjectQuery, which was the class used in Entity Framework v1.0. ObjectSet adds some convenient methods while maintaining compatibility with the past. The ObjectContext class isn’t abstract. The only reason the wizard generates a spe- cialized class that inherits from ObjectContext is to automatically generate the entity- set properties plus some helper methods. The generated class is perfect as is, and you should always use it. If there is a case where you can’t use it, you can instantiate the ObjectContext class directly and pass the connection string name (more about connection strings in sec- tion 3.2.1). After that, you can use the CreateObjectSet method, passing the entity set name as a parameter (more about this in chapter 4), to create the Object- Set instance. You can see such code in the following snippet: C# using (ObjectContext ctx = new ObjectContext("name=ConnStringName")) { var os = ctx.CreateObjectSet("Orders"); } VB Using ctx As new ObjectContext("name=ConnStringName") Dim os = ctx.CreateObjectSet(Of Order)("Orders") End Using As you can see, manually creating an ObjectSet instance isn’t difficult at all. But we still haven’t encountered a situation where this is necessary—the wizard-generated file has always worked well for us. 66 CHAPTER 3 Querying the object model: the basics NOTE ObjectContext implements the IDisposable interface. We strongly recommend adopting the Using pattern to ensure that all resources are correctly released. For brevity’s sake, we won’t show the context-instantiation code in subsequent snippets; ctx will be the stan- dard name of the variable representing it. When you instantiate the designer-generated context class, you don’t need to pass the connection string name to the constructor, whereas you have to pass it when working directly with ObjectContext. The designer knows what the connection string name is (you passed it in the designer wizard that created the object model and the context class, as you saw in chapter 2); and when the template generates the context-class code, it creates a constructor that invokes the base constructor, passing the connec- tion string name. The context-class constructor is visible in the following snippet: C# public class OrderITEntities { public OrderITEntities() : base("name=ConnStringName") { } } VB Public Class OrderITEntities Public Sub New() MyBase.New("name=ConnStringName") End Sub End Class The template generates other constructors that accept the connection string, includ- ing an EntityConnection object (the connection to the Entity Client). This way, you can change the connection string programmatically when needed. Under the covers, Object Services takes care of lots of tasks:  Manages connection strings  Transforms LINQ to Entities queries into an internal representation understood by Entity Client  Transforms database query results into objects  Ensures that only one object exists for each row in the database (no duplicates)  Enables capturing the SQL code issued against the database  Enables database script creation and the creation and dropping of databases We’ll look at these features in the following subsections. Let’s start at ground level and look at the connection string. 3.2.1 Setting up the connection string As you’ve seen, the connection string name is mandatory for the ObjectContext class. How you pass the connection string is slightly different in the Entity Framework com- pared to how you do it with other ADO.NET frameworks. In Entity Framework, you have to apply the (case-insensitive) prefix Name= to the connection string: Name=ConnStringName 67The query engine entry point: Object Services This isn’t the only difference from what you’re likely to be used to. The connection string itself is quite odd. This is how the connection string for OrderIT appears in the connectionString section of the configuration file. The structure is always the same, but the data is organized in an unusual way. The attribute name represents the name of the connection string, and it’s the one used when passing the connection string name to the context constructor. So far, so good. The connectionString attribute is very different from what you’re used to seeing, and it probably looks a bit muddled. You must understand how it’s made, because you’ll have to modify it when changing databases (when moving from development to production servers, for instance). It’s split into three subsections:  metadata—In this part, you specify where the three mapping files are located, separating the locations with pipe (|) characters. If the files are stored as plain text on the disk, you specify the path. If the files are stored as resources in the assembly, the res://*/filename convention is used.  provider—Here you specify the ADO.NET invariant provider name for the data- base, as if you were populating the providerName attribute of the connection- String node.  provider connection string—This represents the real connection string to the database. If you need to include a double-quote (") character, you must use its escaped format (") to avoid collision with XML format. Finally, the providerName attribute contains the System.Data.EntityClient string, which is the invariant Entity Framework provider name. Setting up the connection is an important task. Fortunately, it’s handled by the designer, so you only have to touch it when you change databases. If you need to build it at runtime, you can use the EntityConnectionStringBuilder class. Listing 3.2 A connection string example 68 CHAPTER 3 Querying the object model: the basics CREATING CONNECTION STRINGS IN CODE Usually the connection string can be put in the configuration file and read by the application. In some scenarios, though, you may need to change the connection string at runtime. We’ve encountered this situation a couple of times. In the first case, each attribute of the connection string was returned by a service. This isn’t the world’s best architecture, but sometimes you have to live with it. In the second case, the application was built to deal with two different versions of SQL Server (2005 and 2008). This meant having two different SSDL files, so the cor- rect one had to be chosen at runtime based on the database version. There were two solutions:  Creating the connection string by manually concatenating strings  Building the connection string at runtime using EntityConnectionString- Builder Needless to say, the second option was the better choice and is the one we’ll discuss The EntityConnectionStringBuilder class inherits from the ADO.NET base class DbConnectionStringBuilder, and it’s responsible for building a connection string starting from a set of parameters and for parsing a given connection string into single parameters. Its properties are described in table 3.1. In the first case we outlined, where the connection string was returned by a service, you can use DbConnectionStringBuilder class’s ability to generate a connection string from a single parameter. You can receive the Metadata, Provider, and Provider- ConnectionString parameters from the web service and use them to set up the con- nection string and pass it to the context constructor, as shown here. C# var connStringData = proxy.GetConnectionStringData(); var builder = new EntityConnectionStringBuilder(); builder.Provider = connStringData.Provider; builder.Metadata = connStringData.Metadata; Table 3.1 Properties of the EntityConnectionStringBuilder class Property Description Metadata Corresponds to the metadata section in the connection string. Provider Corresponds to the provider section in the connection string. ProviderConnectionString Corresponds to the provider connection string section in the con- nection string. ConnectionString The connection string in Entity Framework format. When you set it, the previous properties are automatically populated. When you modify one of the preceding properties, the connection string is automatically updated to reflect the changes. Listing 3.3 Building a connection string 69The query engine entry point: Object Services builder.ProviderConnectionString = connStringData.ProviderConnectionString; using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities(builder.ConnectionString)) { ... } VB Dim connStringData = proxy.GetConnectionStringData() Dim builder = new EntityConnectionStringBuilder() builder.Provider = connStringData.Provider builder.Metadata = connStringData.Metadata builder.ProviderConnectionString = connStringData.ProviderConnectionString Using ctx = New OrderITEntities(builder.ConnectionString) ... End Using The important thing is that the data must not contain the section name. For instance, the provider parameter must contain the value System.Data.SqlClient, and not Provider=System.Data.SqlClient. The Provider= string is automatically handled by the EntityConnectionStringBuilder class. In the second case, where we built the connection string at runtime, we only needed to change part of the connection string: the SSDL location. In this case, you can put the connection string in the configuration file, putting a placeholder {0} in the SSDL location. Once you know the database version, you can replace the place- holder with the correct SSDL path. This could be done with a simple String.Format, but the EntityConnectionStringBuilder has the ability to parse a connection string and populate the related properties. The following solution first loads the connection string and then uses the String.Format statement on the Metadata property only. C# var builder = new EntityConnectionStringBuilder(); builder.ConnectionString = connString; builder.Metadata = String.Format(builder.Metadata, "res://*/Model.ssdl"); using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities(builder.ConnectionString)) { ... } VB Dim builder = New EntityConnectionStringBuilder() builder.ConnectionString = connString builder.Metadata = String.Format(builder.Metadata, "res://*/Model.ssdl") Using ctx = New OrderITEntities(builder.ConnectionString) ... End Using The connection string is only the first part of the game. We mentioned in chapter 1 that one of the key features of Entity Framework is that it lets you write queries against the object model and not against the database. In the next section, we’ll focus on this and look at what happens under the covers. Listing 3.4 Modifying an existing connection string 70 CHAPTER 3 Querying the object model: the basics 3.2.2 Writing queries against classes Because the database is completely abstracted by the EDM, you can write queries against the classes, completely ignoring the underlying database organization. Entity Framework uses mapping information to translate those queries into SQL. This work- flow is explained in figure 3.1. DBSQLEDMClasses LINQ to Entities query Figure 3.1 Queries written against classes are transformed into SQL. The abstraction between classes and the database isn’t too difficult to grasp. If a property is named differently from the column of the table it’s mapped to, you still use the property name in your query—this is obvious because you query against the class. With LINQ to Entities, you probably won’t type the wrong name because Visual Studio’s IntelliSense will give you hints about the correct name. What’s more, the compiler will throw an error if you type the incorrect property name. Other situations can lead to differences between the database and the object model. Customers and suppliers have their own classes, but there is only one table containing their data. Once again, you write your queries against these entities, and not against the Company table. Furthermore, we’ve grouped address information into a complex type. When writ- ing queries, they’re accessed like a part of a type, whereas in the database they’re plain columns. At first, these differences might deceive you, especially if you’re experienced with the relational model. But after a bit of practice, you’ll see that writing queries this way is more intuitive and productive than writing SQL. Classes represent your business sce- nario more meaningfully than the relational model, with the result that writing a query against classes is more business oriented (and more natural) than writing SQL. What’s more, the intricacies of the relationships between classes are handled by Entity Framework, so you don’t need to care how the data is physically related. Now that you understand how a query against the model is different from a query against the database, we can touch on another important subject. How is a LINQ to Entities query processed by the Object Services layer, and why does it become SQL instead of triggering an in-memory search against the entity set? 3.2.3 LINQ to Entities queries vs. standard LINQ queries LINQ is an open platform that can be customized to execute queries against any data source (a plethora of providers on the web can retrieve data from web services and databases like Oracle and MySQL, NHibernate, and so on). The important caveat is that the entry point for querying is a list implementing the IEnumerable interface. ObjectSet implements IEnumerable and another interface that’s required to customize LINQ: IQueryable. This interface holds a reference to an object that implements the IQueryProvider interface, and that object overrides the base LINQ 71The query engine entry point: Object Services implementation. Instead of triggering a local search, it analyzes the query and starts the SQL-generation process. Now you know why queries written against ObjectSet are evaluated differently than queries against other data sources. But that just explains how the query transla- tion process starts, and why a LINQ to Entities query becomes SQL. In the next section, you’ll discover how a query gets translated into SQL, you’ll learn how it’s executed, and you’ll see that data is returned as a set of objects. 3.2.4 Retrieving data from the database When you execute a query, the LINQ provider hosted by the entity set parses the query and creates a command tree. Because you’re writing the query against classes, the com- mand tree represents the query conceptually. Object Services passes the command tree to the Entity Client, which, with the aid of mapping and the storage files, transforms it into a native SQL command. After that, the Entity Client uses the ADO.NET provider specified in the provider section of the connectionString attribute to launch the SQL against the database and obtain the result. The query result is then shaped in a tabular way that reflects the object model structure, as you saw in section 1.6. Finally, the data is returned to the Object Services layer, which instantiates (or materializes) the objects. Figure 3.2 illustrates this process. Command tree SQL Objects Conceptual resultset Storage resultset DB object Services Entity Client ADO.NET LINQ to Entities query Figure 3.2 How a LINQ to Entities query passes through different layers and becomes a set of objects After scalar, complex, and reference properties are filled in, and before collection properties are dealt with, the context triggers the ObjectMaterialized event. This event accepts the entity that’s being materialized and allows you to perform some logic before the object is returned to the application. The following listing shows how you can use this event. C# public OrderITEntities() { ctx.ObjectMaterialized += new ObjectMaterializedEventHandler(ctx_ObjectMaterialized); } void ctx_ObjectMaterialized(object sender, ObjectMaterializedEventArgs e) { var o = entity as Order; Listing 3.5 Attaching a handler to the ObjectMaterialized event 72 CHAPTER 3 Querying the object model: the basics //any logic } VB Public Sub New() AddHandler ctx.ObjectMaterialized, AddressOf ctx_ObjectMaterialized End Sub Private Sub ctx_ObjectMaterialized(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As ObjectMaterializedEventArgs) Dim o = TryCast(entity, Order) 'any logic End Sub As you can see, subscribing to the ObjectMaterialized event is like subscribing to any other event in the .NET Framework class library. There’s an important caveat that you must keep in mind about the materialization step: the context implements the Identity Map pattern. 3.2.5 Understanding Identity Map in the context The context holds references for all the entities it reads from the database and identi- fies them by their key properties. Before the context materializes a new entity, it checks whether one with the same key and of the same type already exists. If it does exist, the context returns the in-memory entity, discarding data from the database. This pattern is named Identity Map, and it’s vital for application consistency. With- out the Identity Map, if you read an order, someone else updated it, and you read it again, you’d have two instances with different data representing the same order. Which one would be correct? Which one should you update? Should the OrderIT user know about it? The answers would depend on the situation, so you should never let this happen. Keeping references to entities and checking whether there’s already one in the context during materialization are heavy burdens for the context. Fortunately, this behavior isn’t needed by all applications. Consider a web page that displays orders in a grid. After the orders are read from the context, they won’t be touched in any way, so there’s no point in storing references to the objects. Skipping this step makes the con- text lighter, because it doesn’t memorize objects, and faster, because the Identity Map check doesn’t happen. NOTE In chapter 19, you’ll see how tweaking applications in ways like this can dramatically improve performance. More broadly speaking, you can choose the way the context treats entities after each query. This choice is made at the query level and not at the context level, meaning that the same context can use objects in one way for some queries and in another way for other queries. More specifically, the context has four ways of managing entities returned by a query. You can set any of the following values for the MergeOption property: 73The query engine entry point: Object Services  AppendOnly—If the entity is already in the context, it’s discarded, and the con- text one is returned. If the entity isn’t in the context, it’s added. (This is the default behavior.)  NoTracking—The entity isn’t stored by the context.  OverwriteChanges—If the entity is in the context, it’s overwritten with values from the database and then is returned. If the entity isn’t in the context, it’s added.  PreserveChanges—If the entity is in the context, properties modified by the user remain untouched, and the others are updated using database values. If the entity isn’t in the context, it’s added. In our experience, the AppendOnly and NoTracking options have covered all our needs. We have never needed to use the other options. Nonetheless, never forget that they exist—one day you could need them. NOTE A context can’t hold more than one object of the same type with the same key. For instance, it can’t hold two orders or customers with the same key. In chapter 6, you’ll learn that such operations cause exceptions. Also note that if a retrieved entity is tracked by a context, and a query retrieves it again, the ObjectMaterialized event isn’t raised because the context entity is returned—there’s no materialization process. As mentioned in the previous list, AppendOnly is the default behavior, but you can override it by setting the MergeOption property of the entity set. This property is an enum of MergeOption type (defined in the System.Data.Objects namespace) whose possible values are in the previous list. Here’s how you can set tracking behavior. C# var companies = ctx.Companies.ToList(); ctx.Orders.MergeOption = MergeOption.NoTracking; var orders = ctx.Orders.ToList(); VB Dim companies = ctx.Companies.ToList() ctx.Orders.MergeOption = MergeOption.NoTracking Dim orders = ctx.Orders.ToList() Objects in the companies list are stored by the context because tracking is enabled by default. Objects in the orders list aren’t tracked because the Orders entity set has been configured for no tracking. So far, you’ve only had a brief description of the querying options. We’ll cover more intricacies in chapter 6, which is dedicated to persistence. The entity-set properties hide a nasty trap when dealing with tracking. They expose an ObjectSet instance, but the way the instance is created affects the way you have to set tracking. Listing 3.6 Setting tracking options 74 CHAPTER 3 Querying the object model: the basics CREATEOBJECTSET AND TRACKING The default code generator and the POCO generator create code that instantiates an entity set lazily when it’s first accessed. After the instance is created, it’s reused for the entire context lifecycle. The result is that when you configure the tracking option, it remains the same for all queries issued against that entity set, unless you change it. We have seen projects where, instead of reusing the same instance, a new one is created each time the entity set property is accessed. In this case, setting the tracking option has no effect. The ObjectSet instance on which you set the option is differ- ent from the one returned when you later access the entity-set property. The result is that the context follows the default behavior. To overcome this problem, you can assign the entity-set property to a local variable and then work directly with it, as shown here: C# var set = ctx.Companies; set.MergeOption = MergeOption.NoTracking; var companies = set.ToList(); VB Dim set = ctx.Companies set.MergeOption = MergeOption.NoTracking Dim companies = set.ToList() Setting the MergeOption property of the entity set isn’t the only way to configure tracking. You can also use the Execute method. EXECUTE AND TRACKING The Execute method allows you to perform a query and set tracking in a single call. Keep in mind that, in this case, the value passed to the method overrides the entity set configuration. C# ctx.Companies.MergeOption = MergeOption.NoTracking; var companies = ctx.Companies.Execute(MergeOption.AppendOnly); VB ctx.Companies.MergeOption = MergeOption.NoTracking Dim companies = ctx.Companies.Execute(MergeOption.AppendOnly) Tracking is a key feature of Entity Framework. You’ll find other APIs in this O/RM tool that are affected by tracking, and we’ll discuss them in chapters 6 and 10. Now it’s time to move on and discover how the Object Services layer interacts with the Entity Client. 3.2.6 Understanding interaction between Object Services and Entity Client The ObjectContext class keeps an instance of the EntityConnection class. Just as the context is your entry point to Object Services, the connection is the entry point to the Entity Client. This instance isn’t intended only for internal use—it’s publicly exposed Listing 3.7 Setting tracking via the Execute method 75The query engine entry point: Object Services via the Connection property of the context. The context even has a constructor that accepts a connection. The context handles this connection for you. It instantiates a new one if one has not been generated yet, opening it before executing a query and closing it when the query has been executed. When it persists objects, it opens the connection, starts the transaction, and commits or rolls back the transaction depending on whether an exception occurs. Because you can access the connection through the context, you can manipulate it at will. Suppose that within the scope of a context, you must execute five queries. Opening and closing the connection each time isn’t the best way to go. It isn’t particu- larly expensive if the ADO.NET provider is configured for connection pooling (which is the default for SQL Server), but it can surely be optimized. What you can do is manually handle the lifetime of the connection. When you manually open the connection, the context stops handling it, leaving it open and turning over to you the burden of physically closing it. This means you can open the connection, execute the five queries, and then close the connection within a single open-query-close cycle. NOTE Even if you don’t close the connection, it will be disposed of auto- matically when the context is disposed of. This is why we recommend the Using pattern. You can further customize the interaction between the context and the connection by creating an instance of the connection and passing it to one of the context construc- tors. This way, the context ignores the connection lifecycle, leaving you in charge of its complete management. This holds true during context disposal too. If the connection isn’t generated by the context, it isn’t disposed of. What’s bad about this is that if you forget to close or dispose of the connection, it remains open until the garbage collector clears every- thing. Don’t make this mistake. In chapter 9, we’ll go deeper inside the Entity Client and the EntityConnection class. Right now, though, it’s time to take a look at the SQL generated by the Entity Client. 3.2.7 Capturing the generated SQL Even if Entity Framework generates the SQL code, you can’t assume the code is fine as is. You must always make sure that the generated statements perform well and don’t require too many database resources to execute. Sometimes the generated query will be too heavy or complex, and you can get better performance by using a stored proce- dure or handcrafting the SQL. The easiest way to inspect the SQL is to use the profiler tool that’s included among the client-management tools that ship with most modern databases. With this tool, you can monitor all the statements executed against the database and then analyze the ones that need refinement or complete replacement. 76 CHAPTER 3 Querying the object model: the basics Usually, this monitoring requires high-level permissions on the database, and sometimes you won’t have such power. Fortunately, the Object Services layer comes to your aid with the ObjectSet class’s ToTraceString method. Here’s how you can use it: C# var result = ctx.Orders.Where(o => o.Date.Year == DateTime.Now.Year); var SQL = (result as ObjectQuery).ToTraceString(); VB Dim result = ctx.Orders.Where(Function(o) o.Date.Year = DateTime.Now.Year) Dim SQL = TryCast(result, ObjectQuery).ToTraceString() Notice that this code doesn’t cast to ObjectQuery but to ObjectQuery. Object- Query inherits from ObjectQuery, which is where the ToTraceString method is implemented. All the steps in query processing should now be clear to you. But there is still one thing to know about the object creation done by the Object Services layer. We said that Object Services materializes the entities using the conceptual resultset coming from the Entity Client. What we didn’t say is that the materialized entities may not be your model entities. 3.2.8 Understanding which entities are returned by a query When you query for an order, you expect the returned entity to be of type OrderIT.Model.Order. This is pretty normal. You ask for an order, and you get an order. So you’ll be surprised that, by default, the returned entity is of type OrderIT.Model.Order_XXX, where X is a number. If you’re accustomed to other O/RM tools, such as NHibernate, you’ll be aware of what needs this technique satisfies. But if you’re new to O/RM, you’re probably trying to figure out the reason for this. What is this class? Who defined it? Why are you get- ting this class instead of the one you defined? The answers are simple. The new class is a runtime-generated proxy. A proxy is a class that inherits from the one you expect and injects code in your properties to transparently add behavior to your class. Because the proxy is generated at runtime, nobody defined it. If you open the assembly with Reflector, you’ll see that there is no definition of such a class. NOTE Reflector is a tool that lets you browse a .NET assembly and dis- cover its classes and their code. It’s free, and you can download it from www.red-gate.com/products/reflector/. Using reflection and runtime code emittance, Entity Framework generates a class that inherits from your type, injects custom code into properties, and then instantiates the class. The last question is probably the most interesting: Why? The reason for this process is to provide features like lazy loading, object tracking, and others, without requiring you to write a single line of code. For instance, Entity 77The query engine entry point: Object Services Framework 1.0 compliant classes had to inherit from a base class or implement inter- faces, and write custom code in each prop- erty to interact with the object-tracking system. Thanks to the proxy technique, such plumbing is no longer required, because the necessary code is created dynamically by the proxy. Figure 3.3 shows a simplification of the code inside a proxy. Making a POCO class extensible requires that you not seal it. To enable object track- ing by the proxy, all properties must be vir- tual. If you need to enable lazy loading (more on this in the next chapter), even navigation properties must be virtual. NOTE You can turn off proxy creation and let the Object Services layer return the plain instance. Setting the ContextOptions.ProxyCreation- Enabled property to false disables this feature. By default, its value is true. A typical scenario where proxies are a problem is with web services, because a method that returns a proxy might run into serialization issues. Using a plain instance and not a proxy makes your class less powerful from an Entity Framework perspective, but it’s still a fully functional class and you can still use it without any problem. 3.2.9 When is a query executed? Generally speaking, LINQ queries are executed when the application code processes data (for instance, using a foreach or a for) or when certain methods are invoked (ToList, ToArray, First, Single, and so on). Each time a LINQ to Entities query is executed, Entity Framework goes to the data- base and retrieves data. When it transforms data from record to object, it scans the in- memory objects to see if one is already there. If it is, the context returns the in-memory object, discarding the record. If it isn’t, the context materializes the record into an object, puts it in memory, and returns it. Let’s look at an example. Suppose you have to iterate over the result of a query twice, as follows. C# var result = LINQToEntitiesQuery; foreach(var o in result) { ... } Listing 3.8 Iterating twice over query results, causing double query execution public class Customer : Company { public virtual DateTime ActualShippingDate { get; set; } } public class ProxyOrder: Order { public override DateTime ActualShippingDate { get { return base.ActualShippingDate set { NofyChangeTracker("ActualShippingDate",value); base.ActualShippingDate = value; } } } Figure 3.3 The proxy class (bottom) inherits from the object model class (top) and overrides properties. 78 CHAPTER 3 Querying the object model: the basics foreach(var o in result) { ... } VB Dim result = LINQToEntitiesQuery For Each o in result ... Next For Each o in result ... Next Each time the foreach (or For Each) statement is executed, a round trip to the data- base is triggered. The context doesn’t care whether you have executed the same query before. If the query is more complex than simply retrieving all orders, or if lots of data is returned, the double execution represents a serious problem for performance. The easy workaround is to force execution the first time and then download the objects in memory. Later, the in-memory collection is looped, so no round trip to the database is necessary. Here’s the code for this useful technique. C# var orders = LINQToEntitiesQuery.ToList(); Query execution foreach(var o in orders) Collection iteration { ... } foreach(var o in orders) { ... } VB Dim orders = LINQToEntitiesQuery.ToList() Query execution For Each o in orders Collection iteration ... Next For Each o in orders ... Next This approach must be followed not only for queries that return a list of objects, but for queries that return a single object too. Entity Framework makes no distinction between queries that return an object and queries that return a collection. You can override the Identity Map behavior of the context so it doesn’t keep objects in memory, but that wouldn’t affect the double-execution problem. The last thing to point out about the context is that it can re-create the database starting from the EDM. Listing 3.9 Iterating twice over query results, causing single query execution 79Summary 3.2.10 Managing the database from the context The ObjectContext class has four interesting methods that let you work with the data- base structure:  CreateDatabase—Creates the database using the connection string and the information in the SSDL  CreateDatabaseScript—Generates the database-creation script using the information in the SSDL  DatabaseExists—Verifies that the database specified in the connection string exists  DeleteDatabase—Deletes the database specified in the connection string NOTE This may seem a subject outside the scope of this chapter, but you can’t query a database if it doesn’t exist. These methods are useful when you create an application and don’t create an installa- tion package. When the application starts, you can use DatabaseExists and Create- Database to create the database if it doesn’t exist. Apart from this situation, these methods aren’t particularly important. Nonethe- less, they’re another string in your bow. Maybe one day you’ll need them. 3.3 Summary In this chapter, you have learned the basics of querying. Although you haven’t seen much code in action, everything you’ve read in this chapter will benefit you in the real world. For instance, you’ll often have to modify the connection string, so having its struc- ture clear in your mind is useful because it’s complex. Similarly, when you’re debug- ging an application, being able to inspect the SQL that’s generated is important, because Entity Framework doesn’t always generate friendly SQL. Last, but not least, you have learned that a query is always executed against the database unless its result is downloaded in the client memory. This is an essential point, because often it’s the cause of inadvertent query execution. We’ve often seen projects where the developers were not aware of this caveat, and the performance of their applications suffered. Now that we’ve covered the fundamentals, it’s time to write real queries. 80 Querying with LINQ to Entities One of the most important features of Entity Framework is the LINQ to Entities query dialect. LINQ to Entities is a specialized version of LINQ that operates on Entity Framework models. LINQ to Entities isn’t a LINQ to SQL competitor—it’s the Entity Framework’s main query language, whereas LINQ to SQL is a full-featured O/RM that shipped with the .NET Framework v3.5. In this chapter, we’ll begin by looking at how to filter data. Then we’ll cover pro- jecting, grouping, sorting, joining, and querying within inheritance hierarchies. With this approach, you’ll gradually learn how LINQ to Entities works and under- stand how to obtain the same data you would get using native SQL queries. We’ll assume that you’re already familiar with LINQ. If you haven’t seen it yet, you can read appendix A to learn the basics. This chapter covers  Filtering with LINQ to Entities  Projecting with LINQ to Entities  Sorting and grouping with LINQ to Entities  Executing handcrafted SQL code  Choosing the fetching strategy What is the future of LINQ to SQL? It’s no secret that LINQ to SQL is included in the .NET Framework v4.0 for compati- bility reasons. Microsoft has clearly stated that Entity Framework is the recom- mended technology for data access. In the future, the Entity Framework will be developed and tightly integrated with other technologies, whereas LINQ to SQL will only be maintained and little evolved. 81Filtering data After LINQ to Entities has been discussed, we’ll talk about other Object Services fea- tures, such as how you can integrate functions in LINQ to Entities, execute SQL que- ries, and choose a fetching strategy. From this point on, you’ll develop queries using LINQ query syntax. If you’re famil- iar with LINQ, you’ll already know what query syntax is; if you’re not familiar with LINQ, you can learn more in appendix A, and we strongly recommend that you read it before continuing with this chapter. We’ll resort to combining extension methods and lambda expressions when query syntax can’t be used. We’ll generally use query syntax because it’s more intuitive, but that doesn’t mean that it’s recommended over its counterpart. The compiler produces the same IL code for both techniques. In chapter 2, you created the OrderIT structure, and you’ll reuse that to create the examples in this chapter. 4.1 Filtering data Suppose you have a user who acts as the beta tester of OrderIT, and that user’s first requirement is searching for orders by their shipping city. You can add the filtering capability by using the LINQ Where method. Where has an exact match in query syntax: where for C# and Where for VB. This clause is shown in action in the following code, which retrieves all orders shipped to New York: C# from o in ctx.Orders where o.ShippingAddress.City == "New York" select o; VB From o In ctx.Orders Where o.ShippingAddress.City = "New York" Filtering based on a single value is trivial. But sometimes you might need to search all orders placed in either New York or Seattle. That’s a simple matter of slightly modify- ing the where clause to add the second city: C# o.ShippingAddress.City == "New York" || o.ShippingAddress.City == "Seattle" VB o.ShippingAddress.City = "New York" Or o.ShippingAddress.City = "Seattle" 82 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities Suppose the beta-testing user now wants to be able to enter multiple arbitrary ship- ping cities. Because you don’t know in advance how many cities the user is going to search for, the filter becomes dynamic. LINQ has the Contains method, which is perfect for this situation. Surprisingly, LINQ to Entities didn’t support such a method in version 1.0. Fortunately, Entity Framework 4.0 has added this feature. The first step in issuing a query that searches for multiple cities is creating a list of the cities. Later, in the Where clause, you can use the Contains method on this list, passing the field that must be searched. This is put into action in the following code, which retrieves all orders shipped to a dynamic list of cities: C# var cities = new[] { "New York", "Seattle" }; from o in ctx.Orders where cities.Contains(o.ShippingAddress.City) select o; VB Dim cities as New Array("New York, "Seattle") From o In ctx.Orders Where cities.Contains(o.ShippingAddress.City) It’s simple to filter data when the query involves only one entity (Order in this case), but real-world queries are more complex than that. In our experience, 95% of the queries in a project involve more than one entity. Fortunately, LINQ to Entities makes querying across associations between entities easier than ever. 4.1.1 Filtering data based on associations When a query involves more than one entity, you have to navigate your model using navigation properties. In SQL, this conceptual navigation is represented using joins between tables, and it isn’t always a simple task. Fortunately, because the mapping spec- ifies the shapes of the model and the database and their associations, Entity Frame- work has enough information to transform the conceptual navigation across entities in SQL joins between the mapped tables without your having to specify anything. The association cardinality makes a difference in how you do the filtering. There are two main situations. If your association refers to a single entity (one-to-one, such as a detail to its order), you work with a single entity—that’s easy to do. If your associa- tion refers to a list of entities (one-to-many or many-to-many, such as an order to its details), the filter is based on an aggregation or subfilter applied to the associated list. That’s a little more complicated. Let’s start with the simpler of the two situations. FILTERING WITH A SINGLE ASSOCIATION As we mentioned before, when you create a query that involves two entities with a one- to-one association, filtering data is trivial. Because the main class has a property that points to the associated class, you can easily perform a search on that property by 83Filtering data navigating to it. The following code searches for orders placed by customers whose billing city is New York: C# from order in ctx.Orders where order.Customer.BillingAddress.City == "New York" select order; VB From order In ctx.Orders _ Where order.Customer.BillingAddress.City = "New York" In this query, the mismatch between the relational model and the OOP model shines. First, even if two entities are involved (Order and Customer), only the Orders entity set is used. Second, you don’t care how the relationship between Order and Customer is maintained in the database; you simply navigate your model, leaving to Entity Frame- work the burden of creating joins between tables while generating the SQL code. Finally, the Order table contains a plain BillingCity column, but in the model it’s refactored into the AddressInfo complex type, which is the type of the Billing- Address property. Here you can see the SQL code generated by Entity Framework. SELECT [Extent1].[OrderId] AS [OrderId], [Extent1].[OrderDate] AS [OrderDate], [Extent1].[EstimatedShippingDate] AS [EstimatedShippingDate], [Extent1].[ActualShippingDate] AS [ActualShippingDate], [Extent1].[ShippingAddress] AS [ShippingAddress], [Extent1].[ShippingCity] AS [ShippingCity], [Extent1].[ShippingZipCode] AS [ShippingZipCode], [Extent1].[ShippingCountry] AS [ShippingCountry], [Extent1].[CustomerId] AS [CustomerId], [Extent1].[Version] AS [Version] FROM [dbo].[Order] AS [Extent1] INNER JOIN [dbo].[Company] AS [Extent2] Creates join between tables ON ([Extent2].[Type] = 'C') AND ([Extent1].[CustomerId] = [Extent2].[CompanyId]) WHERE 'New York' = [Extent2].[BillingCity] This SQL is close to what you would have written manually. The SQL Server team has closely collaborated with the Entity Framework developers to make the generated SQL as performant as possible. The SQL generated by Entity Framework isn’t always the best, due to the generic nature of the SQL generator, but most of the time you can live with it. Working with a single association is pretty straightforward, isn’t it? Collection asso- ciations are harder to manage. Although LINQ to Entities generally simplifies the task of querying, this type of association is a little tricky. Listing 4.1 SQL generated by the previous query 84 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities FILTERING WITH COLLECTION ASSOCIATIONS What’s complex in this type of association is that the filter must be expressed on an aggregation of the associated list, and not directly on a property, as for single associa- tions. But what seems difficult to understand using words turns out to be simple using an example. Suppose the user wants to retrieve orders where a specific product is sold. You have to aggregate the details of each order, returning a Boolean that indicates whether at least one product is of the specified brand. This result is achieved using the Any method. It’s a method that belongs to the set family, and it accepts a lambda stating the condition that needs to be satisfied at least once. The following code puts this theory in action by retrieving all orders that included products of brand MyBrand: C# from order in ctx.Orders where order.OrderDetails.Any(d => d.Product.Brand == "MyBrand") select order; VB From order In ctx.Orders Where order.OrderDetails.Any(Function(d) d.Product.Brand = "MyBrand") Now, suppose the user wants to retrieve orders where no item is discounted. LINQ to Entities has another set method that deserves your attention: All. It allows you to specify a condition and ensure that all the items in the queried collection satisfy it. In this case, the condition is that the Discount property of each detail is 0: C# from order in ctx.Orders where order.OrderDetails.All(d => d.Discount == 0) select order; VB From order In ctx.Orders Where order.OrderDetails.All(Function(d) d.Discount = 0) Crafting the SQL code to perform this query isn’t easy, but LINQ to Entities makes it simple and straightforward. Filters can be applied even on data calculated on associations. Suppose the user wants to be able to search orders where the total discount exceeds a certain amount— in this case, five dollars. By using Sum to perform the calculation, the query becomes easy: C# from order in ctx.Orders where order.OrderDetails.Sum(d => d.Discount * d.Quantity) > 5 select order; VB From order In ctx.Orders Where order.OrderDetails.Sum(Function(d) d.Discount * d.Quantity) > 5 85Filtering data Sum belongs to the family of aggregation methods. It sums the result returned by the input lambda expression. The expression might be a simple field or an arithmetic expression, as in the preceding code. You know you can chain LINQ methods—that’s what makes LINQ one of the most powerful features of the entire .NET Framework. With a bit of method-chaining prac- tice, you can write queries that involve set methods and aggregation methods to solve particular problems. The following listing enables the user to search for orders where more than one product has been sold. C# from order in ctx.Orders where order.OrderDetails .Select(d => d.Product.ProductId) .Distinct() .Count() > 1 select order; VB From order In ctx.Orders _ Where order.OrderDetails. Select(Function(d) d.Product.ProductId). Distinct(). Count() > 1 Let’s examine this query to understand what’s been done. The first method that’s applied to the details list is Select. This is a projection method used to set the output of a query (more on this subject later in this chapter). In this case, you’re extracting only the ProductId property, so the method gives back a list of integers. Next, you use the Distinct method to remove any duplicate ProductIds (remember that a product can appear twice in an order due to the discount policy). Finally, you use the Count method to count the occurrences and see if there is more than one. Figure 4.1 shows the workflow of this process. Select Disnct Count 2 Details 1 Producd 1 Details 2 Producd 2 Details 3 Producd 3 Producd 1 Producd 2 Producd 1 Producd 1 Producd 2 Figure 4.1 The chained methods filter data and count how many products are sold. You’d probably expect Entity Framework to generate GROUPBY and HAVING SQL clauses to execute such a query, but that doesn’t happen because the SQL generator is configured to nest queries instead of using the preceding SQL clauses. This isn’t always the best approach, but it’s a good trade-off between SQL performance on the database and simplicity of the SQL generation code. NOTE Potentially, you can chain any method in your query. The draw- back is that as chaining becomes more complex, so does the generated SQL, and it consequently performs more poorly. Don’t make the capital sin of ignoring the SQL. The risks are too high. (We have seen cases where entire systems crash because of bad SQL queries.) Listing 4.2 Retrieving all orders that have sold more than one product 86 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities Often, the filter you’ll have to apply isn’t based on what data you have to retrieve but on how much data must be returned. A typical example is when a web application dis- plays paged data in a grid. Let’s see how you can apply this type of filter. 4.1.2 Paging results One of the easiest ways to filter data is to return only the first n occurrences. Each database has its own syntax for performing this task. LINQ to Entities lets you declare one method and leave to the SQL generator the burden of generating the correct SQL. This is another wonderful example of the power of Entity Framework. The ability to extract only the first n occurrences is useful when the beta-testing user asks for a little dashboard in the main form of the application. They want to see the last 15 orders placed by their customers so they can quickly start handling them. The method that enables such a filter is Take. This method accepts an integer that specifies the number of objects to be retrieved. VB supports this method in the query syntax, but in C# you have to use the extension method: C# (from order in ctx.Orders orderby order.OrderDate select order).Take(15); VB From order In ctx.Orders Order By order.OrderDate Take(15) The user’s business is growing. In spite of the filters already enabled, each time the user searches for orders, they get so many records that it slows down the web page’s performance and consequently its usability. Furthermore, dealing with hundreds of orders on a single page isn’t user-friendly. The user needs the orders paged in a grid. LINQ to Entities offers a method that, used in conjunction with Take, makes the paging operations easier than ever: Skip. This method lets you ignore the first n records. To enable paging, you use Skip to jump the first n records and then Take to retrieve only the next n after the ones skipped. The following code snippet skips the first 10 records and takes the next 10, which means it retrieves the second page of a grid where each page contains 10 records. As it does for the Skip method, VB supports Take in query syntax, whereas in C# you have to use the extension method: C# (from o in ctx.Orders orderby o.OrderId select o).Skip(10).Take(10); VB From o In ctx.Orders Order By o.OrderId Skip (10) Take (10) 87Filtering data It’s mandatory to invoke orderby for C#, or Order By for VB, before Take and Skip because it decides the order of the data before paging. If you don’t do that, you’ll get a runtime exception. You’ll learn more about sorting in section 4.4. So far, the queries we’ve looked at return a list of entities. But often you need only a single entity. The next section shows how to accomplish such a task. 4.1.3 Retrieving one entity After the user has selected an order, you need to display a form where the user can see the details and even modify some of them. In the OrderIT model, you need to find the order given its ID. LINQ queries return an IEnumerable even if only one object is retrieved. When you know in advance that you’re going to get a single object, it’s more convenient to return it directly instead of dealing with the list. The First and Single methods allow you to do this. C# (from order in ctx.Orders where order.OrderId == 1 select order).First(); (from order in ctx.Orders where order.OrderId == 1 select order).Single(); VB (From order In ctx.Orders Where order.OrderId = 1).First() (From order In ctx.Orders Where order.OrderId = 1).Single() The result of these queries is an Order object. The First method is translated into a TOP 1 clause in SQL. (TOP is valid for SQL Server; providers for other databases will generate the appropriate equivalent statement.) If the query doesn’t return a record, the First method generates an Invalid- OperationException with the error message “Sequence contains no elements.” You can include the query in a try-catch block, but handling exceptions is an expensive task for the runtime. The best option is to use the FirstOrDefault method, which has the same behavior as First with the noticeable difference that if no record is returned, it returns the default value of the searched object. Because Order is a refer- ence type, FirstOrDefault returns null if no object is retrieved by the query. You can achieve the same goal using Single. The subtle difference between First and Single is that the latter enforces the rule that the database query must return only one record. To ensure such a constraint, the Single method issues a TOP 2 SQL clause. If two records are returned, it throws an exception. If zero records are Listing 4.3 Retrieving an order given its ID using First 88 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities returned, it throws an exception unless you use SingleOrDefault, which has the same behavior as FirstOrDefault. We recommend using First instead of Single for three reasons:  When you know that you’re retrieving one object, it’s pointless to issue a Top 2 in the database.  Single is slightly slower that First.  Checking that only one record exists for the input parameters should be the responsibility of the database’s update phase and not the querying phase. NOTE Because the result of a query that uses First or Single isn’t an IEnumerable instance but the object you were searching, you can’t cast it to ObjectQuery and retrieve the SQL code generated. In this case, profiling the database is the only available path. LINQ to Entities isn’t the only way to retrieve a single entity. You can also do it via the ObjectContext class’s methods. USING CONTEXT METHODS The ObjectContext class allows you to retrieve a single entity with the GetObject- ByKey and TryGetObjectByKey methods. The question you may be asking is: “Why do I need specific methods to get an object by its key when I already have LINQ to Entities?” The answer is that these meth- ods behave differently. Before going to the database, they check whether an object with that given key is already in the context memory (recall the Identity Map pattern we talked about in section 3.2.5). If the object does exist in the context memory, they immediately return the in-memory object, skipping the database round trip. If not, they go to the database and retrieve the object, following the same path as LINQ to Entities queries. GetObjectByKey gets an EntityKey object as an argument representing the key of the entity to be retrieved, and it returns the instance of the entity. If the object isn’t found either in memory or in the database, GetObjectByKey throws an exception. TryGetObjectByKey gets an EntityKey object and an out parameter for C#, or ByRef for VB, representing the entity that’s returned. If the entity is found, the method returns true and the entity parameter contains the entity; otherwise, it returns false and the entity parameter remains null. Here’s an example that uses these methods. C# var key = new EntityKey("OrderITEntities.Orders", "OrderId", 1); var entity = ctx.GetObjectByKey(key); Object entity; var found = ctx.TryGetObjectByKey(key, entity); Listing 4.4 Retrieving an entity by its key using context methods 89Filtering data VB Dim key = new EntityKey("OrderITEntities.Orders", "OrderId", 1) Dim entity = ctx.GetObjectByKey(key) Dim entity As Object = Nothing Dim found = ctx.TryGetObjectByKey(key, entity) Unless you’re sure the object exists, use the TryGetObjectByKey method because it avoids exceptions, increasing performance. So far, we’ve looked at creating static queries. Now the user needs to filter data by more optional parameters. This means you have to create the query at runtime. Gen- erating the SQL string at runtime is pretty straightforward, because you simply have to concatenate strings. With LINQ to Entities, the situation is different. 4.1.4 Creating queries dynamically Because the user wants to search orders by many parameters, you need to retrieve whichever parameters are entered by the user and create the query dynamically. Once again, LINQ to Entities keeps it simple, much as with plain SQL. First, you create an instance of the ObjectQuery class. Then, you iterate over the filters and determine whether a filter needs to be applied. If a filter must be applied to the query, you con- catenate a new LINQ method to the ObjectQuery instance, reassigning the result to the same instance. At the end of the process, you’ll have a dynamic query like this. C# var date = DateTime.Today; string city = null; var result = ctx.Orders.AsQueryable(); if (date != DateTime.MinValue) result = result.Where(o => o.OrderDate < date); if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(city)) result = result.Where(o => o.ShippingAddress.City == city); VB Dim searchDate = DateTime.Today Dim city As String = Nothing Dim result = ctx.Orders.AsQueryable() If searchDate <> DateTime.MinValue Then result = result.Where(Function(o) o.OrderDate < searchDate) End If If String.IsNullOrEmpty(city) Then result = result.Where(Function(o) o.ShippingAddress.City = city) End If Because the query isn’t executed until data is requested, you can concatenate as many methods as you need. Naturally, this technique applies to all LINQ to Entities meth- ods, but it’s likely that you’ll use it only when applying filters. Listing 4.5 Applying filters dynamically 90 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities So far, all the queries you’ve created return full entities. If you think in database terminology, it’s similar to writing a SELECT * FROM statement. In our experience, you usually don’t need all the data exposed by an entity, but rather only a small subset. In the next section, we’ll discuss how to retrieve only the desired data. 4.2 Projecting results Our insatiable user is getting more demanding. So far, the user has been shown the grid with all properties related to each order. That’s no longer acceptable, because there’s too much data cluttering up the page. The user wants to see only order date and shipping address information. Extracting all the data for each order is a waste of resources, in this case, because you only need only some of the data. What you need is a projection of the order. Projecting is the process of shaping the output result so it’s different from the entity that’s being queried. The object containing the order date and the shipping address information is a projection of the Order entity. You already had a sneak peek at pro- jecting in listing 4.2 with the Select method. NOTE Projection isn’t an Entity Framework or LINQ to Entities term. It’s a general concept for the shaping of a result. For instance, in SQL a query like SELECT companyid, name FROM company is considered a projection. A projection can contain properties coming from a single entity as well as entities ref- erenced by navigation properties. Properties may be used to calculate new values that later are projected in the final result. The only limit to the possibilities of projections is your imagination (and business needs). LINQ to Entities has one method for projecting: Select. Let’s start with a simple query that returns the ID, the order date, and the shipping address of all orders: C# var result = from o in ctx.Orders select new { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.ShippingAddress }; VB Dim result = From o In ctx.Orders Select New With { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.ShippingAddress } The Select clause is where you specify the shape of the output objects. It accepts the list of properties that represent the projected object to be created. Notice how anony- mous types and type inferences shine in this query. The output result is a list of anon- ymous objects because the output type is created only at compile time. What’s more, you resort to the var keyword for C#, or Dim for VB, to declare the result variable. What you’re doing here is creating an anonymous object for each record retrieved from the database and placing it in a collection. The names of the properties are auto- matically inferred by the compiler, using the names of the original properties. In this case, the object will have the properties OrderId, OrderDate, and ShippingAddress. Despite the fact that the result is a list of anonymous types, Visual Studio is still able to offer autocompletion for the properties, and the compiler can still check that the query is correct. 91Projecting results The user isn’t happy yet. Now they want to see the address information in a single column of the grid, because they need to cut and paste it easily. Yes, this requirement should be handled by the interface code, but for the sake of this demonstration, let’s see how you can handle this requirement using LINQ to Entities. You can group several properties into a new property or even into a new nested anonymous type. The first option is what we need in this situation. C# from o in ctx.Orders select new { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, ShippingAddress = String.Format("{0}-{1}-{2}-{3}", o.ShippingAddress.Address, o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode o.ShippingAddress.Country) }; VB From o In ctx.Orders Select New With { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, .ShippingAddress = String.Format("{0}-{1}-{2}-{3}", o.ShippingAddress.Address, o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode o.ShippingAddress.Country) } This listing is slightly different from the first query in this section because the name of the property that combines all address-related properties (ShippingAddress) can’t be inferred automatically by the compiler due to its composed nature. Putting the name of the property before the expression allows you to assign an arbitrary name to the property. All properties names can be modified this way. As we said previously, you can create an anonymous type inside another anony- mous type. For instance, in the following listing you retrieve only the ID, the date, and the address and city of both billing and shipping addresses. C# from o in ctx.Orders select new { Anonymous type o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, Shipping = new Nested anonymous type { o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.Address } }; Listing 4.6 Grouping the shipping address information into a single property Listing 4.7 Nesting anonymous types to group properties 92 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities VB From o In ctx.Orders Select New With { Anonymous type o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, .Shipping = New With Nested anonymous type { o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.Address } } Like filtering, projections can involve more than one entity, because associated enti- ties can participate in projections too. In the next section, we’ll look at how this fea- ture works. 4.2.1 Projecting with associations So far, you’ve learned that associations are important not only for model expressive- ness, but even for Entity Framework, which uses them to simplify searches through LINQ to Entities. It’s not surprising that associations can participate in the projection mechanism too. There are almost no differences between projecting an association collection or a single association. In both cases, the syntax is similar to what you have seen already. PROJECTING WITH A SINGLE ASSOCIATION The user’s next requirement is to add customer information to the columns shown in the grid. The power of the Select method makes this easy. Projecting with single associations is easy because of its one-to-one nature. The associated class is an extension of the main class you’re querying, so creating a new object with the necessary properties from both classes is natural. As you can see, the following code retrieves projected orders and their customers: C# from o in ctx.Orders select new { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.ShippingAddress, o.Customer }; VB From o In ctx.Orders Select New With { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.Customer } Retrieving the full customer isn’t necessary, though, because all the user needs to see is the name. The following solution flattens the objects with associations into a single object with the necessary data. C# from o in ctx.Orders select new { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, Listing 4.8 Retrieving orders and customer information in a single object 93Projecting results o.ShippingAddress, o.Customer.Name }; VB From o In ctx.Orders Select New With { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.Customer.CompanyId, o.ShippingAddress, o.Customer.Name } In the real world, working with anonymous types can be painful. They can’t be exposed to the outer layers unless you expose them as an Object instance. In our experience, this isn’t practical, so you have to find another way to make the data available. One option is to iterate over the returned objects and then instantiate the entities, filling in only the properties extracted by the query; but this is a waste of code and runtime performance. The most natural fix for this problem would be to use object initializers to create an instance of a model entity, initializing only the properties you need. Unfortunately, that’s not allowed by Entity Framework, because only full instances of the model enti- ties can be created with LINQ to Entities (in section 4.2.2, we’ll discuss this caveat). The alternative that we strongly recommend is to create a data transfer object (DTO) and fill it with the projected data directly in the query, as shown here. C# public class OrderDTO Declares DTO { public int Id { get; set; } public DateTime OrderDate { get; set; } public AddressInfo ShippingAddress { get; set; } public string CustomerName { get; set; } } from o in ctx.Orders select new OrderDTO { Id = o.OrderId, Sets DTO properties OrderDate = o.OrderDate, ShippingAddress = o.ShippingAddress, CustomerName = o.Customer.Name }; VB Public Class OrderDTO Declares DTO Public Property Id() As Int32 Public Property OrderDate() As DateTime Public Property ShippingAddress() As AddressInfo Public Property CustomerName() As String End Class Listing 4.9 Retrieving orders and customer information in a DTO 94 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities From o In ctx.Orders Select New OrderDTO With { .Id = o.OrderId, Sets DTO properties .OrderDate = o.OrderDate, .ShippingAddress = o.ShippingAddress, .CustomerName = o.Customer.Name } The code is pretty simple. You define a new DTO class and then fill it instead of creat- ing an anonymous type. Now let’s take a look at how projecting with collection associations works. PROJECTING WITH COLLECTION ASSOCIATIONS The user again changes their specifications. Now the grid must also list the details for each order. This is a new challenge. Now you aren’t working with a single related entity but with a collection. Fortunately, the following snippet is all you need to fulfill the task: C# from o in ctx.Orders select new { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.ShippingAddress, o.OrderDetails }; VB From o In ctx.Orders Select New With { o.OrderId, o.ShippingAddress, o.OrderDetails } The result is an anonymous type with a scalar property (OrderId), a complex property (ShippingAddress), and a third property that contains order details. Naturally, the user doesn’t need the full order detail properties—only a subset of them. This means you have to perform a nested projection to retrieve only the desired properties from each detail. This may sound difficult, but it turns out to be pretty easy. C# from o in ctx.Orders select new { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.ShippingAddress, Details = from d in o.OrderDetails select new { d.OrderDetailId, d.Product.ProductId, d.Quantity } }; VB From o In ctx.Orders Select New With { o.OrderId, Listing 4.10 Retrieving projected orders and their projected details 95Projecting results o.OrderDate, o.ShippingAddress, .Details = From d In o.OrderDetails Select New With { d.OrderDetailId, d.Product.ProductId, d.Quantity } } On seeing the new version, the user decides that displaying all the details along with the containing order makes the grid unreadable. Now the user wants to see only the order total instead of all its details. This means the returned type can be a flat struc- ture again, because you no longer have a collection property. Let’s look at how you can retrieve a single column from the collection property. C# from o in ctx.Orders select new { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.ShippingAddress, Total = o.OrderDetails.Sum( d => d.Quantity * (d.UnitPrice - d.Discount)) }; VB From o In ctx.Orders Select New With { o.OrderId, o.ShippingAddress, .Total = o.OrderDetails.Sum(Function(d) d.Quantity * (d.UnitPrice - d.Discount)) } As you can see, projecting with collection associations isn’t very challenging. With a bit of practice, you can easily manage the methods you need. What’s even more interesting is that the association can be queried too. In listing 4.11, you use the Sum method to cal- culate the total amount of each order, but you could also filter the details or sort them. 4.2.2 Projections and object tracking When working with projected objects, you have to keep a couple of points in mind regarding the object-tracking mechanism you first saw in chapter 1 (and which we’ll return to in chapter 6):  Object Services doesn’t allow you to create model entities filling only some properties. You can’t use object initializers in a projection to set the properties of a model entity. Although it’s syntactically correct, the engine will throw a NotSupportedException at runtime with the message, “The entity or complex Listing 4.11 Retrieving projected orders and their total 96 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities type 'EntityType' cannot be constructed in a LINQ to Entities query.” This hap- pens because object tracking only tracks objects whose type implements the IEntityWithChangeTracker interface (automatically implemented by the proxy). If they aren’t fully loaded, it can’t correctly monitor changes and send them back to the database. That means this code is not valid: C# .Select(o => new Order { OrderId = o.OrderId }); VB .Select(Function(o) New Order With { .OrderId = o.OrderId }) The alternative is to use DTOs.  Object Services doesn’t track anonymous entities. Because the object tracker only tracks objects whose type implements IEntityWithChangeTracker, anonymous types are ignored. You should now have a clear understanding of the two main query building blocks: fil- tering and projecting. Another feature that’s often required is grouping. In the next section, we’ll look at how you can use the power of LINQ to Entities to perform such tasks. 4.3 Grouping data LINQ to Entities allows you to group data and create even projections with shaped data, as you’ve seen in previous examples. A model offers a first level of grouping for free. You often have to group orders based on the customer who placed them, and the domain model represents this grouping naturally, because every Customer object con- tains a list of its orders. When we talk about grouping, we’re referring to a different level, where you use a simple property as the key for a grouping. LINQ to Entities allows you to group data by using either query syntax or query methods. In VB, the syntax is Group By ... Into Group, where the ellipsis in the mid- dle contains the name of the grouping property. In C#, the query syntax uses the group ... by ... clause, where the first ellipsis is filled with the name of the variable declared in the from clause, and the second is filled with the grouping property. For example, suppose you had to return all orders grouped by shipping city. You could write the following query: C# from c in ctx.Orders group c by c.ShippingAddress.City; VB From c In ctx.Orders Group By c.ShippingAddress.City Into Group The result type is a bit complex, because it’s an object of type IEnumerable>. IGrouping is a special class with a key property—the shipping address value in this case—and a value property, which is an IEnumerable holding 97Grouping data all the objects that correspond to the key. For instance, if the key property value is Miami, the value property contains the order shipped to that city. Figure 4.2 summa- rizes the structure. Figure 4.2 The structure returned by a grouping query Iterating over this result requires a loop of all the keys and a nested loop that iter- ates over the values associated with the keys. C# foreach (var key in result) { Console.WriteLine(key.Key); foreach (var item in key) Console.WriteLine(item.OrderId); } VB For Each key In result Console.WriteLine(key.City) For Each item In key.Group Console.WriteLine(item.OrderId) Next Next By default, C# assigns the name Key to the key property, whereas VB uses the grouping property name. You can’t override this behavior, but by giving a name to the group and using projection, you can name the key and the value properties in any way you prefer. Naming the group requires different coding styles across languages. In VB, there’s no need to use the Select clause, because everything can be man- aged in the Group By clause. After this clause, you add the new name of the key prop- erty, followed by the equals (=) symbol and the grouping property. After the Into keyword, you put the name of the property that contains the entities that correspond to the key, followed by the = Group string. Listing 4.12 Iterating over the results of a grouping query 98 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities In C#, you need to modify the group by clause, adding the keyword into after the grouping key and stating the name of the group after that. Later, you have to add a select clause where you create a new anonymous type. It must contain the property for the key, with a different name if necessary, and the property that contains the enti- ties that correspond to the key. This can be renamed if you want; otherwise it will take the name of the group. Because the projection changes the way data is returned by the query, you have to adapt the iteration code to reflect this change. Here’s how all this theory works in practice. C# var result = from c in ctx.Orders group c by c.ShippingAddress.City into oGroup select new { CityName = oGroup.Key, Items = oGroup }; foreach (var key in result) { Console.WriteLine(key.CityName); foreach (var item in key.Items) Console.WriteLine(item.OrderId); } VB Dim result = From c In ctx.Orders Group By CityName = c.ShippingAddress.City Into Items = Group For Each key In result Console.WriteLine(key.CityName) For Each item In key.Items Console.WriteLine(item.OrderId) Next Next We’ve mentioned the grouping key, but we didn’t explain what a key can be. So far, you’ve used a single property, but that’s only one of the possibilities. Often, you’ll need to group data by multiple properties. For instance, you might want to group orders by shipping city and ZIP code, to better organize the shipments. Even in this case, there are differences between languages. In VB, you can insert a city and ZIP code separated by a comma, whereas in C# you have to use anonymous types to specify an object as a key and put the city and ZIP code into it. This is shown in the following listing. C# var result = from o in ctx.Orders group o by new { o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode Listing 4.13 Changing the names of grouped data Listing 4.14 Using multiple properties for grouping 99Grouping data }; foreach (var key in result) { Console.WriteLine(key.Key.City + "-" + key.Key.ZipCode); foreach (var item in key) Console.WriteLine(item.OrderId); } VB Dim result = From o In ctx.Orders Group By o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode Into Group For Each key In result Console.WriteLine(key.City & "-" & key.ZipCode) For Each item In key.Group Console.WriteLine(item.OrderId) Next Next Just as the key can be customized to reflect your needs, the grouped data can be pro- jected to save resources. You can invoke the Select method on the value list inside the Select method on the grouping, like this. C# from o in ctx.Orders group o by o.ShippingAddress.City into g select new { g.Key, Items = g.Select(og => new { og.OrderId, og.OrderDate }) }; VB From o In ctx.Orders Group By o.ShippingAddress.City Into g = Group Select New With { City, .items = g.Select(Function(og) New With { og.OrderId, og.OrderDate }) } The power of projection allows the grouped data to contain information from associ- ated entities, too. We won’t show you how to do this because it’s similar to what you saw in the section 4.2. LINQ to Entities allows you to filter data even after it’s been grouped. That’s our next topic. Listing 4.15 Projecting the grouped data 100 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities 4.3.1 Filtering aggregated data Filtering on aggregated data is the equivalent of using the HAVING clause in SQL. For example, you may want to search for orders grouped by city, where the total number of orders is higher than a given number. This can be achieved easily by using LINQ methods belonging to the aggregate family. C# from o in ctx.Orders group o by o.ShippingAddress.City into g where g.Count() > 2 select g; VB From o In ctx.Orders Group By o.ShippingAddress.City Into g = Group Where g.Count() > 2 The where clause after the grouping affects only the grouped data. If you need to fil- ter data before it’s grouped, you have to invoke the where before the grouping. Depending on where you place the where clause, the variables in the query can go out of scope. Let’s modify the example in listing 4.16. If you were to place the where before the group by clause, the o variable would be in scope, but the g variable wouldn’t be in scope because it’s not declared yet. In contrast, if you placed the where clause after the group by clause, the variable o would be out of scope and couldn’t be referenced, whereas g would be in scope and could be used. Now that you’re a master of filtering, projecting, and grouping, you’re ready to into another feature of LINQ to Entities: sorting. It’s one of the easiest tasks enabled by LINQ to Entities. The situation is a bit more complicated when associations are involved, but you should be comfortable enough with them now. 4.4 Sorting Our beta-testing user is back with requests for lots of new features. The first relates to the order in which results are shown. The user wants data to be sorted by the shipping city and ZIP code. You’ll be delighted to know that LINQ has an extension method that enables sort- ing by one or multiple properties; and it’s no surprise that LINQ to Entities provides its own implementation of this method, which translates into an ORDER BY SQL statement. Query syntax has the orderby clause in C# and Order By in VB. These clauses accepts the (comma-separated) properties on which the sorting operation is based. By default, the data is sorted in ascending order, but you can override this by adding the keyword descending for C# or Descending for VB after the sorting property. If you have multiple properties that need to be in descending order, you’ll have to add the keyword after each of them. As in SQL, although the ascending sorting order happens by default, you can still specify it using the keyword ascending for C# or Ascending for VB. Here’s an example. Listing 4.16 Grouping orders only for cities that have more than two orders 101Sorting C# from o in ctx.Orders orderby o.ShippingAddress.City select o; from o in ctx.Orders orderby o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode descending select o; VB From o In ctx.Orders Order By o.ShippingAddress.City From o In ctx.Orders Order By o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode Descending There’s little to discuss about sorting in a single class. It gets more interesting when you need to sort data by a property of an associated class. 4.4.1 Sorting with associations The user now wants to show the most valuable orders at the top of the grid. In this case, the sorting is based on an aggregated value instead of a simple field. Fortunately, this solution isn’t complicated. You already know all the basics. C# from o in ctx.Orders orderby o.OrderDetails.Sum( d => d.Quantity * (d.UnitPrice - d.Discount)) select new { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.ShippingAddress, Total = o.OrderDetails.Sum( d => d.Quantity * (d.UnitPrice - d.Discount)) }; VB From o In ctx.Orders Order By o.OrderDetails.Sum( Function(d) d.Quantity * (d.UnitPrice - d.Discount) ) Select New With { o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.ShippingAddress, .Total = o.OrderDetails.Sum(Function(d) d.Quantity * (d.UnitPrice - d.Discount)) } Listing 4.17 Sorting with single and multiple properties Listing 4.18 Sorting by an aggregated value of association 102 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities The result of this query is an IOrderedQueryable object. Because IOrdered- Queryable implements IEnumerable, it can be iterated using a foreach state- ment, a data-binding operation, or another enumeration mechanism. Associated data can be ordered too. The only way to perform such an operation is to use projections and create a property in the anonymous type that holds sorted data. For instance, you might want to retrieve orders and their details, sorted by quantity, to bind them to a grid. C# from o in ctx.Orders select new { o.OrderId, o.ShippingAddress.City, Details = o.OrderDetails.OrderBy(d => d.Quantity) }; VB From o in ctx.Orders Select New With { o.OrderId, o.ShippingAddress.City, .Details = o.OrderDetails.OrderBy(Function(d) d.Quantity) } When it comes to single associations, the solution is even simpler, because no aggrega- tion must be performed—you can use an external property as if it were a property of the queried class. That’s what the next snippet shows, retrieving orders sorted by the city of their customer: C# from o in ctx.Orders orderby o.Customer.ShippingAddress.City select o; VB From o in ctx.Orders Order By o.Customer.ShippingAddress.City We mentioned that the SQL generator uses mapping information to handle joins between tables when associated entities are involved in a query. There are situations when foreign keys aren’t enough to join tables, and other columns must be used. In this situation, you have to handle joins manually, overriding the default behavior. In the next section, we’ll cover this topic. 4.5 Joining data When you write queries that span multiple associated tables, these joins are automati- cally handled by the SQL generator, and you don’t have to worry about them. But Listing 4.19 Retrieving projected orders and details ordered by quantity 103Joining data there are situations where a relationship between properties exists, but it can’t be rep- resented using foreign keys. In such cases, you can use the join clause. We have never found a situation where we had to resort to a join. The navigable nature of the model and the query capabilities of LINQ to Entities make joins almost useless. NOTE In his blog, a program manager on the Entity SQL team affirmed the following: “A well defined query against a well defined entity data model doesn’t need JOIN. Navigation properties in combination with nesting sub-queries should be used instead. These latter constructs repre- sent task requirements much more closely than JOIN does. That makes it easier to build and maintain correct Entity SQL queries.” This statement was intended for Entity SQL, but it’s valid for LINQ to Entities as well. You can find Zlatko Michailov’s original post, “Entity SQL Tip #1,” at http:// mng.bz/4k7j. Let’s look at a practical example showing how unimportant manual joins are. Assume you have to find orders where the shipping city is the same as the city set in the cus- tomer profile. In the SQL world, you would join the Order and Company tables using the CompanyId and ShippingCity columns. In the LINQ to Entities world, the approach remains the same because when you’re manually joining objects, the SQL generator ignores the relationships between classes. You can write queries like these. C# from o in ctx.Orders join c in ctx.Companies Join by single property B on o.ShippingAddress.City equals c.ShippingAddress.City select o; from o in ctx.Orders join c in ctx.Companies.OfType() Join by multiple properties C on new { o.ShippingAddress.City, o.Customer.CompanyId } equals new { c.ShippingAddress.City, c.CompanyId } select o; VB From o In ctx.Orders Join c In ctx.Companies.OfType(Of Customer) Join by single property B On o.ShippingAddress.City Equals c.ShippingAddress.City Select o From o In ctx.Orders Join c In ctx.Companies.OfType(Of Customer) Join by multiple properties C On New With { o.ShippingAddress.City, o.Customer.CompanyId } Equals New With { c. ShippingAddress.City, c.CompanyId } Select o In the preceding listing, you see that there’s little difference between joins that involve a single property B and those that involve more C. In the first case, you put Listing 4.20 Writing queries that use joins 104 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities property names where required, and in the second you have to create an anonymous type and put all join properties into it. NOTE The preceding code uses the OfType method. It is a LINQ method that in this example is required to ensure that the orders are joined with customers only. You’ll learn more about this method in the next section. The queries in listing 4.20 work correctly, but the join can be easily avoided by using a where clause. This requires you to write less code and consequently keeps it simple and readable: C# from o in ctx.Orders where o.Customer.ShippingAddress.City == o.ShippingAddress.City select o; VB From o in ctx.Orders Where o.Customer.ShippingAddress.City = o.ShippingAddress.City We aren’t saying that joins must never be used, but a well-designed model only requires them to be applied in particular cases that must always be evaluated. The example in listing 4.20 returns orders only if the customer data corresponds to filters expressed in the join clause. In particular cases, though, you may need to return orders even if the customer data doesn’t correspond to filters expressed in the join clause. To achieve this result using SQL, you use an OUTER JOIN, but in LINQ to Entities you have to resort to a group join like the one in the following listing. C# from o in ctx.Orders join c in ctx.Companies.OfType() on new { o.ShippingAddress.City, o.Customer.CompanyId } equals new { c.ShippingAddress.City, c.CompanyId } into g from item in g.DefaultIfEmpty() select o; VB From o In ctx.Orders Group Join c In ctx.Companies.OfType(Of Customer)() On New With _ {.City = o.ShippingAddress.City, .CustomerId = o.Customer.CompanyId} _ Equals New With _ {.City = c.ShippingAddress.City, .CustomerId = c.CompanyId} _ Into g = Group From item In g.DefaultIfEmpty() Select o Real-world models use inheritance, and OrderIT is no exception. The customer/sup- plier and product scenarios rely heavily on this feature. Querying with inheritance is full Listing 4.21 Performing a group join to simulate SQL OUTER JOIN clause 105Querying with inheritance of intricacies, but once again LINQ to Entities comes to the rescue. It’s not always easy, but when you have learned how to avoid the pitfalls, you’ll be ready to jump this hurdle. 4.6 Querying with inheritance Inheritance introduces the concept of the polymorphic query. This type of query consid- ers the inheritance hierarchy and returns objects that might be of different types but that inherit from the same base class. Suppose you want to retrieve all products. What you receive from a polymorphic query is a list of Product objects, but the concrete types are Shirt or Shoe because the engine instantiates the correct type automatically. Not only do you get the correct type automatically, but you can even apply filters based upon the type. For instance, you can retrieve only shoes or only shirts. Our beloved beta-testing user is finally happy about the way OrderIT shows orders. Now the user wants to concentrate on products. At first, they want to see all the prod- ucts in a single page. This is trivial: C# from p in ctx.Products select p; VB From p In ctx.Products The result of this snippet is a list of Product objects, but the real types are one of its concrete inherited classes. This is clearly visible in figure 4.3. Figure 4.3 Seven products: five of type Shirt and two of type Shoe Next, the user wants to apply a filter based on the type of product. LINQ offers two ways of specifying a type: the type equality operator (is for C#; TypeOf for VB) and the OfType method. There is an important difference between these approaches. The equality operator performs a filtering operation, whereas the OfType method not only filters, but also casts the result to the searched-for type. The following listing makes it clear. C# IEnumerable products = from p in ctx.Products where p is Shoe select p; Listing 4.22 Filtering products by type 106 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities IEnumerable shoes = from p in ctx.Products.OfType() select p; VB Dim products As IEnumerable(Of Product) = From p in ctx.Products Where TypeOf p is Shoe Dim shoes As IEnumerable(Of Shoe) = From p in ctx.Products. OfType(Of Shoe)() Due to this subtle difference, choosing between the methods isn’t a matter of personal taste. Suppose you have several product types, and you need to find only shoes and shirts. In this case, using OfType is possible, but it’s complicated because you have to merge two queries that retrieve different objects. Before merging the results, you have to cast their inner objects to the Product base class. In contrast, the equality operator doesn’t alter the final result, so you don’t need to do any extra work after the filter. In other scenarios, you may want to search only for products of a specific type. In this case, using the OfType method is the best way to go. Filtering on properties of the base class can be done the same way. The user now wants to filter on data of an inherited type. For example, the user needs all shoes whose Sport property contains Basket. This is another scenario where OfType works like a charm. Because OfType casts the data, the where method (which is put after the OfType method in the query) already knows that the output type is Shoe, so the search is pretty simple: C# from p in ctx.Products.OfType() where p.Sport == "Basket" select p; VB From p In ctx.Products.OfType(Of Shoe)() Where p.Sport = "Basket But what if you want to find all “basket” shoes but have them returned as a list of Product objects? In this case, the preceding code doesn’t work because it returns a list of Shoe objects. You have two solutions: use the LINQ Cast method, which casts the items back to Product, or cast the object in the Where clause to the desired type and apply the filter. With the second option, you can’t use explicit casting—that would cause a runtime exception. You have to resort to a soft-casting operator like as for C# and TryCast for VB. C# from p in ctx.Products Scans all products B where (p as Shoe).Sport == "Basket" select p; Listing 4.23 Filtering products by type and data, and returning them as base types 107Using functions (from p in ctx.Products.OfType() Scans only shoes C where p.Sport == "Basket" select p) .Cast(); VB From p In ctx.Products Scans all products B Where TryCast(p, Shoe).Sport = "Basket" (From p In ctx.Products.OfType(Of Shoe)() Scans only shoes C Where p.Sport = "Basket"). Cast(Of Product) In the first option B, the desired type is Product, so all products are scanned and only the “basket” shoes are returned. The same path is followed by the generated SQL: it scans all Product, Shoe, and Shirt tables and uses a select case SQL clause to iden- tify whether a row is about a shoe or a shirt, wasting lots of resources because you don’t need to fetch data from the Shirt table. (The select case syntax is valid for SQL only; other databases will use a different syntax.) In the second option C, because it’s immediately stated that the desired type is Shoe, the generated SQL uses only the Product and Shoe tables, optimizing the per- formance of the query. Unless you have a strong motivation to use the casting in the where, always prefer the OfType method. There is another performance caveat to keep in mind when querying hierarchies persisted via table per type (TPT). Consider the following query: C# from p in ctx.Products select p.Name; VB From p In ctx.Products Select p.Name The only column involved is Name, which is in the Product table. What you’d proba- bly expect is that the generated SQL only queries that table. Well, it’s not like that. The SQL performs an outer join with all tables involved in the hierarchy (Shirt and Shoe), even if doing so is completely useless. This is the sort of case where a stored procedure is the best way to go. So far, you’ve used standard LINQ methods. They’re powerful, but they don’t cover all the querying possibilities. LINQ to Entities allows you to potentially apply any CLR method, but the SQL translation engine doesn’t understand everything. What’s more, you might have a database function or custom functions that would be useful in LINQ to Entities queries, but there’s no way to use these functions. This is where the new Entity Framework 4.0 functions feature comes into play. 4.7 Using functions Functions are a convenient way to extend the capabilities of LINQ to Entities queries. Four types of functions can be applied: 108 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities  Canonical functions —A set of predefined functions that expose functionalities not natively available in LINQ to Entities  Database functions —A set of predefined SQL Server–only functions  Model defined functions —User-defined Entity SQL functions stored in the EDM  Custom database functions —User-defined database functions that can be used in queries In this section, we’ll only cover the canonical and SQL database functions because they can be used easily. The other two options deserve more explanation and require a deeper knowledge of Entity Framework. They will be discussed in chapter 11. 4.7.1 Canonical functions Canonical functions are utility methods that express an operation on the database. For instance, there are functions that perform math algorithms, date comparisons, and so on. In Entity Framework v1.0, canonical functions could only be executed in Entity SQL queries, but now they’ve been wrapped in conveniently marked CLR methods that can be invoked by LINQ to Entities. This change has widened LINQ to Entities’ capabilities by reusing existing features. Let’s look at an example. Our user has decided they want a list of orders that have taken more than five days to ship. This is pretty easy using a LINQ query: C# from o in ctx.Orders where o.OrderDate.AddDays(5) < o.ActualShippingDate select o; VB From o In ctx.Orders Where o.OrderDate.AddDays(5) < o.ActualShippingDate The query compiles, but at runtime you get an exception because the translation engine isn’t able to translate the AddDays method into the appropriate SQL. Canonical functions cover this hole by introducing the DiffDays method, which accepts the two dates as arguments and returns the number of days difference between them. This method, and all others that are part of the canonical function family, is exposed via the EntityFunctions class in the namespace System.Data. Objects, as shown here: C# from o in ctx.Orders where EntityFunctions.DiffDays(o.OrderDate, o.ActualShippingDate) > 5 select o; VB From o In ctx.Orders Where EntityFunctions.DiffDays(o.OrderDate, o.ActualShippingDate) > 5 Another example where canonical functions help is with mathematical functions. Rounding off a number, rounding to the next upper or lower integer, and elevat- ing a number to the nth power are all operations that can be performed using the 109Using functions methods in the System.Math class. Like the DateTime methods, the Math methods aren’t supported by the SQL translation engine, which raises an exception at run- time. The alternative is using the methods Pow, Round, Ceiling, and Floor in the EntityFunctions class. Such functions can obviously be invoked anywhere in a query, and not only in a where clause. For instance, you can use the Abs function to extract the absolute value of a number in the select clause. Canonical functions are Entity SQL database-agnostic functions. But in many cases, tying your code to a specific database isn’t a problem, because you know you’ll never change. Should this be the case, you can invoke database-specific functions to make the best use of a platform. 4.7.2 Database functions Each database has its own set of functions. Some of them are common across different RDBMSs like ABS, LTrim, RTrim, and can be invoked via LINQ to Entities or entity functions. Other functions are peculiar to each database or have different signatures. Fortunately, you can invoke these sorts of functions too. Entity Framework ships with a bunch of SQL Server–specific functions exposed by the SqlFunctions class under the namespace System.Data.Objects.SqlClient. Checksum, CharIndex, Cos, GetDate, and Rand are examples of available functions. Apart from the fact that the canonical and database functions belong to different classes, there’s no difference between using these two types of functions. They’re invoked as static methods and can be invoked in all sections of a query. The following code demonstrates this by using a database function to display orders that took more than five days to ship: C# from o in ctx.Orders where SqlFunctions.DateDiff("d", o.OrderDate, o.ActualShippingDate) > 5 select o; VB From o In ctx.Orders Where SqlFunctions.DateDiff("d", o.OrderDate, o.ActualShippingDate) > 5 NOTE You can write your own custom functions and reuse them in que- ries. This will be covered in chapter 11. By using database functions, you tie your code to a specific database (SQL Server in this example). That isn’t always a good idea, because if you ever have to change data- bases, you’ll have to change your code. But if you know you won’t ever change the database that the application uses, you can use database functions without any prob- lems. Always consider carefully whether you should use these functions or not. Using database-specific functions is one of the two ways you can tie your code to a database platform. The other option is embedding SQL queries in the code. Even if SQL is a standard language, queries often rely on database specific features, so you end up tying your code to a specific database. 110 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities 4.8 Executing handmade queries There are several reasons you could decide to manually write a query. Perhaps the SQL generated by the Entity Framework is too slow, or it takes too many resources to execute. Another case may be when you have to dynamically generate a query that is so complex that creating the SQL code is easier than using LINQ to Entities. In such situations, you can create an SQL command on your own and use the ObjectContext class’s ExecuteStoreQuery method. It allows you to issue an arbi- trary query and map the result to a class. Its usage is shown here: C# var details = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery ("Select * from OrderDetail"); VB Dim details = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery(Of OrderDetail) ("Select * from OrderDetail") It’s that easy. The query is executed and col- umns are automatically mapped to the entity. The mapping phase has a subtle caveat: it bypasses the EDM and uses another mechanism based on a property-column name match. This behavior is expressed in figure 4.4. The extreme simplicity of this mapping solution has some limitations:  If a property is named differently from the corresponding column, the map- ping isn’t performed and an exception is thrown. You can easily solve this prob- lem by renaming the column in a query with the AS SQL clause.  You can’t map entities with complex properties because there’s no way to match the name of a column with the name of a property inside a complex property. Naturally, you can map the returning data to any type of class, and not only to those defined in the EDM. Suppose you created a class with the Quantity, UnitPrice, and Discount properties and called it OrderDetailProjection. You could write a query that extracts Quantity, UnitPrice, and Discount columns from the OrderDetail table and maps the result to OrderDetailProjection. In the end, it’s a handmade projec- tion, as this listing clearly shows. C# public class OrderDetailProjection { public int Quantity { get; set; } public decimal UnitPrice { get; set; } public decimal Discount { get; set; } } Listing 4.24 Projecting the OrderDetail OrderDetailld OrderId ProductID Quanty UnitPrice Discount OrderDetailResultset OrderDetailld OrderId ProductID Quanty Unit Price Discount Figure 4.4 ExecuteStoreQuery performs a mapping based on the column name. 111Executing handmade queries var details = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery ("Select quantity, unitprice, discount from OrderDetail"); VB Public Class OrderDetailProjection Public Property Quantity As Integer Public Property UnitPrice As Decimal Public Property Discount As Decimal End Class Dim details = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery(Of OrderDetailProjection)( "Select quantity, unitprice, discount from OrderDetail") Always keep in mind the projection option. It turns out to be useful sometimes. NOTE Through ExecuteStoreQuery, you can launch a stored proce- dure too. We recommend not using this option, because Entity Frame- work natively supports stored procedures, and it offers a few more options regarding mapping than ExecuteStoreQuery offers. If the query takes some parameters (and what query doesn’t?), you can use the over- load of the ExecuteStoreQuery method, which accepts a list of parameters. This can be tricky, so let’s take a closer look. 4.8.1 Working with parameters When the Entity Framework team designed how parameters would be passed, there were plenty of options. The team narrowed the options, and the result is that now you have two ways of working with parameters:  Using a numbered list, as in the String.Format method  Using ADO.NET syntax Let’s investigate both options in detail. USING NUMBERED LISTS This is the easiest method. In the SQL query, you surround a number with curly brack- ets where the parameter should be. After that, you pass the parameters in the second argument of the method. The parameters can be either simple values or instances of the DbParameter class. Here are some recommendations to keep in mind:  If you use a DbParameter instance, you have to use the concrete type dedicated to the database provider. For instance, you must use SqlParameter for SQL Server and OleDbParameter for OLE DB. If you use another instance, you’ll get an InvalidCastException at runtime.  If you have multiple parameters, you can’t mix DbParameter instances and plain values. You have to choose one or the other; otherwise, you’ll get an Invalid- OperationException at runtime.  If you use simple values as parameters, they must be passed in the same order as they appear in the query. 112 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities This listing demonstrates all these methods. C# var names = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery Pass parameters as simple values ("SELECT name FROM company ➥ WHERE shippingcity = {0} and billingcity = {1}", "New York", "Seattle"); var p0 = new SqlParameter("p0", DbType.String) Pass parameters using SqlParameter { Value = "New York" }; var p1 = new SqlParameter("p1", DbType.String) { Value = "Seattle" }; var names = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery ("SELECT name FROM company ➥ WHERE shippingcity = {0} ➥ and billingcity = {1}", p0, p1); VB Dim names = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery(Of String)( Pass parameters as simple values "SELECT name FROM company ➥ WHERE shippingcity = {0} and billingcity = {1}", "New York", "Seattle") Dim p0 = New SqlParameter("p0", DbType.String) _ Pass parameters using SqlParameter With {.Value = "New York"} Dim p1 = New SqlParameter("p1", DbType.String) _ With {.Value = "Seattle"} Dim names = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery(Of String)( "SELECT name FROM company ➥ WHERE shippingcity = {0} ➥ and billingcity = {1}", p0, p1) As you can see, there’s nothing particularly difficult here. Just pay attention to the pit- falls we mentioned. NOTE Even if this syntax may lead you to think that you can be affected by a SQL injection attack, that’s absolutely not the case. Parameters are always passed to the database as safe. Now, let’s move on and talk about using classic parameters. USING CLASSIC PARAMETERS When you write queries through classic ADO.NET, you’re used to writing something like this to express parameters: SELECT * FROM table WHERE id = @id That syntax is valid for the SQL Server provider. If you’re using the OLE DB provider, you use a question mark (?) character instead of the @paramname. This approach is still perfectly valid using the ExecuteStoreQuery method. Instead of the number surrounded by curly brackets, you put the parameter. All the Listing 4.25 Passing query parameters using a numbered list 113Fetching rest remains exactly the same. The values of the parameters can still be passed as sim- ple values or as parameters, and they have the same restrictions you saw in the previ- ous section. This listing shows all the possibilities. C# var names = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery Pass parameters as simple values ("SELECT name FROM company ➥ WHERE shippingcity = @p0 and billingcity = @p1", "New York", "Seattle"); var p0 = new SqlParameter("p0", DbType.String) Pass parameters using SqlParameter { Value = "New York" }; var p1 = new SqlParameter("p1", DbType.String) { Value = "Seattle" }; var names = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery ("SELECT name FROM company ➥ WHERE shippingcity = @p0 ➥ and billingcity = @p1", p0, p1); VB Dim names = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery(Of String)( Pass parameters as simple values "SELECT name FROM company ➥ WHERE shippingcity = @p0 and billingcity = @p1", "New York", "Seattle") Dim p0 = New SqlParameter("p0", DbType.String) _ Pass parameters using SqlParameter With {.Value = "New York"} Dim p1 = New SqlParameter("p1", DbType.String) _ With {.Value = "Seattle"} Dim names = ctx.ExecuteStoreQuery(Of String)( "SELECT name FROM company ➥ WHERE shippingcity = @p0 ➥ and billingcity = @p1", p0, p1) If you compare this code with that in listing 4.25, you’ll see that only the parameter declaration in SQL code changes. The rest remains identical, meaning that there’s nothing more to learn. So far, we’ve covered how to write powerful queries. Now let’s see things from another perspective: how many related entities do you have to query? Should you retrieve related entities immediately, or only when needed by the code? This is clearly a fetching problem, and it’s almost independent of whatever queries you write. 4.9 Fetching We’ve already discussed the fetching mechanism in chapter 1, and you saw it in action in chapter 2. To make the terminology clear, eager loading refers to loading entities and their associated data in a single query, whereas lazy loading refers to the automatic loading of associated entities when they’re used in the code. Listing 4.26 Passing query parameters using a numbered list 114 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities NOTE Fetching isn’t a LINQ to Entities–related task, but it fits in natu- rally when talking about querying. Eager loading is often the most performant method for retrieving data. Although it retrieves lots of data from the database, it hits the database only once, avoiding the chatty communications that are a prerogative of lazy loading. 4.9.1 Eager loading Eager loading is enabled via a special method of the ObjectQuery class: Include. This method accepts a string representing the navigation properties to be loaded. This string is referred to as the navigation path because it allows you to load an entire graph of related objects, and not only the properties associated with the one you’re querying. Let’s start with the simplest example: an order with its details: C# from o in ctx.Orders.Include("OrderDetails") select o; VB From o In ctx.Orders.Include("OrderDetails") OrderDetails is a property of the Order class that’s being queried here. As we said, the string parameter of Include is a path by which you can load an entire graph of properties. This turns out to be useful when you want to retrieve orders plus data about the details and even the products related to each of them. You simply build a path, separating the properties with a dot (.): Include("OrderDetail.Product") The Include method returns an ObjectQuery instance, meaning that it can be chained with other calls to the Include method and LINQ to Entities methods. The next snippet loads the orders and their details and chains another Include to load the customer too: C# from o in ctx.Orders.Include("OrderDetails.Product").Include("Customer") select o; VB From o In ctx.Orders.Include("OrderDetails.Product").Include("Customer") This query requires a noticeable amount of time to execute, and it returns to the application a huge amount of repeated data (because of the JOIN it generates in SQL code). There’s no need to show the SQL here to make you understand how complex it is. Naturally, the more related entities you prefetch, and the more complex the query becomes, the more time it takes to execute and the more data is moved across the network. NOTE You saw that the Include method can be chained with any method you have seen so far. We strongly recommend that you place Include at 115Fetching the beginning of the query for two main reasons. The first is that placing the fetching strategy at the beginning makes queries more intuitive. The second one is more technical: Include belongs to the ObjectQuery class, whereas LINQ extension methods return IEnumerable. This means that after you’ve applied a LINQ method, you can no longer use Include unless you cast the IEnumerable back to ObjectQuery. What data is loaded for a one-to-many association, and how is this data shaped? The first answer is that all the associated data is retrieved. If you eager-load the details of an order, you have no way of filtering them. LINQ to Entities allows you to apply condi- tions on eager-loaded data, but they’re ignored. As for the how, data can’t be either sorted or projected. If you need to apply any modification to the associated data, you have to resort to projecting the entire query, as we discussed in section 4.2. NOTE Include is translated to a SQL OUTER JOIN clause. Suppose you need orders and details. If an order doesn’t have any details, you’ll always get that order. This is correct behavior, because what you’re looking for are orders. When retrieving the data in a single round trip is too heavy, you can try obtaining them only when the code effectively uses them. This is what lazy loading does. 4.9.2 Lazy loading To lazy-load an associated entity or list of entities, you don’t have to learn anything new. You can obtain the related entities by accessing the navigation properties. Suppose you’ve retrieved all the orders and need to cycle between the details. If you haven’t prefetched them, you can access them by iterating over the OrderDetails property. The situation is the same when you’re accessing navigation properties that refer to a single entity. For instance, if you want to retrieve the customer information, you can access the Customer property, and magically you have your data, as shown here. C# foreach(var order in ctx.Orders) { Console.WriteLine(order.Id + " " + order.Customer.Name); foreach(var detail in order.OrderDetails) { Console.WriteLine(detail.Id + " " + detail.Quantity); } } VB For Each order in ctx.Orders Console.WriteLine(order.Id & " " & order.Customer.Name) For Each detail in order.OrderDetails Listing 4.27 Customer and details retrieved on demand 116 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities Console.WriteLine(detail.Id & " " & detail.Quantity) Next Next NOTE Lazy loading is enabled by default. You can switch it off by setting the ContextOptions.LazyLoadingEnabled context property to true. More important, the entity must be attached to a context when the lazy loading is performed. If you access an entity’s navigation property and the entity is outside the scope of the context that generated the entity, you’ll get an InvalidOperationException. How can a simple access of a property getter trigger a query? If you watch the code of the property, there’s no trace of such a feature, so how does it happen? Do you remem- ber the discussion of proxies in section 3.2.7? That’s the answer to these questions. When the context creates the proxy class, it detects all properties that navigate to another entity. For each of them, if they’re marked as virtual for C# or Overridable for VB, the context overrides the getter, injecting the code necessary to perform a query to the database to retrieve data. If the property can’t be overridden, the proxy can’t inject the code, and lazy loading isn’t active. Naturally, if you turn off proxy gen- eration, the plain class is returned, and there’s no proxy ... no lazy loading ... no party. Figure 4.5 shows a simplification of the code for lazy loading inside a proxy. public class Order { public virtual ICollecon OrderDetails { get; } } public class ProxyOrder : Order { public override ICollecon OrderDetails { get { RetrieveFromDatabase(); return base.ActualShippingDate; } } Figure 4.5 How the proxy overrides the code of a property that navigates to another entity Lazy loading is useful, but there are cases where you can’t rely on it because you may have either disabled proxy generation or you may be outside of the context. Don’t despair. Entity Framework can still help. 4.9.3 Manual deferred loading Manual deferred loading is a way to dynamically retrieve a property without using lazy loading. This feature is enabled by the LoadProperty method of the object context, and it comes with two flavors: generic and nongeneric. The generic version accepts the entity type whose property must be retrieved on the database as a generic argument, and then the object plus a lambda expression that states what property must be loaded: 117Fetching C# void LoadProperty(T entity, Expression> selector); VB Sub LoadProperty(Of T)(ByVal entity As T, ByVal selector As Expression(Of Func(Of T, Object))) The nongeneric version accepts two arguments. The first one is the entity, and the sec- ond is the property to be loaded: C# void LoadProperty(object entity, string navigationProperty) VB Sub LoadProperty(ByVal entity As Object, ByVal navigationProperty As String) The following listing manually loads the details for each order. C# //Generic retrieval ctx.LoadProperty(order, o => o.OrderDetails); //Non generic retrieval ctx.LoadProperty(order, "OrderDetails") VB 'Generic retrieval ctx.LoadProperty(Of Order)(order, o => o.OrderDetails) 'Non generic retrieval ctx.LoadProperty(order, "OrderDetails") In order for LoadProperty to work, the main entity must be attached to the context. If you’re outside of a context, you can create a new one, attach the entity, and then load the property. In a layered architecture, you can place such a method in the infrastructure so that data access remains encapsulated. Here’s an example. C# public void LoadProperty(T entity, Expression> selector) where T : class { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { ctx.CreateObjectSet().Attach(entity); ctx.LoadProperty(entity, selector); } } Listing 4.28 Manually retrieving the customer and details Listing 4.29 Generic method that manually retrieves a property of an entity 118 CHAPTER 4 Querying with LINQ to Entities VB Public Sub LoadProperty(Of T As Class)(ByVal entity As T, ByVal selector As Expression(Of Func(Of T, Object))) Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() ctx.CreateObjectSet(Of T)().Attach(entity) ctx.LoadProperty(Of T)(entity, selector) End Using End Sub That’s all you need to know about fetching with Entity Framework. 4.9.4 Choosing a loading approach Choosing the correct loading strategy makes a great difference in an application. Often, applications are developed without keeping this in mind, and you end up gen- erating enormous queries to prefetch all data or plenty of little queries to retrieve associated data at runtime. The second case is the most dangerous. We’ve seen applications where only the main entity was retrieved, and all associations were loaded at runtime. Everything worked because of the transparent lazy loading, but performance was at least poor, if not disastrous. Generally speaking, eager loading is better. But you may find situations where you have to load associated entities only in certain circumstances. For instance, you may want to load the details only for orders of the last seven days. In this case, loading the details on demand may be a good choice. What’s worse, SQL generated by eager load- ing doesn’t always perform well. In some cases, the Entity Framework–generated SQL contains useless OUTER JOIN commands or retrieves more columns than required. Determining the correct fetching strategy is a matter of testing and case-by-case analysis. There isn’t a simple bulletproof technique. 4.10 Summary In this chapter, you’ve learned all about the query capabilities of Entity Framework using LINQ to Entities. This LINQ dialect brings the expressiveness and power of the object-oriented world to the database querying mechanism in a very transparent way. You have learned how to use LINQ to Entities to perform all of the important oper- ations that you would usually perform in SQL. Projecting, filtering, sorting, grouping, and joining are all features that LINQ to Entities simplifies as no other framework has done in the past. What’s more, you have seen how to combine these features to create complex queries that in SQL would require many, many lines of code and a heavy test- ing phase. We also looked at fetching, which is an important feature. You have seen in prac- tice how to prefetch and how to fetch on demand data from an associated entity. This is vital when tweaking performance. You have now learned how to create a model, map it against a database, and query it. What you haven’t seen yet is the EDM structure. You know it contains mapping information, but that’s all. In the next chapter, we’ll examine it in depth. 119 Domain model mapping So far, you’ve learned how to create an application from scratch, defining a model, mapping it to the database, and performing queries on it. We also looked at creat- ing and mapping classes using the Visual Studio designer, which hides a lot of com- plexity, making your life easier. But a strong knowledge of the Entity Data Model and the code in the model classes is fundamental to mastering Entity Framework. In this chapter, we’ll dig deep into both subjects so that you’ll be able to completely understand this aspect of Entity Framework. This chapter covers the mapping of tables or views to entities. Other features, like stored procedures and function map- pings, will be discussed in later chapters. We’ll first look at the Entity Data Model, its concepts, and Microsoft’s vision about its future. After that, we’ll discuss how to create entities and map them. You’ll learn how to write an entity from scratch and create the three mapping files that This chapter covers  Introducing the Entity Data Model  Creating Entity Framework domain model classes  Describing classes  Describing database  Mapping classes to database 120 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping allow you to map it to the database. You’ll see how Entity Framework 4.0 supports POCO (plain old CLR objects) entities and how this positively affects classes. Once classes and their mapping are clear to you, we’ll create the association between them and describe everything in the Entity Data Model. You’ll finally learn how to create an inheritance hierarchy and how to reflect it into the Entity Data Model. By the end of this chapter, you’ll have the knowledge to manually modify the map- ping files where needed (because the designer isn’t all-powerful). When we talk about designer customization later, in chapter 13, this knowledge will help you a lot. Let’s start by discussing what the Entity Data Model is and how it’s made. 5.1 The Entity Data Model The Entity Data Model (EDM) is the heart of the Entity Framework. Essentially, Entity Framework is a tool that decouples the object model from the database by creating an abstraction layer between them. You develop an application that works with Entity Framework, which in turn works with the database. This means the application works only with the object model classes, ignoring the database. It’s the EDM that makes this decoupling possible. You already know that the EDM is split into three sections:  Conceptual schema (CSDL)—Describes the object model. Classes and their rela- tionships have their counterparts in this section.  Storage schema (SSDL)—Describes the database structure. Tables, views, and even stored procedures and functions are put into this section.  Mapping schema (MSL)—Maps the CSDL and SSDL. Each class is mapped to one or more tables, and each property has a corresponding column. The object model is the reflection of the CSDL, and they must be in sync. (Well, that’s not completely true. You can create properties in your object model class and avoid mapping them. They will be ignored by Entity Framework and won’t cause any problem.) Now, you’re probably wondering at least two things:  Where is the EDM?  Is there any relationship between the EDM and the EDMX file used by the Visual Studio designer? These questions will both be answered in the next section. 5.1.1 The Entity Data Model and Visual Studio designer When you double-click the EDMX file in the Solution Explorer, Visual Studio opens the designer, showing entities. But to discover the relationship between the EDM and EDMX files, let’s follow another path. Right-click the EDMX file and select the Open With option, as shown in figure 5.1. The designer opens the dialog box shown in figure 5.2. Select the XML (Text) Edi- tor option, and click OK. Figure 5.1 The context menu displayed when you right-click the EDMX file Figure 5.2 The Open With dialog box lets you open the EDMX file as an XML file instead of showing the designer. 121The Entity Data Model Visual Studio will open a new window displaying an XML file that looks a lot like the EDM. (Note that if the designer is already open, you’ll be prompted about that. Click Yes to close the designer and open the new window.) The EDMX file contains the three EDM files plus other information used by the designer, like the positions of the objects on the canvas, the zoom, the scroll position, and so on. 122 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping NOTE The fact that EDM and designer data are mixed causes problems when working in teams. If one person works on the Customer and Supplier classes, he probably optimizes his view of the designer to see those entities. Someone else who works on the products will optimize her view for those classes. Each time the EDMX is checked in, it overrides the previous view. This problem will be solved in the future, using separate files: one for the EDM, shared by everyone; and one for the designer data, which can be kept out of source control. You can see the collapsed EDMX file in figure 5.3. Figure 5.3 A collapsed view of the EDMX file. The Runtime section contains the EDM, and the Designer section contains the designer- related information. The EDM is under the edmx:Edmx/edmx:Runtime path. Inside it, you can see the storage, conceptual, and mapping schemas. The designer-related information is stored in the edmx:Edmx/edmx:Designer path. For our discussion, the designer info isn’t important, so we’ll ignore it. The EDMX file is an artifact —it’s necessary to create the designer in Visual Studio. Entity Framework isn’t interested at all in the EDMX file—it can’t even parse it. Entity Framework only understands mapping files when they’re split into three: one for the conceptual schema (*.csdl), one for the storage schema (*.ssdl), and one for the map- ping schema (*.msl). If you look at the metadata attribute of the connection string, you’ll see a refer- ence to the three mapping files: metadata=res://*/OrderIT.csdl|res://*/OrderIT.ssdl|res://*/OrderIT.msl metadata=c:\OrderIT.csdl|c:\OrderIT.ssdl|c:\OrderIT.msl The EDMX file contains the EDM, but Entity Framework doesn’t understand it. The connection string references three mapping files that are nowhere in the project: how does this work? The answer is that at compile time, the designer extracts the sections from the EDMX file and creates a separate file for each one. 123Creating consumable entities These files are either embedded into the assembly or copied into the output direc- tory. You can specify which by opening the designer properties and setting the Metadata Artifact Processing property to either Embed in Output Assembly or to Copy to Output Directory. The setting names are self-explanatory. Now that you know the basics of the EDM and how it integrates with Visual Studio, you’re ready to create and map models. The first thing you need to do when creating a model is design the entities. Designing a class is the same as writing, or creating, it. 5.2 Creating consumable entities When the designer generates code to create entities, it performs the following steps: 1 Create the entity’s code. 2 Create the conceptual schema. 3 Create the storage schema. 4 Create the mapping schema. In the next sections, you’ll manually perform these steps to reproduce the tables and entities involved in OrderIT’s ordering process and see how mapping works under the covers. NOTE By default, the designer emits Entity Framework–aware non-POCO code—a choice that was made to maintain compatibility with the previ- ous release. With Entity Framework 4.0, it’s pointless using non-POCO code. We strongly recommend always using the POCO template that we introduced in chapter 2. Let’s start with the first step. Why POCO is so important POCO (plain old CLR object) classes lead to persistence ignorance (PI). PI allows the user to write code that only cares about the business problem without any infrastruc- ture intrusion. The Order and OrderDetail classes know nothing about Entity Framework. The persistence engine could be a handwritten data layer, Entity Frame- work, NHibernate, or something else. What’s more, a clean separation between the object model classes and the persistence engine allows you to put the classes in the model assembly (the object model or domain model, depending on your architecture), leaving to the infrastructure or the data layer (again, depending on the architecture) the burden of persistence. More separation leads to more maintainability; more main- tainability leads to better reactions to application changes and bugs; better reactions lead to happier customers and lower costs; and all of this leads to a great success. Nonetheless, don’t be deceived by PI. It’s not always needed. We have shipped many projects using Entity Framework 1.0 without worrying about PI. Those projects were well designed and efficient, and the customer is happy with them. PI is important and sometimes would have saved hundreds of lines of code, but it’s not the only key to a winning project. 124 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping 5.2.1 Writing the entities The ordering process in OrderIT includes the Order and OrderDetail entities plus the AddressInfo complex type. Thanks to the POCO support, you can create such classes without worrying about persistence (as you’ll notice in listing 5.1). For now, let’s forget about associations. We’ll discuss them later. C# public class AddressInfo { public virtual string Address { get; set; } Public virtual string ZipCode { get; set; } Public virtual string City { get; set; } Public virtual string Country { get; set; } } public class Order { public virtual int OrderId { get; set; } public virtual DateTime OrderDate { get; set; } public virtual AddressInfo ShippingAddress { get; set; } public virtual DateTime EstimatedShippingDate { get; set; } public virtual DateTime ActualShippingDate { get; set; } } public class OrderDetail { public virtual int OrderDetailId { get; set; } public virtual int Quantity { get; set; } public virtual decimal Price { get; set; } public virtual decimal Discount { get; set; } } VB Public Class AddressInfo Public Overridable Property Address as String Public Overridable Property ZipCode as String Public Overridable Property City as String Public Overridable Property Country as String End Class Public Class Order Public Overridable Property OrderId as Int32 Public Overridable Property OrderDate as DateTime Public Overridable Property ShippingAddress as AddressInfo Public Overridable Property EstimatedShippingDate as DateTime Public Overridable Property ActualShippingDate as DateTime End Class Public Class OrderDetail Public Overridable Property OrderDetailId as Int32 Public Overridable Property Quantity as Int32 Public Overridable Property Price as Decimal Public Overridable Property Discount as Decimal End Class Listing 5.1 Creating the order scenario model 125Creating consumable entities That’s all you need to create the entities. Isn’t it great? It’s 19 lines of code, and you’re done. In Entity Framework 1.0, it would have taken about 70 lines. That’s a huge step ahead. Complex properties deserve more attention. When you instantiate Order, the address is null because it isn’t created anywhere. This means that you should create the address every time you create an order, and that’s repetitive and error-prone code. You have two options for solving this problem: instantiate the address in the order constructor, or instantiate it lazily when it’s accessed for the first time. Both options are shown in listing 5.2. C# public Order() Constructor instantiation { ShippingAddress = new AddressInfo(); } private AddressInfo _ShippingAddress; Lazy instantiation public virtual AddressInfo ShippingAddress { get { _ShippingAddress = _ShippingAddress ?? new AddressInfo(); return _ShippingAddress; } set { _ShippingAddress = value; } } VB Public Sub New() ShippingAddress = New AddressInfo() Constructor instantiation End Sub Private _ShippingAddress As AddressInfo Public Overridable Property ShippingAddress() As AddressInfo Get _ShippingAddress = If(_ShippingAddress, New AddressInfo()) Lazy instantiation Return _ShippingAddress End Get Set(ByVal value As AddressInfo) _ShippingAddress = value End Set End Property The constructor solution requires less code, so it’s our favorite, but we have nothing against lazy instantiation. The result is the same, and the choice is up to you. There is another step we skipped: the overriding of Equals and GetHashCode. When you create a model, implementing them for each class is important. There’s lots Listing 5.2 Two ways of instantiating complex properties 126 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping of literature out there about how to best implement these methods, so we won’t explain it here. Our suggestion is to write them as follows. C# public class Order { ... public override bool Equals(object obj) { Order order = obj as Order; if (order == null) return false return order.OrderId == this.OrderId; } public override int GetHashCode() { return OrderId.GetHashCode(); } } VB Public Class Order ... Public Overloads Overrides Function Equals(ByVal obj As Object) As Boolean Dim order As Order = TryCast(obj, Order) If order Is Nothing Then Return False End If Return order.OrderId = Me.OrderId End Function Public Overloads Overrides Function GetHashCode() As Integer Return OrderId.GetHashCode() End Function End Class This code says that two orders are equal if their OrderId property has the same value. In chapters 2 and 3, you were introduced to the runtime proxy subject. You learned that in order to be runtime extensible, a class must be open to inheritance and all properties must be virtual/Overridable. You can avoid these rules, but the obtained objects wouldn’t provide features like object tracking and lazy loading. Because they’re important in many scenarios, we always suggest making properties virtual. NOTE It’s important that you understand how to create classes. You may need to customize entity code generation to accommodate particular needs (as we’ll do in chapter 13). This means that an understanding of classes is at least desirable. The classes created in this section aren’t consumable by Entity Framework yet. You must put the necessary information into the EDM. The starting point for doing this is the conceptual file. Listing 5.3 Implementing Equals and GetHashCode in the Order entity 127Creating consumable entities 5.2.2 Describing entities in the conceptual schema The conceptual schema contains the description of the entities. Creating this schema isn’t difficult at all, but because many XML tags are involved, you might find it confus- ing at first. Fortunately, these tags are reused in the storage schema, significantly sim- plifying the entire EDM. In the EDMX file for OrderIT, the conceptual schema is at the path edmx:Edmx/ edmx:Runtime/edmx:ConceptualModels. If you create the conceptual file manually, you can name it OrderIT.csdl and reference it in the database connection string. In the CSDL file, you must ignore the preceding XML path because it’s part of the EDMX artifact. This applies also to the storage and the mapping files. The basic structure of the CSDL is pretty simple. It has a main element named Schema, inside which there is an EntityContainer element plus an EntityType for each entity and a ComplexType for each complex type. Figure 5.4 shows the file structure. Figure 5.4 The structure of the CSDL file. Schema is the main element, and EntityContainer, ComplexType, and EntityType are its children. Having a broad understanding of the structure is good, but knowing each node is essential to mastering mapping. Let’s analyze them one by one, starting from the out- ermost: Schema. SCHEMA Schema is a pretty simple element. It contains the attributes Namespace and Alias to specify the namespace and an alias for it. Furthermore, it declares the base namespace via xmlns and an additional namespace with the store prefix: ... Because Schema is a mere container, there is nothing special about its attributes. What we’re more interested in is its inner content. ENTITYCONTAINER The EntityContainer element declares the entity sets and the relationship sets in the EDM; the entity sets declared here are used to generate the code of the context class. The element has only a Name attribute, which the designer sets to the name of the con- nection string you enter in the EDMX wizard. If you create the file manually, we suggest setting the attribute value to the name of the application, plus the suffix Entities. If you look at the context-generated code, you’ll see that all base constructors take a ContainerName argument. That argument is the container name as inserted in the EDM, so the context is linked with its description in the EDM. 128 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping NOTE You can have many EntityContainer tags, which means you can have many contexts. This may be useful when you want to logically sepa- rate different parts of your application. It’s not supported by the designer, but you can do it if you want to edit files manually. As you may expect, the EntityContainer is a mere wrapper. Inside it is one Entity- Set element for each entity set. You learned in chapter 2 that there’s an entity set for each class that doesn’t inherit from another one in the model. For instance, Order has an entity set, and Company has an entity set, but Supplier and Customer don’t because they inherit from Company. EntitySet has two attributes:  Name declares the entity set’s unique name. (In chapter 2, you set the entity set name for each entity in the designer—that value was put into the Name attribute.)  EntityType contains the fully qualified name (FQN) of the entity it exposes. In the end, the entity container looks like the following listing. Multiple entity sets per type (MEST) You can define multiple entity sets for a single type. This feature is named multiple entity sets per type (MEST), and it may be extremely useful in some scenarios. Sup- pose you’re developing a site that handles articles, blog posts, and forum posts. These items share the same structure: a posted date, a published date, text, a sub- ject, and so on. They may be stored in different tables, but a single class represents them. MEST allows you to reuse one class across different entity sets. Unfortunately, this approach has limitations when dealing with associations, and, what’s worse, it isn’t supported by the designer, so you have to create the class’s code and mapping man- ually. In the end, MEST slows down productivity, so unless you have a strong reason to use it, don’t. Now that you understand the EntityContainer, we can move on to the model classes. The element that describes an entity is EntityType, whereas a complex type is repre- sented by ComplexType. COMPLEXTYPE AND ENTITYTYPE ComplexType has only the Name attribute, which is set to the class FQN. Inside it is one Property node for each property of the complex type. Property has several attri- butes, which are described in table 5.1. Listing 5.4 Defining the entity sets in EntityContainer 129Creating consumable entities When the complex type is ready, you can start creating entities that use it. EntityType is where you do this. It has a mandatory Name attribute, where the name of the class is specified. After that, there are two optional attributes:  Abstract—Specifies whether the class is abstract  BaseType—Specifies a base class Abstract and BaseType become important when inheritance comes into play. (We’ll get to inheritance in section 5.4.) Inside EntityType is a Property element for each scalar and complex property in the class, and a Key element to specify which properties are in the entity’s primary key. If the property is a complex property, you set its type to the full name of the complex type it represents through the Type attribute. The Key element has no attributes; it has only one PropertyRef node for each property that participates in the primary key. PropertyRef has only the Name attribute, which contains the name of the property. Table 5.1 Attributes of Property node in the conceptual schema Attribute Description Required Name Specifies the name of the property. Yes Type Specifies the CLR type of the property. If the prop- erty is a complex type, this should be set to the FQN of the complex type. Yes Nullable Indicates whether the property can be null. The default value is true. No FixedLength Indicates whether the property must have a fixed length. No MaxLength Specifies the maximum length of the value. No Scale Specifies how many numbers are allowed after a comma in a decimal type. No Precision Specifies how many numbers are allowed in a deci- mal type. No store:StoreGeneratedPattern Indicates how the column is set by the database during inserts and updates. It has three possible values:  None—The value from the application is used (default).  Identity—The value is calculated by the database during inserts, and the value from the application is used for updates.  Computed—The value is calculated by the database during inserts and updates. No ConcurrencyMode Indicates whether the property participates in the concurrency check. To enable the check, set the value to Fixed. No 130 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping Putting everything in action, the mapping fragment looks like this. That’s all you need to know about the conceptual schema, but that’s only the first part of the EDM. You still have to create the storage schema to describe the tables that will persist orders and their details. Later, you’ll bridge the two models in the mapping file. 5.2.3 Describing the database in the storage schema The storage-description file contains detailed information about the database struc- ture. You can map several database objects here: tables, views, stored procedures, and functions. In this chapter, we’ll focus on the first two objects only; the others will be discussed in chapter 10, which is dedicated to the use of stored procedures. In the EDMX file for the OrderIT example, the storage schema is under the edmx:Edmx/edmx:Runtime/edmx:StorageModels path; but if you want to create the file manually, you can name it OrderIT.ssdl and reference it in the connection string. We already mentioned that conceptual schema elements are reused in the storage schema. This is true, but some nodes have more attributes in the storage schema to accommodate specific database options. Let’s start by looking at the Schema node. Listing 5.5 Describing complex types and entities 131Creating consumable entities SCHEMA Schema is the root element of the storage schema. It has the same attributes as its counterpart on the conceptual side, plus two needed for database communication:  Provider—Specifies the ADO.NET provider  ProviderManifestToken—Specifies the version number of the database (for instance, SQL Server uses 2000, 2005, and 2008) The following snippet contains an example of the Schema element: ... As in the conceptual file, Schema has both a container section and a detail section. You’ll be happy to know that the container section is named the same way it is in the conceptual file. ENTITYCONTAINER EntityContainer declares all database objects described later in the file. Its only attri- bute is Name, which represents the name of the container. The designer sets its value to the namespace name plus the suffix StoreContainer. Although you can have multiple EntityContainer elements in the conceptual schema, that’s nonsense in the storage schema, because the objects belong to a single database. Inside EntityContainer, you create an EntitySet element for each table or view. EntitySet in the storage schema has more attributes than its counterpart on the con- ceptual side:  Name—Specifies the logical name of the object. The designer uses the name of the table, but it’s not mandatory.  EntityType—Represents the FQN of the object and is set using the {namespace}.{name} pattern.  Schema—Represents the owner of the table.  Table—Represents the physical name of the table. Table isn’t mandatory; when it’s omitted, Name is used.  store:Type—Identifies whether the object is a table (Tables) or a view (Views). The result is the fragment shown here. We’ve introduced a bunch of new attributes, and you’ve reused all the previous ele- ments and declared the database objects. This is a successful case of code reuse. Now you need to describe the table structure. ENTITYTYPE Objects are described using the EntityType element, much as in the conceptual file. You must create one element for each EntitySet element that’s put inside Entity- Container. In the conceptual file, classes that are part of an inheritance hierarchy have only one EntitySet but many EntityType elements. Databases don’t support inheritance natively, so it isn’t possible to have one entity set and more tables or views in the storage file. Every EntityType node has a Name attribute whose value must match the Name attri- bute of the EntitySet in the entity container. Inside the EntityType element, you have to include the elements that describe the database object. Again, you use Property to declare the columns and Key and PropertyRef to specify which ones compose the key. Property has the same attributes as its counterpart in the CSDL, plus some addi- tional ones to accommodate database needs:  Collation—Specifies the collation of the column  DefaultValue—Specifies the default value of the column  Unicode—Specifies whether the value is Unicode The result is the mapping fragment shown in the following listing. Listing 5.7 Describing the Order and OrderDetail database tables 133Creating consumable entities The storage file is now ready. You’re only missing the link between the conceptual and storage schemas. You already know that this bridge is created using the third file of the EDM: the mapping schema. 5.2.4 Creating the mapping file The mapping file has the hard duty of bridging the gap between database and classes. When the model has one class for each table, the mapping is pretty simple; but as soon as things get more complicated, the mapping becomes complex. In the EDMX file for the OrderIT example, edmx:Edmx/edmx:Runtime/ edmx:Mappings is the path of the mapping section. If you want to create the file on your own, you can create OrderIT.msl and reference it in the connection string. The mapping file doesn’t describe entities or tables—it maps them. As a result, this file’s structure is completely different from the other two files. Unfortunately, this means you have to learn a bunch of new XML tags and attributes, as you can see in figure 5.5. Figure 5.5 The main structure of the mapping file Differences emerge immediately at the root level. Although Schema is the root ele- ment for the conceptual and storage files, here you use Mapping. 134 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping MAPPING AND ENTITYCONTAINERMAPPING The declaration of the Mapping node is fixed, and you can’t put any custom informa- tion in it. The only inner element it allows is EntityContainerMapping, where you specify the name of the containers whose entities must be mapped. (You have to spec- ify the containers because you map entities and complex types used by the entity sets.) The StorageEntityContainer attribute identifies the storage schema container, and the CdmEntityContainer attribute is used for the conceptual schema container, as you can see in listing 5.8. ... After the entity containers are linked, the next step is to map tables and views against classes. This is accomplished by nesting an EntitySetMapping element inside the EntityContainerMapping element for each entity set. ENTITYSETMAPPING, ENTITYTYPEMAPPING, AND MAPPINGFRAGMENT Mapping an entity to a table is a four-step job. You start by defining the entity set and the entity inside it. Within the entity, you specify the table to which the entity is mapped, and finally you specify the column/property association between the two. Figure 5.5 shows the elements that must be used in the process. EntitySetMapping is the node that lets you state what entity set you’re going to map (remember that you can have multiple classes per entity set). The only attribute here is Name, and it’s used to specify the entity set name. Inside EntitySetMapping, you nest an EntityTypeMapping element for each entity that’s part of the entity set. The type of the entity is set through the TypeName attribute and must follow the pattern IsTypeOf(EntityName), where EntityName is the FQN of the entity. Now we come to the mapped tables. Because a class can be mapped to one or more tables (Order maps to the Order table, but Shirt maps to both the Product and Shirt tables), inside the EntityTypeMapping element you specify a MappingFragment element for each table involved. It has only the StoreEntitySet attribute, and it must match the Name attribute of the entity set in the storage schema. The next listing shows this first part of the mapping. ... Listing 5.8 Defining the containers in the mapping Listing 5.9 Defining the entity set, the class, and the mapped table 135Creating consumable entities ... Now you have the entity set, the class, and the table (or tables). That’s all you need to start the property-to-column mapping process. In the next section, you’ll see how this delicate part works. SCALARPROPERTY AND COMPLEXPROPERTY The ScalarProperty element maps a scalar property of the class to a column of the table or view. It has only two attributes:  Name—Represents the property name  ColumnName—Represents the mapped column Easy as pie. ComplexProperty is used to map a complex type. This node has two attributes too:  Name—Specifies the name of the property in the class  TypeName—Contains the FQN of the complex type ComplexProperty on its own is useless. You have to map its properties to the columns, and this is done by nesting ScalarProperty elements. NOTE Because complex types can be nested, you can put a Complex- Property inside another ComplexProperty. Putting it all together, the following listing shows the overall mapping schema for Order and OrderDetail. Listing 5.10 Defining the mapping between properties and columns 136 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping So far, we have covered entities and ignored the associations between them, but associ- ations between entities are the real essence of a model. Mapping them isn’t too com- plicated, but you still have to touch all three EDM schemas. Fortunately, you know something about the schemas, so it should be simpler. 5.3 Defining relationships in the model Implementing associations is one of the most challenging tasks in any O/RM, but the Entity Framework makes it quite easy. Naturally, you’ll have to write some code and modify the mapping, but you’ll understand it at first sight. In the OrderIT model, there are three types of associations: one-to-one, one-to- many, and many-to-many. Let’s look at them in turn. 5.3.1 One-to-one relationships A typical example of a one-to-one relationship is that between the order detail and its order. Creating this type of association isn’t difficult, but it involves several steps: 1 Modify the OrderDetail class by adding the navigation property. If you opt for foreign-key associations (as we did), you’ll have to add the foreign-key property too. 2 Modify the CSDL to add properties to the class description and introduce the relationship. 3 Modify the storage schema to introduce the foreign key between the tables (if it exists). 4 Modify the mapping schema to map the relationship (only for independent associations). Now, let’s look at each step. MODIFYING THE CLASS To create a reference to the order from the order detail, you need to create an Order property in the OrderDetail class. Because you’re using foreign keys, you have to add a foreign key property, as shown in the next listing. 137Defining relationships in the model C# public class OrderDetail { ... public virtual Order Order { get; set; } public virtual int OrderId { get; set; } } VB Public Class OrderDetail ... Public Overridable Property Order() As Order Public Overridable Property OrderId() As Integer End Class That’s all you need to do to create the relationship in the code. All the plumbing that was necessary to create associations in the classes in v1.0 is gone. Lovely! Now that the code is fine, let’s get back to the EDM and look at the conceptual schema. MODIFYING THE CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA Because the conceptual schema describes the model, this is where you must add infor- mation about the new properties and the relationship. You need to add the new navi- gation and foreign-key properties to the OrderDetail entity description. The navigation property is added to the EntityType node related to OrderDetail by using the NavigationProperty element. The Name attribute maps the element to the property in the object, Relationship requires the full name of the relationship, FromRole identifies its starting point, and ToRole identifies the ending point. In this way, you can move from OrderDetail to Order. The foreign-key property is added as a simple scalar property. Both properties are shown here. ... That’s all you need to do for the entity description. Now, let’s move on to the relation- ship description. In Entity Framework, associations are first-class citizens, like entities, so they must be treated equally in the EDM. In the EntityContainer element, you need to declare an AssociationSet for each association. It has two attributes: Listing 5.11 Creating properties that reference the order from the order detail Listing 5.12 Adding navigation and foreign-key properties to the entity in the CSDL 138 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping  Name—Represents the name of the relationship set (a sort of entity set for associations)  Association—Specifies the type Inside AssociationSet, you insert two End nodes (one for each entity involved), plac- ing the name of the class in the Role attribute and the name of its entity set in EntitySet. NOTE When you use the designer, the Name attribute is set with the name you assign to the relationship in the Association wizard. Outside EntityContainer, you need to describe the relationship using the Association element. Its Name attribute links the description to the AssociationSet in the container, whereas the nested End elements describe the types involved in the relationship and their cardinality. What’s important in the End element is the Multiplicity attribute, which can have one of the following values:  1—One side of the cardinality  0..1—Zero or one side of the cardinality  *—Multiple side of the cardinality End allows you to specify the delete cascade behavior. This has nothing to do with the database; it states that when the parent entity is marked as deleted, children are marked too. Its definition in the mapping is shown in the following listing. Order is the one side, and OrderDetail is the multiple side in this example. That means you’re mapping a one-to-many relationship! A one-to-many relationship implicitly declares the one-to-one relationship too. The order can have multiple details, but a detail can have only one order. It would be useless repeating this rela- tionship twice in the EDM, so you declare it only once. An independent association is mapped in the MSL, but a foreign-key association is mapped in the CSDL. Because we’ve opted to use a foreign-key relationship in this Listing 5.13 Declaring and defining associations 139Defining relationships in the model example, you have to add mapping information to the association definition. This information is put in the ReferentialConstraint node inside the Association ele- ment, and it comes after the End nodes, as shown in the next listing. ... ReferentialConstraint is only the container element. The real mapping happens in the Principal and Dependent nodes, where you specify the primary key of the master class and the foreign-key property in the child class (through the PropertyRef ele- ment). It’s much like defining a foreign key in a database. The conceptual schema is now ready; the third step is modifying the storage. But wait a second; what if the database knows nothing about the relationship between the order and its details? The foreign-key constraint might not exist for performance or other reasons. It turns out that this means absolutely nothing for mapping. You can still enforce the relationship on the conceptual side without worrying about the data- base. Nevertheless, in the OrderIT example, you have a relationship in the database, so let’s see how it’s described. MODIFYING THE STORAGE SCHEMA Describing relationships in the storage schema is similar to describing them in the conceptual schema. You declare the relationships in the entity container, and then you describe them outside it. To declare the foreign-key constraint, you use the AssociationSet with its chil- dren inside EntityContainer exactly the same way as before. To specify which col- umns compose the foreign key, you use the Association node outside EntityContainer, as in the following listing. Listing 5.14 Defining a foreign-key association Listing 5.15 Defining a database foreign key in the storage schema 140 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping Hey, this declaration is identical to the one in the conceptual schema! Notice that this time the cascade constraint between the order and order details describes the one in the database. NOTE When we talk about foreign keys here, we mean the database foreign keys. This has nothing to do with the conceptual model for- eign keys. You’re almost done. You only need to put mapping information in the MSL. MODIFYING THE MAPPING SCHEMA The mapping schema knows nothing about foreign-key associations. It only needs to know how a foreign-key property is mapped to the foreign key in the database table. In this example, you have to map the OrderId property of the OrderDetail class to the OrderId column in the OrderDetail table, as in the following snippet: ... The one-to-one relationship between the detail and its order is now set up. In the next section, you’ll learn how to build the one-to-many relationship between the order and its details. 5.3.2 One-to-many relationships Creating the one-to-many relationship is only slightly different from creating the one- to-one relationships. The process is exactly the same as before, but because you’ve already put association data in the EDM, you only need to modify the Order class and reflect the modifications inside the CSDL. 141Defining relationships in the model ADDING A PROPERTY TO THE PARENT CLASS The Order class maintains a reference to its details with a collection property named OrderDetails. To be Entity Framework–compliant, the property must be of type ICollection, ISet, or any type that implements them such as List or HashSet. A collection property needs to be initialized before it’s accessed, or you’ll get a NullReferenceException. How you create the property depends on the type you choose for the collection. If you use an interface, you’ll have to instantiate it lazily. If you use a real type, you can instantiate it either in the constructor or lazily. The reason for this behavior is that when a proxy for the instance is created, if the property is exposed using an interface, it creates a concrete type and assigns it to the property. When this is done, the property can’t be reassigned; if you do, you’ll get an InvalidOperationException. Furthermore, putting your instantiation code in the constructor would override the instantiation made by the proxy (if you have a proxy), causing the exception to occur. If you use a concrete type, the proxy ignores the prop- erty instantiation, so you’re free to put instantiation code wherever you want. We recommend always using the lazy approach, as shown in the next listing. C# public class Order { ... private ICollection _OrderDetails; public virtual ICollection OrderDetails { get { _OrderDetails = _OrderDetails ?? new HashSet(); return _OrderDetails; } set { _OrderDetails = value; } } } VB Public Class Order ... Private _OrderDetails As ICollection(Of OrderDetail) Public Overridable Property OrderDetails() As ICollection(Of OrderDetail) Get _OrderDetails = If(_OrderDetails, New HashSet(Of OrderDetail)()) Return _OrderDetails End Get Set(ByVal value As ICollection(Of OrderDetail)) _OrderDetails = value Listing 5.16 Creating a property that references a collection of objects 142 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping End Set End Property End Class There’s nothing more to do. Notice that the foreign key to the order details doesn’t exist here. Now, let’s move on to the conceptual schema. MODIFYING THE CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA To add the new property to the Order description in the conceptual schema, you add a NavigationProperty as you did for OrderDetail, changing the Name attribute and inverting the roles because here you’re moving from Order to OrderDetail. This is the property mapping: And that’s all. The relationship has already been defined in the CSDL and SSDL; and in the MSL, nothing changes because the navigation property doesn’t need to be mapped. The last relationship we need to analyze is the many-to-many. In the OrderIT example, such a relationship exists between the products and the suppliers. People are often afraid of many-to-many relationships because they can be intricate. But don’t worry: many-to-many mapping isn’t complicated at all. 5.3.3 Many-to-many relationships The steps for creating a many-to-many relationship are always the same. First, you cre- ate collection properties in both classes to relate them to each other, and then you modify the EDM. The difference in this type of relationship is that there are no foreign-key properties. The relationship between classes is direct, so the link table in the database has no correspondence in the model. This means you have to use an independent association. You’ve already seen the relevant code for classes, CSDL, and SSDL because we’ve dealt with collection properties before. Here’s a quick recap of how to set up the many-to-many relationship between the product and supplier: 1 Product and Supplier need to be associated to each other using collection properties. 2 In the CSDL, you need to map classes and their association, without inserting information about the foreign-key association. 3 In the SSDL, you need to declare and define Product, Company, and Product- Supplier tables and their associations. 4 In the MSL, you need to map the relationship between Product and Supplier to the database. At this point, because you haven’t used a foreign-key association, you have to define how the classes are related. This is done in the mapping file. 143Defining relationships in the model MODIFYING THE MAPPING SCHEMA In the mapping schema, you use the AssociationSetMapping element to map data- base columns to independent associations. The AssociationSetMapping element has three attributes:  Name—Specifies the name of the association in the conceptual schema  TypeName—Represents the full name of the association set in the conceptual schema  StoreEntitySet—Contains the name of child table in the database Inside AssociationSetMapping, you put two EndProperty elements whose Name attri- bute matches the Role attribute of the End element in the Association node of the conceptual schema. Finally, you include a ScalarProperty element that specifies the property of the class and the foreign key column in the linked table. This column is used in conjunction with the primary key of the linked table to create the join when generating the SQL. The overall mapping fragment is shown in this listing. Finished. The many-to-many relationship just required a new tag in the mapping schema. Before we move on and talk about inheritance, let’s look at a few points about relationships. 5.3.4 Some tips about relationships The first thing to know about relationships is that you aren’t obliged to use foreign- key associations. You can, for example, remove the OrderId from the OrderDetail class and map the association with Order using an independent association. But work- ing with foreign associations is easier than working with independent associations, especially when you’re persisting an object graph. When possible, we always recom- mended using foreign keys. Another thing you should know is that you can’t map an association using both for- eign keys and independent associations. You have to choose in advance which strategy you want to use. The designer enforces this rule, disabling one option when the other is used. Listing 5.17 Mapping an independent property 144 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping If you don’t want to work with independent associations in many-to-many scenar- ios, you can follow the LINQ to SQL approach: create a class that matches the link table, and associate the classes with that. This would allow using foreign keys, but it’s poor design, and we discourage this technique. You’ve now learned everything you need to know about relationships. It’s time to investigate inheritance mapping. An expressive model often makes use of inheritance; in OrderIT, Customer and Supplier inherit from the Company class, whereas Shoe and Shirt are specializations of the Product class. 5.4 Mapping inheritance OrderIT uses two different inheritance strategies: table per hierarchy (TPH) for the Customer and Supplier classes and table per type (TPT) for the product-related classes. The database doesn’t support inheritance at all, but by using these inheritance strategies, you can simulate this behavior. Let’s start with the TPH strategy. 5.4.1 Table per hierarchy inheritance The TPH inheritance mapping model states that an entire hierarchy of objects is mapped into a single table. In OrderIT, the Customer and Supplier classes are per- sisted into the Company table. Company has a Type column that acts as a discrimina- tor, identifying whether a particular row is about a customer or a supplier. In chapter 2, we discussed the benefits of this inheritance model; here we’ll cover only the practical task of mapping, starting with the class code. DESIGNING THE CLASSES Inheritance doesn’t require any additional effort during class development. You sim- ply create the base class (Company, in this case) and then create the other classes (Customer and Supplier), letting them inherit from the base class. Notice that the discriminator column must not be mapped because it’s handled by Entity Framework. The following listing shows the class-declaration code. C# public abstract class Company { ... } public class Customer : Company { ... } public class Supplier : Company { ... } Listing 5.18 The Company, Customer, and Supplier classes 145Mapping inheritance VB Public MustInherits Class Company ... End Class Public Class Customer Inherits Company ... End Class Public Class Supplier Inherits Company ... End Class As usual, describing the new classes in the EDM is the next step. We’ll start with the conceptual schema. MODIFYING THE CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA Inside the EntityContainer element of the conceptual schema, you put only one entity set for the entire hierarchy. Describing the classes requires the Abstract and BaseType attributes. For Company, Abstract is set to true and BaseType is empty. For Customer and Supplier, Abstract is set to false and BaseType is set to the FQN of Company. Their mapping is shown in the following listing. Listing 5.19 Defining inheritance in the conceptual schema 146 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping Notice that each EntityType node must define only the properties of the class it describes. The description of Company contains only the ID and the name. The description of Customer includes the addresses and web service properties, whereas the Supplier description adds payment information. That’s all you need to do in the conceptual schema, so we can move on to the stor- age. You’ve already seen the tables, so we’ll go directly to the mapping schema. MODIFYING THE MAPPING SCHEMA As usual, the real power emerges in the mapping file. The EntitySetMapping element allows you to map multiple classes in one entity set. We’ll start by mapping Company. The Name attribute of EntitySetMapping must be set to Companies—that’s the entity set defined in the conceptual schema. Inside EntityTypeMapping, TypeName must be set to IsTypeOf(OrderITModel.Company). Finally, StoreEntitySet attribute inside the MappingFragment element must be set to Company—that’s the storage entity set name (which, by default, matches the table name). Inside MappingFragment, you put all the properties defined in the conceptual schema. Here’s what it looks like: ... In the Customer mapping, you don’t create a new EntitySetMapping. Instead, you add an EntityTypeMapping node inside it. Into this new node, you put another Mapping- Fragment node. In the EntityTypeMapping node, you set the TypeName attribute to IsTypeOf(OrderITModel.Customer). This way, you’ve changed only the mapped class, whereas the entity set and the database table have remained the same. Naturally, here you define only the properties described in the class, ignoring those inherited from Company except for the key properties. You can see that in the following snippet: ... Mapping the Supplier entity is a matter of copying and pasting the Customer snippet, changing the TypeName attribute, and mapping the properties, as shown in the next snippet: 147Mapping inheritance ... The last tweak is the discriminator. You know that in the TPH mapping strategy you need a discriminator column to identify what type a row is mapped to. In OrderIT, the discriminator column specifies whether the row is about a customer or a supplier. This must be specified in the mapping schema; the conceptual side must have no knowl- edge of this plumbing because it’s a storage requirement. To specify the discriminator, you use the Condition element inside Mapping- Fragment to specify a value for the discriminator column. When the column has the specified value, the row belongs to the type that’s being mapped. The value C specifies that the row is about a customer, whereas the value S identifies a supplier. You can see this tag at work in the previous snippets. Well done! You’ve successfully mapped an inheritance hierarchy with the TPH strategy. It wasn’t that hard. You’ve only had to learn one new node, Condition, and the rest were the same ones covered before. Now that you’re a master of TPH, we can move ahead and talk about the OrderIT product scenario, which uses the TPT inheritance mapping strategy. TPT has a com- pletely different point of view compared to TPH, but the way you map it is similar. 5.4.2 Table per type inheritance In the TPT approach, you map each entity in the hierarchy to a dedicated table. The table contains as many columns as the related type defines. In OrderIT, for example, you have Product, Shoe, and Shirt tables, and similarly named classes that hold their data. In the TPH model, the discriminator column is responsible for distinguishing the customers from the suppliers. In the TPT model, there’s no need for such a column because the primary keys specify the product type. For instance, if a product has ID 1 and it’s in the Product and Shirt tables, it’s a shirt; if it’s in the Product and Shoe tables, it’s a pair of shoes. With the use of ad hoc SQL joins, Entity Framework is able to determine the type of each product when querying and to correctly update data when persisting objects. Mapping the TPT isn’t complicated, because you already have all the necessary knowledge. The code is identical to that used for TPH; you define the classes and their inheritance chain as in the following listing. C# public abstract class Product { ... Listing 5.20 The Product, Shoe, and Shirt classes 148 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping } public class Shoe : Product { ... } public class Shirt : Product { ... } VB Public MustInherits Class Product ... End Class Public Class Shirt Inherits Product ... End Class Public Class Shoe Inherits Company ... End Class What changes between the TPT and TPH strategies is the mapping and the storage schemas, not the way the classes are shaped. In the conceptual schema, you define the entities exactly the same way as for the TPH strategy and create one EntitySet for the root of the hierarchy. The storage schema is different because you have more than one table for each entity, but you already know how to define tables, so we won’t show that again. In the mapping file, you use the EntitySetMapping element, nesting an Entity- TypeMapping node for each entity. Inside EntityTypeMapping, you include a Mapping- Fragment element to associate the table with the entity. Inside MappingFragment, you map only the properties declared in the entity plus the primary key. The mapping result is shown next. ... ... ... Listing 5.21 Mapping TPT inheritance in the MSL 149Extending the EDM with custom annotations For the umpteenth time, you’ve reused your knowledge without having to learn any- thing to create a brand-new feature. Despite its intricacies, EDM isn’t so hard to master. 5.5 Extending the EDM with custom annotations The EDM is made of three XML files. Like any other XML file, it can be extended by adding custom namespaces and linking nodes to them. Even if all the information about mapping is already there, adding custom information can be useful when you need additional data that isn’t included in the default schema. A simple example is validation. The Supplier class has an IBAN property (IBAN being an international format for identifying bank accounts). You could specify the format in the EDM and then use templates, as shown in chapter 2, to customize the class’s code generation to add validation code in the IBAN property setter. Even better, you could generate a DataAnnotation attribute so that the class was compliant with ASP.NET MVC validation specifications. Whatever your choice, EDM customization is where it all begins. Another example involves collection properties. Suppose that an order can’t have more than 10 details. You can add this value to the property in the EDM and then cre- ate a CLR custom collection that, in the Add method, compares the number of details to the limit, raising an exception or performing some other action if there are too many lines. There are several other cases where customization of the EDM is a winning choice. It’s a powerful tool in your toolbox. Now that you know why you should customize the EDM, let’s look at how to do it. 5.5.1 Customizing the EDM Adding custom annotations is pretty straightforward. You just have to add a namespace, inside of which you put the tags. Suppose you need to add IBAN validation information in the EDM. The easiest way to validate a string is with a regular expression. The following listing adds such an expression to the IBAN property. Declares namespace Adds custom [a-zA-Z]{2}\d{2}[ ][a-zA-Z]\d{3}[ ]\d{4}[ ]\d{4}[ ]\d{4} annotation➥ [ ]\d{4}[ ]\d{3}|[a-zA-Z]{2}\d{2}[a-zA-Z]\d{22} Naturally, you can add attributes following the same principle. There’s no technical limitation—the choice is up to you. Listing 5.22 Adding a custom tag to the EDM 150 CHAPTER 5 Domain model mapping Keep in mind that not all tags in the EDM accept inner custom tags. The following tags don’t allow customizations:  Using  Schema  Key  PropertyRef The reason for this limitation is that those tags don’t have a correspondence in the Entity Framework metadata object model, so they can’t be accessed. Similarly, MSL tags can’t be customized, whereas SSDL and CSDL tags can. NOTE That last sentence probably sounded like Jabba the Hutt speaking without subtitles, but don’t worry; in chapter 12, which focuses on meta- data, you’ll learn about the metadata object model and tag customization. For the moment, keep in mind that you can customize the EDM. The real power that comes from using this technique will be revealed later. 5.6 Summary In this chapter, you’ve learned what you need to know to create and map entities to tables. We have not covered some very task-specific details, like the mapping of stored procedures, because they’ll be discussed in depth in chapter 9. Mapping is a complicated task at first, but when you understand the use of the five main elements of the mapping (EntitySet, EntityType, AssociationSet, Association, and EntitySetMapping), there’s little more to learn. They, in combina- tion, open the door to every mapping scenario. Fortunately, creating the CLR classes is simpler than creating the EDM. Thanks to the POCO support, you can have classes that are completely ignorant of Entity Frame- work or any other persistence mechanism, allowing you to focus only on the business problem. It was a long trip from defining classes to mapping them through to the database. If you have a complex model, you can end up spending a lot of time maintaining this infrastructure code. This is what drove the Entity Framework team to create a designer. By using the designer, you only need to worry about the business code, leav- ing to the designer the burden of creating the plumbing. Now that you know how to map the domain model and how to use the power of que- rying with Entity Framework, it’s time to learn how to modify objects and persist their modifications into the database. This will allow you to start developing real projects. 151 Understanding the entity lifecycle At this point in the book, you have two-thirds of the basics you need to implement Entity Framework–based data access code. You have learned how to create an object model, how to map it against the database using the EDM, how to perform queries to retrieve data, and how to transform data in objects. What you’re still missing is an understanding of the entity lifecycle and how to persist modifications made to an entity into the database. This chapter is about the first part of that: the entity lifecycle. In this chapter, you’ll learn about the different states an entity can be in and what can be done in each one of them. This is a central subject because the changes you make to an entity affect its state, which in turn affects the way those modifications are later persisted. Let’s start our discussion by analyzing the lifecycle of an entity and its several states. This chapter covers  Understanding entity states  Understanding transitions between states  Automatic and manual state changes 152 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle 6.1 The entity lifecycle During its lifetime, an entity has a state. Before looking at how to retrieve entity state, let’s take a look at what entity state is. The state is an enum of type System. Data.EntityState that declares the following values:  Added —The entity is marked as added.  Deleted—The entity is marked as deleted.  Modified —The entity has been modified.  Unchanged —The entity hasn’t been modified.  Detached —The entity isn’t tracked. What do these states represent? What is the state related to? How can an entity pass from one state to another? Does the state affect the database? To answer these ques- tions, we’ll have to look at the concepts behind the object lifecycle. 6.1.1 Understanding entity state As explained in chapter 3, the context holds a reference to all objects retrieved from the database. What’s more important for our discussion, the context holds the state of an entity and maintains modifications made to the properties of the entity. This fea- ture is known as change tracking (or object tracking). If you create an entity outside the context, its status is Detached because the con- text can’t track it. NOTE More precisely, an entity outside the context has no state. We referred to Detached status because in Entity Framework 1.0 that’s the state an entity is in when it’s not tracked by a context. If you attach an entity to the context (more on this in section 6.2), it will move to the Unchanged state. If you retrieve an entity from the database and then get rid of the context, the entity state will be Detached. If you retrieve an entity, dispose of the con- text, and create a new context and add the entity to it, the entity will be in the Added state (again, this will be explained in section 6.2). As these examples make clear, the state is the relationship between the entity and the context that holds a reference to it. At first, you might have thought that the entity state reflected the state of the entity compared to the corresponding row in the database, but it’s not like that. The context is the application database; this is why entities relate their state to the context and not to the database. NOTE The fact that the state of an entity relates to the context instead of the database often confuses people when they first approach Entity Framework. It’s important to understand this point. Let’s look at an example. Suppose you have two methods in the OrderIT web service: the first retrieves data about a customer, and the second updates the data. The client uses the first method to retrieve the data and display it in a form. In this method, you create a context to retrieve the data and then destroy the context. 153The entity lifecycle The user modifies some of the data, such as the shipping address, and then saves it, invoking the second method and passing in the updated customer data. In the web- service method, you create a new context and attach the entity to it. The new context can’t know what data has been modified by the user (if any) unless it goes to the data- base and performs a comparison. Going to the database would be too expensive, so it’s not performed automatically. This means that when the entity is attached to the context, it enters the Unchanged state, because the context knows nothing about modifications. If the entity state reflected the actual state against the database, it would be Modified, but that’s not the case. This example is simple, but it explains why the state indicates the relationship between the entity and the context, and not the entity and the database. Naturally, the state of an entity affects the way it’s persisted. Not surprisingly, when you persist entities, those in the Added, Modified, or Deleted state are saved using the INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE command in the database. 6.1.2 How entity state affects the database The state represents not only the state of the entity in the context, but also how the data will be persisted into the database. For each state, there is a corresponding SQL command. An entity in Added state is persisted using an INSERT command to create a new row in the mapped tables. An entity that’s Modified already has a correspondence with a table row, so it will be persisted using an UPDATE command. An entity in Deleted state has a correspondence with a table row, but it triggers a DELETE instead of an UPDATE. The Detached and Unchanged states have no impact on the database: a detached entity isn’t tracked by a context, so it can’t be persisted, whereas an unchanged one has no modifications to persist. During its lifetime, an entity can change its state. Let’s look at how this happens and what API you can to use to make it happen manually. 6.1.3 State changes in the entity lifecycle The state of an entity is sometimes set automatically by the context and can also be modified manually by the developer. Although all the combinations of switches from one state to another are possible, some of them are pointless. For instance, there’s no point in moving an Added entity to the Deleted state, or vice versa. Figure 6.1 shows all the states and how an entity can pass from one to another. The figure is quite clear. The only thing we need to add is that all the methods shown belong to the ObjectContext or to the ObjectSet classes. Now, let’s look more closely at the different states. DETACHED STATE When an entity is Detached, it isn’t bound to the context, so its state isn’t tracked. It can be disposed of, modified, used in combination with other classes, or used in any other way you might need. Because there is no context tracking it, it has no meaning to Entity Framework. Query Query with tracking disabled DeleteObject() Detach() Detach() AddObject() Aach() Detach() ApplyCurrentValues() ApplyOriginalValues() Property Modificaon DeleteObject() Detach() Deleted Added Unchanged Detached Modified Database Figure 6.1 The different entity states and the context methods that make them change 154 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle As a consequence, Detached is the default state of a newly created entity (one created using the new constructor) because the context can’t track the creation of any object in your code. This is true even if you instantiate the entity inside a using block of the context. Detached is even the state of entities retrieved from the database when track- ing is disabled. UNCHANGED STATE When an entity is Unchanged, it’s bound to the context but it hasn’t been modified. By default, an entity retrieved from the database is in this state. When an entity is attached to the context (with the Attach method), it similarly is in the Unchanged state. The context can’t track changes to objects that it doesn’t refer- ence, so when they’re attached it assumes they’re Unchanged. ADDED STATE When an entity is in the Added state, you have few options. In fact, you can only detach it from the context using Detach. Naturally, even if you modify some property, the state remains Added, because mov- ing it to Modified, Unchanged, or Deleted would be nonsense—it’s a new entity and has no correspondence with a row in the database. This is a fundamental prerequisite for being in one of those states (but this rule isn’t enforced by the context). MODIFIED STATE When an entity is Modified, that means it was in Unchanged state and then some prop- erty was changed. After an entity enters the Modified state, it can move to the Detached or Deleted state, but it can’t roll back to the Unchanged state even if you manually restore the orig- inal values (unless you detach and reattach the entity to the context). It can’t even be changed to Added (unless you detach and add the entity to the context, because a row with this ID already exists in the database, and you would get a runtime exception when persisting it. NOTE The preceding rules can be overridden using an API we’ll discuss in section 6.2.6. 155Managing entity state DELETED STATE An entity enters the Deleted state because it was Unchanged or Modified and then the DeleteObject method was used. This is the most restrictive state, because it’s pointless changing from this state to any other value but Detached. That covers what each state means and how an entity can have its status changed. Now, let’s take the methods that are responsible for this process and put them into action. 6.2 Managing entity state The change from the Unchanged to the Modified state is the only one that’s automati- cally handled by the context. All other changes must be made explicitly using proper methods:  AddObject—Adds an entity to the context in the Added state  Attach—Attaches an entity to the context in the Unchanged state  ApplyCurrentValues and ApplyOriginalValues—Change the state to Modified, comparing the tracked entity with another one  DeleteObject—Marks an entity as Deleted  AcceptAllChanges—Marks all entities as Unchanged  ChangeState and ChangeObjectState—Change an entity from one state to another without any restrictions (except for Detached)  Detach—Removes an entity from the context These methods are exposed by the ObjectContext and ObjectSet classes, with the exception of AttachTo, which is defined only by the context, and ChangeState, which is defined by the state manager (we’ll look at this component shortly). The Object- Set methods internally invoke the context methods, so there’s no difference between them. In the first release of Entity Framework, only the ObjectContext methods existed. The interface for these methods is muddy, so the team added the new ones to ObjectSet, improving usability and simplifying code readability. Because of these advantages, we strongly recommend using the ObjectSet methods and consider the context methods obsolete. Let’s look at each of these methods, starting with the one that adds an entity to the context. 6.2.1 The AddObject method AddObject allows you to add an entity to the context in the Added state. When the entity is added to the context, it’s added to those tracked by the context for modifica- tions. When the persistence process is triggered, the context saves the object as a new row in the tables using INSERT commands. In the OrderIT example, persisting an order will cause an INSERT into the Order table, whereas persisting a shirt will cause an INSERT into the Product and the Shirt tables. 156 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle Let’s look at the code. We’ll first analyze the context method, and then we’ll look at the entity-set method so that you understand why a new API was desirable. The AddObject context method receives two arguments, the entity set name and the entity: C# public void AddObject(string entitySetName, object entity) VB Public Sub AddObject(ByVal entitySetName As String, ByVal entity As Object) There are at least two weaknesses in this code. First, the entity set name is passed as a string. If you type it incorrectly, you’ll get an exception only at runtime. Here’s an example: C# ctx.AddObject("Companis", new Customer() { ... }); VB ctx.AddObject("Companis", New Customer() With { ... }) Second, the entity argument is of type Object, meaning you can potentially pass any CLR object and receive an exception only at runtime if the object isn’t correct. Here’s an example that compiles, despite having the wrong object and wrong entity set name. It produces a runtime exception: C# ctx.AddObject("Companis", String.Empty); VB ctx.AddObject("Companis", String.Empty) The following listing shows the correct code. C# ctx.AddObject("Companies", new Customer() { ... }); VB ctx.AddObject("Companies", New Customer() With { ... }) In the strong-typing era, such an API is unbearable. To overcome this bad design, the Entity Framework team introduced an equivalent API in the entity set interface. It accepts as input only the object that needs to be added: C# public void AddObject(TEntity entity) VB Public Sub AddObject(ByVal entity As TEntity) TEntity is the type of the entity maintained by the entity set (remember that an entity Listing 6.1 Adding an entity to the context via the ObjectContext method 157Managing entity state set is an instance of a type implementing the IObjectSet interface). Due to strong typing, you have no chance to pass an object of the incorrect type to the method. Fur- thermore, because the entity set knows its name, there’s no need to specify it. Listing 6.2 shows the code that uses the new method. C# ctx.Companies.AddObject(new Product() { ... }); ctx.Companies.AddObject(new Customer() { ... }); VB ctx.Companies.AddObject(New Product() With { ... }) ctx.Companies.AddObject(New Customer() With { ... }) In each case, the first line doesn't compile; Product isn’t allowed. The second line compiles, and Customer inherits from Company. Now, look at listings 6.1 and 6.2. Didn’t you fall in love with the new syntax? Adding an entity to the context using the method exposed by the entity set prop- erty of the context class is pretty straightforward. Later in the chapter, we’ll deal with relationships, and you’ll discover there are subtleties that can complicate your life. Adding an entity to the context is useful when you need to persist the object as a new row in the database. But when the object already has a correspondence with a row in the database, it must be persisted using an UPDATE command. The flow changes, and you have to use the Attach method. 6.2.2 The Attach method The Attach method attaches an object to the context in an Unchanged state. When the entity is attached to the context, it’s tracked by the context for modifications made to scalar properties. In a real-world application, there are plenty of situations where an entity needs to be attached. Web applications and web services are typical examples. Let’s go back to the example from section 6.1, where a customer updates its data. In the method that retrieves the customer, you create a context, perform a query, return the object to the client, and then dispose of the context. In the update method, you create a brand-new context and then attach the customer to it. Finally, you persist the customer. (There’s also something else to do, as you’ll discover later in this chapter.) Let’s get back to the Attach method. The Attach context method receives two arguments: the entity-set name and the entity. This method suffers from the same lim- itations of AddObject and so has become obsolete. In its place, you can use the Attach entity-set method, which needs only the object to be attached, as you can see in the next listing. Listing 6.2 Adding an entity to the context with the ObjectSet class method 158 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle C# var c = new Customer { CompanyId = 1 }; ... ctx.Companies.Attach(c); VB Dim c as New Customer With { .CompanyId = 1 } ... ctx.Companies.Attach(c) You attach an object to the context because you want its data to be updated (or deleted, as you’ll see later) in the database. The object must have a correspondence with a row in the database, and this correspondence is identified by the primary-key properties and columns. NOTE As you have learned before, the context doesn’t go to the data- base to check whether the object’s primary key has a correspondence with a database row. When you attach an object to the context, the primary-key columns must be set, or you’ll get an InvalidOperationException at runtime. Furthermore, during the per- sistence phase, if the UPDATE command doesn’t affect any row, the context throws an exception. Because an attached entity goes to the Unchanged state, you must find a way to mark it as Modified to persist it in the database. The next methods we’ll discuss can do this. 6.2.3 The ApplyCurrentValues and ApplyOriginalValues methods In our customer web-service example, when you have attached the object, you need to persist it. The problem is that after it’s attached, it’s in Unchanged state, so you need to find a way to change it to Modified state. The simplest way is to query the database for the latest data, and compare it with the input entity. You know that the object context keeps a reference to each entity read from the database or that is added through the AddObject or Attach method. What we haven’t mentioned is that it keeps in memory both the original values and the current values of the scalar properties when the entity is bound to the context (you’ll learn more about this in section 6.3). The ApplyOriginalValues method takes an entity as input (the one coming from the database, in this case). The method then retrieves in the context’s memory an object of the same type and with the same key as the input entity (we’ll refer to this entity as the context entity). Finally, the method copies the values of the input entity’s scalar properties into the original value of the context entity’s scalar properties. At this point, the scalar properties’ original values held in the context contain data from the database, whereas the scalar properties’ current values held in the context contain the Listing 6.3 Attaching an entity with the Attach method 159Managing entity state values of the entity from the web service. If original values are different from current values, the entity is set to Modified state; otherwise it remains Unchanged. You can follow the opposite path too. Instead of attaching the entity and querying the database, you can query the database and then apply modifications from the web service’s entity. This is what the ApplyCurrentValues method does. It takes an entity as input (the one from the web service, in this case). The method then retrieves in the context’s memory an object of the same type and with the same key as the input entity (again, we’ll call this the context entity). Finally, the method copies the values of the input entity’s scalar properties into the current value of the context entity’s scalar properties. At this point, the current values held in the context contain data from the web service entity, and the original values are the values from the database. If they are different, the entity is set to Modified state; otherwise it remains Unchanged. When persistence is triggered, if the entity is in Modified state, it’s persisted using UPDATE commands. Like the previous methods we’ve discussed, the ApplyOriginalValues and Apply- CurrentValues methods belong to the ObjectContext and ObjectSet classes, and we recommend using those exposed by the latter, as shown here. C# Dim entityFromDb = GetEntityFromDb(entityFromService.CompanyId); ctx.Companies.Attach(entityFromService); ctx.Companies.ApplyOriginalValues(entityFromDb); ctx.Companies.First(c => c.CompanyId == entityFromService.CompanyId); ctx.Companies.ApplyCurrentValues(entityFromService); VB Dim entityFromDb = GetEntityFromDb(entityFromService.CompanyId) ctx.Companies.Attach(entityFromService) ctx.Companies.ApplyOriginalValues(entityFromDb) ctx.Companies.First(Function(c) c.CompanyId = entityFromService.CompanyId) ctx.Companies.ApplyCurrentValues(entityFromService) You must be aware of a little trap here. Both methods only care about scalar and com- plex properties of the input entity. If a scalar property in an associated entity changes, or if a new line is added, removed, or changed in an associated collection, it won’t be detected. The other persistence operation in a database is DELETE. The DeleteObject method marks an entity for deletion. 6.2.4 The DeleteObject method The DeleteObject method marks an entity as Deleted. The only caveat that you have to keep in mind is that the entity passed to this method must be attached to the con- text. The object must come from a query or have been attached to the context using the Attach method. Listing 6.4 Changing state with ApplyOriginalValues and ApplyCurrentValues 160 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle If the object isn’t found in the context, an InvalidOperationException is thrown with this message: “The object cannot be deleted because it was not found in the ObjectStateManager.” The next listing shows how easy it is to use the DeleteObject method exposed by the ObjectSet class. C# var c = ctx.Companies.OfType() Connected scenario .Where(w => w.CompanyId == 1); ctx.Companies.DeleteObject(c); var c = new Customer { ... }; Disconnected scenarioctx.Companies.Attach(c); ctx.Companies.DeleteObject(c); VB Dim c = ctx.Companies.OfType(Of Customer)(). Connected scenario Where(Function(w) w.CompanyId = 1) ctx.Companies.DeleteObject(c) Dim c as New Customer { ... } Disconnected scenarioctx.Companies.Attach(c) ctx.DeleteObject(c) When DeleteObject is invoked, the entity isn’t deleted from the context; it’s marked as deleted. When persistence is triggered, the entity is removed from the context, and DELETE commands are issued to delete it from the database. The next method we’ll explore is used to commit entity modification inside the context. 6.2.5 The AcceptAllChanges method The AcceptAllChanges method takes all entities that are in Added and Modified states and marks them as Unchanged. It then detaches entities in Deleted state and eventu- ally updates the ObjectStateManager entries (more on this in section 6.3). AcceptAllChanges is exposed only by the ObjectContext and doesn’t have a coun- terpart in the ObjectSet class. That’s why you need to use this code: C# ctx.AcceptAllChanges(); VB ctx.AcceptAllChanges() The methods you’ve seen so far are very strict. They change the entity state to a spe- cific value. The next methods we’ll look at are different because they give you the free- dom to switch to any state. Listing 6.5 Deleting an entity 161Managing entity state 6.2.6 The ChangeState and ChangeObjectState methods The ChangeState and ChangeObjectState methods are the most flexible state- changing methods. They allow you to change the state of an entity to any other possi- ble state (except Detached). When working with one entity, these methods are useful. But their importance grows when dealing with complex object graphs, as you’ll dis- cover later in this chapter. ChangeState is exposed by the ObjectStateEntry class, whereas ChangeObject- State is exposed by the ObjectStateManager class (more on these classes in section 6.3). ChangeState only needs the new state, because the ObjectStateEntry instance already refers to an entity. ChangeObjectState accepts the entity and the new state as arguments. Both methods are shown in the following listing. C# var osm = ctx.ObjectStateManager; osm.ChangeObjectState(entity, EntityState.Unchanged); osm.GetObjectStateEntry(entity).ChangeState(EntityState.Unchanged); VB Dim osm = ctx.ObjectStateManager osm.ChangeObjectState(entity, EntityState.Unchanged) osm.GetObjectStateEntry(entity).ChangeState(EntityState.Unchanged) These methods don’t always physically change the entity state; sometimes they resort to using the previous methods. For instance, moving an entity to the Unchanged state means calling the AcceptChanges method of the ObjectStateEntry class (AcceptChanges is internally invoked by the AcceptAllChanges method we discussed in section 6.2.5). In contrast, changing the state from Unchanged to Added means changing the state. Sometimes you don’t need the entities to be persisted or to be tracked for modifi- cation by the context. In that case, you can remove the entities from the context by detaching them. 6.2.7 The Detach method The Detach method removes the entity from the list of entities tracked by the context. Whatever the state of the entity, it becomes Detached, but entities referenced by the detached one aren’t detached. Invoking this method is pretty simple, as you see in listing 6.7, because it accepts only the entity that must be detached. (We show only the entity set method, which is the recommended one.) C# ctx.Companies.Detach(c); VB ctx.Companies.Detach(c) Listing 6.6 Changing object state using ChangeObjectState and ChangeState Listing 6.7 Detaching an entity 162 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle The precondition for successful detaching is that the entity must already be attached to the context. If that’s not the case, you’ll get an InvalidOperationException with the message, “The object cannot be detached because it is not attached to the Object- StateManager.” You’ve now learned how to move an entity from one state to another, but there’s still one missing piece. So far, we’ve said that the context is able to track modifications to the objects it references. This is true, but only to a certain extent. The truth is that the context delegates change-tracking management to another inner component: ObjectStateManager. 6.3 Managing change tracking with ObjectStateManager The ObjectStateManager component (state manager from now on) is one of Entity Framework’s hidden gems. It’s responsible for everything related to object tracking in the context:  When you add, attach to, or delete an entity from the context, you actually do that against the state manager.  When we say that the context keeps an in-memory collection of all entities read from the database, it’s the state manager that holds this data.  When the context performs an identity-map check (discussed in chapter 3), it’s really the state manager that performs the check.  When we say that the context keeps track of relationships between entities, it’s the state manager that keeps track of everything. NOTE Because ObjectContext wraps the state manager, it’s still valid to say that the context performs the tracking. Tracking changes to entities is only one of the state manager’s tasks. It also provides APIs for retrieving entity state and manipulating it. The state manager isn’t directly accessible. Because it’s an inner component of the context, it’s exposed as a property, named ObjectStateManager, of the Object- Context class. This is the code you use to access the state manager: C# var osm = ctx.ObjectStateManager; VB Dim osm = ctx.ObjectStateManager NOTE For brevity, we’ll use the variable osm to identify the state manager in the code. The context is responsible for the lifecycle of the state manager. It handles its instanti- ation and disposal, and there’s absolutely nothing you can do to change this behavior (nor is there any reason why you should). Now that you know what the purpose of the state manager is, let’s go deeper and look at how it accomplishes its tasks. Let’s first investigate what data it manages. 163Managing change tracking with ObjectStateManager 6.3.1 The ObjectStateEntry class When you query the state manager to retrieve an entity tracked by the context, it replies with an ObjectStateEntry object (entry from now on). This object contains more than the simple tracked entity. It holds data that fully represents the entity and its history inside the state manager. It also holds the relationships between the entity and other entities it references by navigation properties. More specifically, it exposes two types of members: properties and methods that reveal data about the entry (shown in table 6.1) and methods that manipulate entry data (discussed in section 6.3.3). This is a lot of information. The most important members for you are likely Entity- State, OriginalValues, and CurrentValues; the others are there mainly because Entity Framework itself is their first consumer. NOTE OriginalValues and CurrentValues are of type DbDataRecord. ObjectStateEntry is an abstract class that acts as a base class for two other classes: EntityEntry and RelationshipEntry. They’re internal classes, so you’ll never work with them directly. As their names suggest, EntityEntry contains data about an entity, and RelationshipEntry contains information about a relationship between entities. EntityEntry needs no explanation, but we’ll get back to RelationshipEntry in sec- tion 6.3.5. The EntityKey property is vital because it represents the key of the entity inside the state manager. The EntityKey concept is a little bit tricky, so it’s worth looking into it. UNDERSTANDING HOW THE STATE MANAGER IDENTIFIES AN OBJECT BY ITS KEY The EntityKey property is what the state manager uses to ensure that only one entity of a given type with a given ID is tracked. The identity-map check is performed by inspecting the entity’s EntityKey property and not the entity’s key properties. Table 6.1 Members exposed by the ObjectStateEntry class that give access to data in the entry Member Description Entity property Entity tracked by the state manager EntityKey property Key of the entity EntitySet property Entity set that the entity belongs to EntityState property State of the entity OriginalValues property Value of each entity property when it was attached CurrentValues property Current value of each entity property GetModifiedProperties method Properties modified since the entity was tracked IsRelationship property Flag that specifies whether the entry contains data about an entity or a relationship 164 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle EntityKey contains two important properties: the entity set and the values of the properties that compose the entity’s primary key. When you add an object to the context, it’s added to the state manager with a tem- porary entity key, because Entity Framework knows it must persist the object as a new row. This temporary key isn’t evaluated by the identity-map check, so if you add the another object of the same type and with the same ID, it’s added with another tempo- rary key. When persistence is triggered, two INSERT commands are issued. If the row ID is autogenerated on the database (as it is in OrderIT), persistence works fine. If you use natural keys (such as the SSN), the persistence process will throw a duplicate-key exception because the second INSERT command uses the same ID, causing a primary-key violation on the database. When you attach an entity, the state manager automatically creates an EntityKey object and saves it in the entry created for the entity. This EntityKey object isn’t tem- porary and is used by the identity-map check. NOTE When you call ChangeState or ChangeObjectState to change the state from Added to Unchanged or Deleted, the EntityKey is regenerated. The new EntityKey isn’t temporary and is filled with the key properties of the entity. If there’s already an entity with that key, the state change triggers an exception. Not only does ObjectStateEntry contain data, but it also incorporates behavior. It allows you to change the state of an entity and override its original and current values. In the rest of this section and chapter, we’ll look at how to use the power of Object- StateEntry to solve problems. The only way to obtain an ObjectStateEntry instance is to query the state man- ager. In the next section, you’ll see how to do this and why this is a great feature. 6.3.2 Retrieving entries You know perfectly well whether you’re adding, attaching, or deleting entities, so why would you ever need to query the context for entity state? There are two situations where this is useful: first, Entity Framework itself needs to query object state; and sec- ond, you may want to report the entity state in some sort of generic logging or other scenario. Suppose you want to log each persistence operation triggered by your application. One way to do this might be to create an extension method that performs an attach, add, or delete and then adds an entry to the logging storage. This implementation is naive because you might need to halt the persistence process for some reason, and you’d end up logging operations that hadn’t happened. (Yes, you could roll back the logging, but that’s not the point here.) Another approach might be subscribing to the SavingChanges event, which is trig- gered before the persistence process begins (SaveChanges), retrieving entities in the Added, Modified, and Deleted states, and writing entries in the log. This solution, 165Managing change tracking with ObjectStateManager shown in the next listing, better serves your needs; it doesn’t even require you to cre- ate and use extension methods. C# ctx.SavingChanges += new EventHandler(ctx_SavingChanges); Subscribes to event B ctx.SaveChanges(); void ctx_SavingChanges(object sender, EventArgs e) { var osm = (sender as OrderITEntities).ObjectStateManager; var entries = osm.GetObjectStateEntries( EntityState.Added | EntityState.Modified Iterates over modified entities C | EntityState.Deleted); foreach(var entry in entries) { Logger.Write(entry.Entity.GetType().FullName + Writes to log D " - " + entry.State); } } VB AddHandler ctx.SavingChanges, AddressOf ctx_SavingChanges Subscribes to event B ctx.SaveChanges() Private Sub ctx_SavingChanges(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Dim osm = TryCast(sender, OrderITEntities).ObjectStateManager Dim entries = osm.GetObjectStateEntries( EntityState.Added Or EntityState.Modified Or Iterates over modified entities C EntityState.Deleted) For Each entry In entries Logger.Write(entry.Entity.GetType().FullName & Writes to log D " - " & entry.State) Next End Sub The first step is hooking up the SavingChanges event B. Next, in the handler, you retrieve all entries in a specific state by using the ObjectStateManager class’s Get- ObjectStateEntries method C. It accepts an EntityState parameter representing the state to look for, and it returns a collection of all entries in that state. If you need entries in different states, you can combine them using the flag syntax. Eventually, you invoke the logger method to write the entry D. Often, you’ll only need to retrieve a single entry. GetObjectStateEntries is unus- able in such scenario. What you need is another method that lets you pass an entity and get the corresponding state-manager entry. The state manager has a method that serves this purpose. Listing 6.8 Logging persisted objects 166 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle RETRIEVING A SINGLE ENTRY To retrieve the entry related to a single entity, you can use the GetObjectStateEntry method, passing the entity as argument, as shown here: C# var entry = osm.GetObjectStateEntry(entity); VB Dim entry = osm.GetObjectStateEntry(entity) The input entity must have the key properties set, because when the state manager tries to retrieve the entry, it creates an EntityKey using them and performs a lookup. If no entry contains this EntityKey, the method throws an InvalidOperationException with the message, “The ObjectStateManager does not contain an ObjectStateEntry with a reference to an object of type ‘type’.” To avoid the exception, you can use TryGetObjectStateEntry. It performs the same task as GetObjectStateEntry; but following the design guidelines of the .NET Framework, this method accepts the entity and an output parameter representing the entry found, and it returns a Boolean value indicating whether the entry was found. Should it return false, the output parameter is null. The following listing contains code using this method. C# ObjectStateEntry entry; var found = osm.TryGetObjectStateEntry(c, out entry); VB Dim entry As ObjectStateEntry Dim found = osm.TryGetObjectStateEntry(c, entry) With the ObjectStateEntry class, you can modify the state of the entity, as you’ve seen before, by using the ChangeState method. But that’s not your only option. In the next section, you’ll discover other methods that allow you to change entity state. 6.3.3 Modifying entity state from the entry When you have the entry, you can modify the state of the related entity because the context methods we looked at earlier in this chapter internally invoke the methods in the ObjectStateEntry class. These methods are listed in table 6.2. NOTE Technically, talking about entity state is incorrect. The actual state of an entity is the state of its entry in the state manager. However, the term entity state is intuitive and more commonly understood than entry state, so we’ll continue using it. Listing 6.9 Retrieving an entry from the ObjectStateManager Listing 6.10 Safely retrieving an entry from ObjectStateManager 167Managing change tracking with ObjectStateManager These methods are pretty simple to use because most of them don’t accept any param- eters. The only exceptions are SetModifiedProperty, which accepts the name of the property to set as Modified, and ChangeState, which accepts the new state the entity should be changed to. Previously we said that the only state change that’s automatically performed by the state manager is from Unchanged to Modified when you modify a property, but we said that it’s not always the case. In the next section, we’ll dig deep into the object-tracking mechanism, discuss its internals, and see how to avoid its traps. 6.3.4 Understanding object tracking Technically speaking, the state manager can’t monitor modifications to properties inside an entity; it’s the entity that notifies the state manager when a change is made. This notification mechanism isn’t always in place—it depends on how you instantiate the entity. You can create the following kinds of entities:  POCO entity not wrapped by a proxy (a plain entity)  POCO entity wrapped by a proxy (a proxied entity) A wrappable entity is a class written to enable extensibility via proxy. You have already discovered that a class is wrappable when it isn’t closed to inheritance and its proper- ties are virtual. In particular, a wrappable class enables change tracking if all scalar properties are virtual. A wrapped (or proxied) entity is an instance of such an entity that has been wrapped inside a virtual proxy. The state manager doesn’t care whether a class is wrappable or not. What’s impor- tant to it is whether the entity has been instantiated as a proxy or as a pure POCO class. Let’s look at some examples to clarify the distinctions in the preceding list. CHANGE-TRACKING OF AN ENTITY NOT WRAPPED INSIDE A PROXY An entity might be obtained from a web service, from the deserialization of the ASP.NET ViewState in a web page, from a query where the context has proxy creation Table 6.2 Methods exposed by the ObjectStateEntry class that modify entity state Method Description Delete Marks the entity as deleted. This method is also invoked by DeleteObject and ChangeState when moving to the Deleted state. SetModified Marks the entity and all of its properties as Modified. This method is internally invoked by ChangeState when moving to the Modified state. SetModifiedProperty Marks a property as Modified, and consequently marks the entity too. AcceptChanges Changes the entity’s state to Unchanged and overrides the original values of the entry with the current ones. ChangeState Changes the entity’s state to the input value. 168 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle disabled, or from instantiating it with a constructor. These objects aren’t wrapped by a proxy, because only the context with proxy-creation enabled (the default setting) can create a wrapped entity. What’s more, an entity may not be wrappable, so even if it comes from a context, it may not be proxied. As you saw in chapter 5, entities’ property setters have no knowledge of the state manager, so how can the state manager learn when a property is modified? You may be surprised to discover that it can’t. Let’s look at an example. Suppose you need to modify a customer. You query the database to retrieve the customer, and you modify a property, such as the name, and then persist it. Because the state manager doesn’t know that you have modified a property, the state of the entity remains Unchanged, as you can see here. C# var customer = ctx.Customers.First(); var entry = osm.GetObjectStateEntry(customer); customer.Name = "NewCustomer"; State Unchanged ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim customer = ctx.Customers.First() Dim entry = osm.GetObjectStateEntry(customer) customer.Name = "NewCustomer" State Unchanged ctx.SaveChanges() When the SaveChanges method is invoked, the modifications are persisted into the database even if the state is Unchanged! How can this work? Why are modifications persisted if the state manager knows nothing about them? The magic is buried inside the ObjectStateManager class’s DetectChanges method, which is internally invoked by the SaveChanges method. This method iter- ates over all state-manager entries, and for each one compares the original values with those stored in the entity. When it detects that a property has been modified—the cus- tomer name, in this example—it marks the property as Modified, which in turn marks the entity as Modified and updates the current value of the entry. When DetectChanges has finished its job, the entities and their entries in the state manager are perfectly in sync, and SaveChanges can move on to persistence. Because the state manager isn’t automatically synchronized with the entities, when- ever you need to work with its APIs, you must invoke the DetectChanges method to avoid retrieving stale data, as in the previous listing. You can do this as in the next snippet. C# var entry = osm.GetObjectStateEntry(customer); customer.Name = "NewCustomer"; State Unchanged ctx.DetectChanges(); State Modified Listing 6.11 Modifying a customer using an entity not wrapped inside a proxy Listing 6.12 Invoking the DetectChanges method 169Managing change tracking with ObjectStateManager VB Dim entry = osm.GetObjectStateEntry(customer) customer.Name = "NewCustomer" State Unchanged ctx.DetectChanges() State Modified DetectChanges isn’t problem-free. It iterates over all entities and evaluates all their properties. If lots of entities are tracked, the iteration may be expensive. Use it, but don’t abuse it. CHANGE TRACKING WRAPPED INSIDE A PROXY When an entity is wrapped in a proxy, there is more magic under the covers. A prox- ied entity enables automatic change tracking, meaning that it immediately notifies the state manager when a property is modified. This happens because the proxy overrides property setters, injecting code that notifies the state manager about property changes. Figure 6.2 contains a simplified version of the code inside the proxy. public class ProxyCustomer: Customer { public override string WSUsername { set { NofyPropertyChanging(”WSUsername”, value) WSUsername = value; NofyPropertyChanged(”WSUsername”, value) } } } public class Customer : Company { public virtual string WSUsername { get; set; } } Figure 6.2 The code injected by the proxy notifies the state manager about changes in properties. This feature is fantastic because, without any effort, you get automatic synchroniza- tion between the state manager entry and the entity. This behavior is clear in the next listing. C# var entry = osm.GetObjectStateEntry(customer); State Unchanged customer.Name = "NewCustomer"; State Modified VB Dim entry = osm.GetObjectStateEntry(customer) State Unchanged customer.Name = "NewCustomer" State Modified In chapter 3, you learned that proxies enable lazy loading. In this chapter, you’ve learned that proxies also enable automatic change tracking. In Entity Framework 1.0, these features required tons of code, and now you get them almost for free. This is another huge step ahead in Entity Framework 4.0. Listing 6.13 Modifying a customer inside a proxy 170 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle Not only can the context track single entities, but it also tracks entities’ relation- ships. You might expect this to be done using the primary-key properties of associated objects or foreign keys; sometimes it’s done that way, but sometimes it’s done in other ways. 6.3.5 Understanding relationship tracking When an entity is attached to the context, a new entry is added in the state manager. After that, the context scans the navigation properties to find associated entities. Those that aren’t null are automatically attached. The same behavior holds true when adding entities. When a related entity is attached, if the relationship is via an independent associa- tion, a new RelationshipEntry is added to the state manager, containing information about the related entities. For instance, if you attach an order that has a reference to a customer and many order details, the state manager will contain the order, its details, and its customer entries, along with their association entries. Figure 6.3 shows what the state manager looks like after such an attach process. Figure 6.3 The state manager entries after an order with independent associations is attached (shown in the QuickWatch window). There are six entities (one for the order, one for the customer, two for the order details, and two for their related products) and five entries for the relationships between the entities (one for the relationship between the order and the customer, two for the relationship between the order and its details, and two for the relationship between the order details and their product). If the order is loaded using a query, things are slightly different. The state man- ager creates one entry for the order, one for the customer, and one for their relation- ship (order details are ignored because collection associations are ignored). This happens even if you don’t retrieve the customer with the order. The customer entry contains only the primary key (taken from the CustomerId column in the Order table), whereas the relationship points to both entities, so the state manager has everything it needs. A relationship can be in the Added or Deleted state but can’t be in the Modified state. Usually, you won’t need to modify relationship state, because it’s handled by the 171Managing change tracking with ObjectStateManager state manager. In the rare cases when you need to modify the relationship state, you can use the ObjectStateManager class’s ChangeRelationshipState method or the ObjectStateEntry class’s ChangeState method. Naturally, if you try to change the relationship state to Modified, you’ll get a runtime exception. If foreign-key associations are used, no relationship entries are created because you don’t need the associated entity, just the foreign-key property. The result is that after attaching the same order as before, the state manager looks like what you see in figure 6.4. Figure 6.4 The state manager after an order with foreign-key associations is attached. There are three entities (one for the order and two for the details). The relationship entries don’t exist because foreign keys are used. When an entity is retrieved from the database, neither the entity entries nor the relationship entries are created in the state manager for the associated entities. Fur- thermore, changing a relationship is trivial because you only need to change the foreign-key property. As you can see, foreign-key associations make things simple and reduce the state manager’s work. Now that you know how the state manager tracks entities and relationships, let’s investigate a couple of caveats. CHANGES ARE TRACKED ONLY WHEN ENTITIES ARE TRACKED BY CONTEXT When entities are outside the scope of the context, changes made to them aren’t tracked. If you create an order, add a detail, or change its associated customer, and then attach the order to the context, the context will never know what happened. The order and the relationship entry will be in the Unchanged state when they’re attached. STATE MANAGER DOESN’T SUPPORT PARTIALLY LOADED GRAPHS When you attach an entity, the context scans all navigation properties and attaches related objects as well. (The same happens if you add an object to the context.) All entities are put in Unchanged state if they’re attached, and in Added state if they’re added. If the context already tracks an entity of the same type and with the same key as an entity in the graph, it raises an InvalidOperationException because it can’t hold two objects of the same type with the same key. When adding a graph, there’s no risk of an exception because the entity key associ- ated with the objects is temporary. A problem arises if the entity is later marked as Unchanged (which does happen, as you’ll discover later in this chapter). In such a case, the EntityKey is regenerated and becomes permanent, and if there’s already an entity with the same key, an InvalidOperationException is thrown with the message, “AcceptChanges cannot continue because the object’s key values conflict with another 172 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle object in the ObjectStateManager. Make sure that the key values are unique before calling AcceptChanges.” HOW RELATIONSHIPS CHANGE IN SINGLE-REFERENCE PROPERTIES Suppose you have to change the customer associated with an order. You can find your- self in two situations:  Customer is already attached to the context. If a foreign key association is in place, the property is synchronized and the Order object becomes Modified. If you use an independent association, only the RelationshipEntry is created between the entities.  Customer isn’t attached to the context. The Customer is added to the context (remember it doesn’t support partial graphs) in the Added state. If the associa- tion is kept using a foreign-key association, the property is synchronized and the Order object becomes Modified. If you use an independent association, only the RelationshipEntry is created between the entities. NOTE If the instances are proxies, the state change is automatic. If the instances are plain objects, you’ll see state changes only after a call to DetectChanges. Suppose you have an order without a customer. If you use a foreign-key association, setting the foreign-key property to null makes the association between the order and the customer disappear. If you use an independent association, setting the Customer property to null leads to the same result (the RelationshipEntry becomes Deleted). Keep in mind that only the association between the customer and the order is removed. None of the objects are deleted. HOW RELATIONSHIPS CHANGE IN COLLECTION PROPERTIES A call to the Remove method of a collection property causes the reference to the mas- ter to be removed from the detail. For instance, when you remove a detail from an order, its Order property is set to null, and its status is set as Modified. Because the foreign-key property (OrderId) isn’t nullable, during persistence an Invalid- OperationException occurs with this message: “The operation failed: The relation- ship could not be changed because one or more of the foreign-key properties is non- nullable. When a change is made to a relationship, the related foreign-key property is set to a null value. If the foreign-key does not support null values, a new relationship must be defined, the foreign-key property must be assigned another non-null value, or the unrelated object must be deleted.” Although the message might look encrypted, its quite clear. The OrderId property of the detail can’t be null because you can’t have an orphan order detail. The detail must always be assigned to an order. If you supported orphan details, the OrderId col- umn in the OrderDetail table would be nullable. Similarly, the OrderID property in the OrderDetail class would be nullable. In this case, persistence wouldn’t throw any exception, so the order would be persisted and the order detail would become an 173Managing change tracking with ObjectStateManager orphan. (Of course, there’s no point in having an orphan detail—we mention this only for completeness.) If you use an independent association, you’ll get a different message: “A relation- ship from the ‘OrderOrderDetail’ AssociationSet is in the ‘Deleted’ state. Given multi- plicity constraints, a corresponding ‘OrderDetail’ must also in the ‘Deleted’ state.” This means that the RelationshipEntry in the state manager is Deleted, but the entity is Modified, and that isn’t allowed because orphan order details aren’t allowed; the detail must be deleted too. The solution to the problem is to invoke the context’s DeleteObject method instead of the collection property’s Remove method. You’re probably wondering why Entity Framework doesn’t automatically delete the entity instead of simply removing the reference. The answer is that in other situations this isn’t the correct behavior. Think about the many-to-many relationships between suppliers and products. In that case, you don’t have to delete a product if you remove it from those sold by a supplier. You just have to delete the reference in the Product- Supplier table. Due to these different behaviors, the Entity Framework team decided conservatively to let you explicitly choose what to do. NOTE We hope that in the next release, the Entity Framework team will allow us to map what to do and add an element in the EDM that specifies whether the entity must be deleted or just the reference, when the entity is removed from a collection property. Having to explicitly call the DeleteObject method sounds less fluent than removing an element from the collection. When you add an entity to a collection property (such as adding an order detail to an order), you can find yourself in two different situations depending on whether the entity is attached to the context or not:  The detail is attached to the context. If foreign-key association is in place, the prop- erty must be synchronized with the ID of the order. If you use an independent association, only the RelationshipEntry is created between the entities.  The detail isn’t attached to the context. The Customer is added to the context in Added state (remember, the context doesn’t support partial graphs). If the asso- ciation is kept using a foreign-key association, the property must be synchro- nized with the ID of the order. If you use an independent association, a RelationshipEntry between the entities is also created. There are a lot of rules, and knowing them in advance makes manipulating graphs easier and less scary. Do you remember MergeOption? It’s a way to specify how an entity that’s tracked by the context is merged with an entity with the same key coming from a query. We looked at all the options in chapter 3, but we only analyzed them from a querying point of view. Now let’s look at them from the state manager’s point of view. 174 CHAPTER 6 Understanding the entity lifecycle 6.3.6 Change tracking and MergeOption MergeOption is a property of the ObjectSet class. It’s an enum of type System. Data.Objects.MergeOption that contains the following values:  AppendOnly  NoTracking  OverwriteChanges  PreserveChanges During an object’s materialization, when AppendOnly is used (the default setting), the state manager checks whether there’s already an entry with the same key. If so, the entity related to the entry is returned and data from the database is discarded. If not, the entity is materialized and attached to the context. In this case, the state manager creates the entry using the original and current values of the materialized entity. Even- tually, the materialized entity is returned. When NoTracking is used, the context doesn’t perform the identity-map check, so data from the database is always materialized and returned, even if there’s already a corresponding entity in the state manager. The entities returned when the NoTracking option is enabled are in Detached state, so they’re not tracked by the context. When OverwriteChanges is used, if the identity-map check doesn’t find an entry in the state manager, the entity is materialized, attached to the context, and returned. If the entry is found, the related entity state is set to Unchanged, and both the current and original values are updated with values from the database. When PreserveChanges is used, if the identity-map check doesn’t find an entry in the state manager, the entity is materialized, attached to the context, and returned. If the identity-map check does find an entry in the state manager, there are a few things that can happen:  If the state of the entity is Unchanged, the current and original values in the entry are overwritten with database values. The state of the entity remains Unchanged.  If the state of the entity is Modified, the current values of the modified proper- ties aren’t overwritten with database values. The original values of the unmodi- fied properties are overwritten with database values.  If the current values of the unmodified properties are different from the values from the database, the properties are marked as Modified. This is a breaking change from version 1.0, because in that version properties aren’t marked as Modified. If you need to restore the version 1.0 behavior, set the UseLegacy- PreserveChangesBehavior property to true as follows: C# ctx.ContextOptions.UseLegacyPreserveChangesBehavior = true; VB ctx.ContextOptions.UseLegacyPreserveChangesBehavior = true 175Summary Now you know all there is to know about MergeOption’s behavior. It’s an important aspect of any application, and it’s often misused or underestimated. In chapter 19, you’ll discover that it dramatically affects performance. 6.4 Summary Understanding the entity lifecycle will enable you to manage objects efficiently and avoid surprises. Because an entity’s state affects how modifications are persisted into the database, its vital that you fully master this aspect of Entity Framework. Correctly managing the various states and their transitions is very important and will prevent problems when objects are later persisted. This is particularly true when you’re working with object graphs, where Entity Framework will automatically attach and add related objects. You must also pay attention to tracking. When working with plain POCO entities, you have to remember that they aren’t in sync with the state manager. If you plan to search entities in the state manager, always remember to synchronize it with the actual entities. When you fully master these subjects, persistence will become much easier, as you’ll discover in the next chapter. 176 Persisting objects into the database Now that you know how to handle entity lifecycles, you’re ready to take the next step: persisting modifications made to objects into the database. In this chapter, we’ll discuss how to insert, update, and delete entities in both connected and disconnected scenarios. We’ll cover single-object updates, such as a customer, and complex graph updates, such as an order and its details. By the end of this chapter, you’ll be able to manage updates through Entity Framework. NOTE In this chapter, we won’t be discussing topics like transaction and concurrency management. They get a chapter of their own— chapter 8. Let’s start our discussion with how the persistence process works. This chapter covers  Persisting modified objects into the database  Persisting complex object graphs into the database  Persisting with foreign-key and independent associations 177Persisting entities with SaveChanges 7.1 Persisting entities with SaveChanges Entity persistence is the process that stores entities data inside the database. Trigger- ing this procedure is simple as invoking the SaveChanges method of the Object- Context class (which is the class from which the OrderITEntities class in OrderIT inherits). The following snippet shows an example of how to use SaveChanges to persist modifications made to a customer: C# var customer = from c in ctx.Companies where c.Id == 1 select c; customer.Name = "new name"; ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim customer = From c In ctx.Companies Where c.Id = 1 customer.Name = "new name" ctx.SaveChanges() Using SaveChanges is easy. When it’s invoked, it internally iterates over the entities in the Modified, Deleted, and Added states, generates the appropriate SQL statements, and executes them against the database. In the next section, we’re going deeper into this subject. SaveChanges performs all the plumbing required for persisting entities. Not only does it synchronize the state manager with the entities (as you learned in chapter 6), but it also detects dirty entities (entities in the Added, Modified, and Deleted states), starts the connection and the transaction with the database, generates the correct SQL and commits or rolls back everything depending on whether some exception occurred. Eventually, it removes deleted entities and sets added and modified ones to Unchanged. In the end, it’s a complex process that uses the database, the state man- ager, and SQL to accomplish its task, as you see in figure 7.1. Detect dirty enes Start database transacon SQL code execuon SQL code generaon Database transacon commit/rollback Commit enes Figure 7.1 The steps performed by the SaveChanges method to persist entity state Now let’s look at each step, starting with the first. 7.1.1 Detecting dirty entities Dirty entities are entities that are in the Added, Modified, or Deleted state. As you learned in chapter 6, entities and their related entries in the state manager aren’t always in sync. The SaveChanges method needs to synchronize them. This phase is the easiest one in the persistence process. The SaveChanges method invokes the DetectChanges method (introduced in chapter 6) so that entities and 178 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database entries in the state manager are synchronized. When DetectChanges has finished its work, the SaveChanges method queries the state manager to retrieve entries for enti- ties in the Added, Modified, and Deleted states so that it can persist them. Here is an excerpt of the code in the SaveChanges method that’s executed during this phase: C# DetectChanges(); var entries = ObjectStateManager.GetObjectStateEntries( EntityState.Added | EntityState.Modified | EntityState.Deleted); VB DetectChanges(); Dim entries = ObjectStateManager.GetObjectStateEntries( EntityState.Added Or EntityState.Modified Or EntityState.Deleted); The entries returned by the query to the state manager contains first the added enti- ties, then the modified ones, and finally the deleted ones. Our exploration of the state manager in the last chapter should make this step fairly easy to understand. Now we can move on to the second part. 7.1.2 Starting database transactions At this point in the process, the SaveChanges method opens a connection to the data- base and starts a transaction. All commands that are executed in the following phase are executed in the context of this transaction. NOTE In chapter 8, you’ll learn how to customize the transaction management. This phase is simple. Let’s move on and discuss the most complicated one. 7.1.3 SQL code generation and execution SQL code generation is pretty complex compared with detecting the dirty entities or starting the transaction. Here the entries returned from the call to the GetObject- StateEntries method is iterated through, and for each entity in it, the appropriate SQL code is generated. When it comes to persisting entities in Added state, generating the SQL code isn’t difficult. A simple INSERT SQL statement is created. The situation gets more complicated with entities in the Modified state. Because the state manager keeps track of both the original and current values of each loaded entity, Entity Framework generates UPDATE commands that modify only the changed properties. This is a great optimization that saves you a lot of work. Isn’t Entity Frame- work lovely? Probably the simplest SQL code to generate is the DELETE commands for entities in the Deleted state. The SQL code deletes an object using its key properties. 179Persisting entities with SaveChanges The SQL generation and execution is an iterative process because statements often need data from previous ones. For example, think about the order and its details. To insert each detail, Entity Framework needs the ID of the order saved previously, so the SQL for the order detail is generated only after the order has been persisted. 7.1.4 Database transaction commit or rollback If every SQL command executed in the previous phase is executed correctly, the data- base transaction is committed. But if an error occurs during the execution of a SQL statement, the transaction is rolled back. An error can occur for several reasons. For instance, the database can be temporar- ily down or there can be a network problem. Those are common hardware problems, and software problems are treated exactly the same way. A duplicate key or a not- nullable column receiving a null value causes the execution flow to terminate and the transaction to roll back. Those sorts of errors are raised by the database, but there’s another type of error that causes the persistence process to stop suddenly, even if the database doesn’t raise an exception: a concurrency exception. This is a software exception, and it’s raised by Entity Framework itself. We’ll discuss concurrency in chapter 8. 7.1.5 Committing entities By default, if the transaction terminates correctly, the context invokes the AcceptAll- Changes method, which internally invokes the AcceptChanges method of each dirty entry in the state manager. After its invocation, the entries are in sync with both the entities and the database, so you can think of this as a commit for entities. Entities in Added or Modified state become Unchanged, and entities in Deleted state are removed from the context (and the state manager). You can manipulate this commit process by using an overload of SaveChanges that accepts an enum of type SaveOptions (namespace System.Data.Objects). The enum has three possible values:  None—Neither the DetectChanges nor the AcceptAllChanges methods are invoked.  AcceptAllChangesAfterSave—The AcceptAllChanges method is invoked.  DetectChangesBeforeSave—The DetectChanges method is invoked before sav- ing changes. The enum is a flag, so you can combine the values. NOTE When no parameter is passed to SaveChanges, both the Accept- AllChangesAfterSave and DetectChangesBeforeSave values are auto- matically passed. Earlier we mentioned that if an error occurs during persistence, the transaction rolls back. In that case, AcceptAllChanges isn’t triggered, so if you invoke the SaveChanges 180 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database method again, the context will try to persist the entities again, the same way it did when the exception occurred because nothing has been touched. If no error occurs during persistence and the AcceptAllChangesAfterSave value isn’t passed to SaveChanges method, the entities and the entries in the state manager remain untouched so a new call to SaveChanges would trigger persistence again. 7.1.6 Overriding SaveChanges The SaveChanges method is virtual. You can override it in the context to inject any logic you need or even to completely override the persistence logic. Overriding SaveChanges is useful for building a logging system, as you saw in section 6.3.2. It could also be used to invoke a method on the entity, notifying it when it’s updated, added, or deleted. That’s not hard to do, especially if this method is exposed through an interface or a base class. NOTE If you don’t want to completely override the SaveChanges logic, remember to invoke the base implementation. Now you have all the basics necessary to understand how Entity Framework persists entities. In the next section, we’ll see some of these concepts in action and look at how they affect the database. 7.2 Persisting changed entities into the database Persisting a single entity means saving it into the database. You have three ways to do this:  Persisting it as a new row  Using its properties to update an existing row  Using its key properties to delete an existing row We’ll look at each of these options in this section. In chapter 4, we introduced a user as the tester of OrderIT. In the next sections, this user will return to simulate a real-world scenario. 7.2.1 Persisting an entity as a new row The first thing the user wants to do is create customers, suppliers, and products. You made the user happy about data retrieval, and you’ll make the user happy about data insertion too. The first thing you need to do is allow the user to create customers. This is extremely easy to do: you can use the AddObject method, pass the Customer instance, and then invoke SaveChanges. Here’s what it looks like. C# var cust = new Customer() { Listing 7.1 Persisting a new customer 181Persisting changed entities into the database Name = "Stefano Mostarda", BillingAddress = new AddressInfo() { Address = "5th street", City = "New York", Country = "USA", ZipCode = "0000000" }, ShippingAddress = new AddressInfo() { Address = "5th street", City = "New York", Country = "USA", ZipCode = "0000000" }, WSEnabled = true, WSUserName = "user1", WSPassword = "user1pwd" }; ctx.Companies.AddObject(cust); ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim cust As new Customer() With { .Name = "Stefano Mostarda", .BillingAddress = new AddressInfo() With { .Address = "5th street", .City = "New York", .Country = "USA", .ZipCode = "0000000" }, .ShippingAddress = new AddressInfo() With { .Address = "5th street", .City = "New York", .Country = "USA", .ZipCode = "0000000" }, .WSEnabled = true, .WSUserName = "user1", .WSPassword = "user1pwd" } ctx.Companies.AddObject(cust) ctx.SaveChanges() This listing shows how you can create a customer. Because the primary-key property is an identity, you don’t need to set it; if you do, the value will be ignored. NOTE In the event that the key isn’t an identity, you need to set it, or you’ll get an InvalidOperationException at runtime. Despite its simplicity, the code generates more than a simple insert. To better under- stand some of the background, let’s look at the SQL that’s generated. 182 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database exec sp_executesql N'insert [dbo].[Company]( [Name], [BillingAddress], [BillingCity], [BillingZipCode], [BillingCountry], [ShippingAddress], [ShippingCity], [ShippingZipCode], [ShippingCountry], [WSUserName], [WSPassword], [WSEnabled], [Type], [IBAN], [PaymentDays]) values (@0, @1, @2, @3, @4, @5, @6, @7, @8, @9, @10, @11, @12, null, null) Inserts customer B select [CompanyId] from [dbo].[Company] where @@ROWCOUNT > 0 and [CompanyId] = scope_identity()', Retrieves IDC N'@0 varchar(30), @1 varchar(20), @2 varchar(20), @3 varchar(10), @4 varchar(20), @5 varchar(20), @6 varchar(20), @7 varchar(10), @8 varchar(20), @9 varchar(20), @10 varchar(20), @11 bit, @12 char(1)', @0='Stefano Mostarda', @1='5th street', @2='New York', @3='0000000', @4='USA', @5='5th street', @6='New York', @7='0000000', @8='USA', @9='user1', @10='user1pwd', @11=1, @12='C' Sets parametersD The first thing that’s triggered is the insertion of the record B. Then, after the record is added, the database-generated ID is retrieved C. (The primary-key property is an Identity, which causes it to be assigned a database-generated ID.) Notice that the discriminator column (Type) is automatically handled D. Because a customer was added, the value of the column is set to C. If a supplier was added, the value would have been S—these are the values of the discriminator specified in the mapping. This is a great feature that lets you code using the OOP paradigm and leave Entity Framework to handle the transformation to the relational jargon. The same paradigm applies to products. If you want to add a new Shirt, you create an instance, add it to the context, and then persist it. The SQL generated will insert the record into both the Product and Shirt tables. Again, you code using OOP and let Entity Framework worry about the database. Persisting new entities isn’t tricky. Even if the persistence process involves complex stuff, it’s nicely handled by the context and kept hidden from you. Next, we’ll look at how to persist modifications to an entity. 7.2.2 Persisting modifications made to an existing entity It’s 4 p.m. Friday, and the phone rings. The user has saved a customer with an incor- rect name, and now the record needs to be modified. PERSISTENCE IN THE CONNECTED SCENARIO The first path you can follow is to update data in a connected scenario—that’s when an entity is retrieved from the database and modified in the same context. In this scenario, you can modify the properties and then call the SaveChanges method, as follows. Listing 7.2 The SQL generated by the insert 183Persisting changed entities into the database C# var cust = ctx.Companies.OfType() .First(c => c.CompanyId == 1); cust.Name = "Stefano Mostarda"; ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim cust = ctx.Companies.OfType(Of Customer)(). First(Function(c) c.CompanyId = 1) cust.Name = "Stefano Mostarda" ctx.SaveChanges() This code is pretty simple and needs no explanation. What’s more, because the state manager keeps track of the original and current values of entity properties, the SQL affects only columns mapped to modified properties. As a result, the UPDATE com- mand is highly optimized, as you can see in the following snippet: exec sp_executesql N'update [dbo].[Company] set [Name] = @0 where ([CompanyId] = @1)', N'@0 varchar(15), @1 int', @0='Stefano Mostarda', @1=13 There is an important point to understand here. When you modify a scalar property in a complex type, all properties of the complex type are persisted. For instance, if you modify the shipping address, the SQL will update the shipping city, country, and ZIP code even if they haven’t been modified. This happens because the state-manager entry considers a complex property to be a unique block. The modification of a single property in the block causes the entire block to be considered modified. This connected scenario is by far the easiest one to code. In the disconnected sce- nario, things are more complex. PERSISTENCE IN THE DISCONNECTED SCENARIO Suppose you have a method that accepts a Customer instance. You create a new con- text, attach the customer, and then persist it. The problem is that when you attach the entity to the context, it’s Unchanged, and SaveChanges won’t persist anything. You have two ways to overcome this problem:  Attach the input entity, and change its state to Modified by using the Change- ObjectState method.  Query the database to retrieve the entity, and then use the ApplyCurrent- Values method to overwrite properties of the database entity with the proper- ties of the input entity. The first solution is the simplest and the most used. It’s shown in the following listing. C# void UpdateCustomer(Customer cust) { Listing 7.3 Persisting a modified entity in the connected scenario Listing 7.4 Updating an entity using ChangeObjectState 184 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { ctx.Companies.Attach(cust); ctx.ObjectStateManager.ChangeObjectState(cust, EntityState.Modified); ctx.SaveChanges(); } } VB Sub UpdateCustomer(ByVal cust as Customer) Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() ctx.Companies.Attach(cust) ctx.ObjectStateManager.ChangeObjectState(cust, EntityState.Modified) ctx.SaveChanges() End using End Sub SQL exec sp_executesql N'update [dbo].[Company] set [Name] = @0, [BillingAddress] = @1, [BillingCity] = @2, [BillingZipCode] = @3, [BillingCountry] = @4, [ShippingAddress] = @5, [ShippingCity] = @6, [ShippingZipCode] = @7, [ShippingCountry] = @8, [WSUserName] = @9, [WSPassword] = @10, [WSEnabled] = @11 where ([CompanyId] = @12)', N'@0 varchar(15), @1 varchar(10), @2 varchar(8),@3 varchar(5), @4 varchar(3), @5 varchar(10), @6 varchar(8), @7 varchar(5), @8 varchar(3), @9 varchar(3), @10 varchar(3), @11 bit, @12 int', @0='newCustomerName', @1='7th Avenue', @2='New York', @3='98765', @4='USA', @5='7th Avenue', @6='New York', @7='98765', @8='USA', @9='US1', @10='US1',@11=1,@12=1 The drawback to this approach is that ChangeObjectState marks the entity and all its properties as Modified. As a result, the UPDATE command will modify all the mapped columns, even if they weren’t really changed. If a property isn’t set, its value will over- write the one in the database, causing data loss. Let’s look at an example. Suppose you have a customer with ID 1. You create a Customer instance and set CompanyId to 1 and Name to NewName. You then attach the instance to the context, mark it as Modified, and call SaveChanges. The generated UPDATE command will update the Name column, and all the other columns will be assigned their default values (null for strings, 0 for integers, and so on), meaning that any previous data for that customer in the database is lost. Figure 7.2 illustrates this problem. Figure 7.2 clearly shows the problem that arises when using ChangeObjectState to set a partially loaded entity in the Modified state. As you can see, if all the properties are correctly set, this is a powerful technique that offers good performance and sim- plicity, but it can be dangerous if you don’t know the internals. Figure 7.2 The billing address and city are empty in the persisted entity, so the database’s original values are lost after persistence. 185Persisting changed entities into the database NOTE You could argue that updating all columns, even those that weren’t modified, causes a slowdown in performance. In most databases, this cost is negligible. In fact, when the database has to perform an update, the biggest effort is in row retrieval. The column-update phase takes an insignificant percentage of the entire operation time. The second solution for updating an object is pretty simple, even if it’s slightly more complex than the one based on ChangeObjectState. For this second solution, you query the database to retrieve the entity you want to modify, and then you use the ApplyCurrentValues method to apply the values from the modified entity. Finally, you invoke SaveChanges. When the modifications are persisted, the most optimized SQL is generated because the state manager knows which properties have been modi- fied. Here’s the code for such a solution. C# void UpdateCustomerWithApplyCurrentValues(Customer cust) { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { ctx.Companies.OfType() .First(c => c.CompanyId == cust.CompanyId); ctx.Companies.ApplyCurrentValues(cust); ctx.SaveChanges(); } } VB Private Sub UpdateCustomerWithApplyCurrentValues(ByVal cust As Customer) Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() ctx.Companies.OfType(Of Customer)(). First(Function(c) c.CompanyId = cust.CompanyId) ctx.Companies.ApplyCurrentValues(cust) ctx.SaveChanges() End Using End Sub Listing 7.5 Updating an entity using ApplyCurrentValues 186 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database Unfortunately, ApplyCurrentValues suffers from the same problem as Change- ObjectState because it overwrites the current values of the entry, and the attached entity properties, with those from the input entity. If a property in the input entity isn’t set (if it’s null, empty, or set to the type’s default value), that property overwrites the current value of the entry, which is later used to update the database. The result, once again, is data loss. ApplyCurrentValues suffers from another problem. It involves two round trips to the database: one to read data and one to update it. Performance can be hurt by this behavior. The problem gets even bigger when the data is separated in multiple tables, such as for the product data in OrderIT. Querying requires a join between tables, and updating can affect one or more tables, depending on what properties have been changed. If performance is critical, you’ll probably have to choose the ChangeObject- State approach, because it goes to the database only for the update process. In the end, both approaches work in some cases but may cause data loss if misused. If you know in advance that some properties aren’t set and that you’ll lose data using one of these approaches, you have two options:  Retrieve the customer from the database, and manually modify its properties one by one, based on the values in the input entity. This approach works well because it works like the connected scenario.  Attach the input entity, and explicitly mark the properties to be updated. This approach eliminates both the need to go to the database to retrieve the entity and the risks of data loss. The last option is the best one. It requires some code, but it’s effective because it offers the best performance while avoiding data loss. CHOOSING WHAT PROPERTIES TO UPDATE IN THE DISCONNECTED SCENARIO Let’s look at updating the customer information. The user wants to update the cus- tomer name and addresses (web service–related properties are updated in another dedicated form). To do this, you can create a method that attaches the entity and marks the speci- fied properties as Modified. This marking process automatically puts the entity in the Modified state too. When you invoke the SaveChanges method, only the specified properties are persisted into the database. The method that marks a property as Modified is SetModifiedProperty. It accepts only one parameter, which represents the name of the property to be updated, as you can see in the following snippet: C# var entry = osm.GetObjectStateEntry(customer); entry.SetModifiedProperty("Name"); entry.SetModifiedProperty("ShippingAddress"); entry.SetModifiedProperty("BillingAddress"); VB Dim entry = osm.GetObjectStateEntry(customer) 187Persisting entities graphs entry.SetModifiedProperty("Name") entry.SetModifiedProperty("ShippingAddress") entry.SetModifiedProperty("BillingAddress") We’ve now covered all the possible ways of updating an entity. The user can update customer information and is happy. But only for a couple of hours, because now the user needs to delete a customer. 7.2.3 Persisting entity deletion Deleting an entity is a simple task. You already know that marking an entity as Deleted is a simple matter of invoking the DeleteObject method and passing in the entity. After the entity is marked, the related row in the database is deleted when the SaveChanges method is invoked. Before being marked as Deleted, the entity must be attached to the context. This will be the case if the entity has been queried (in the connected scenario) or if it has been attached (in the disconnected scenario). The following listing shows examples of both techniques. C# var cust = ctx.Companies.OfType().First(); Connected scenarioctx.DeleteObject(cust); ctx.SaveChanges(); var cust = new Customer() { CompanyId = id }; Disconnected scenario ctx.Companies.Attach(cust); ctx.DeleteObject(cust); ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim cust = ctx.Companies.OfType(Of Customer).First() Connected scenarioctx.DeleteObject(cust) ctx.SaveChanges() Dim cust As new Customer() With { .CompanyId = id } Disconnected scenario ctx.Companies.Attach(cust) ctx.DeleteObject(cust) ctx.SaveChanges() Congratulations. You have successfully written code to modify customer data in any way the user may need. But that’s just the beginning. The next step is to write a new part of OrderIT: order management. This is a brand-new environment because you’ll be working with associations. 7.3 Persisting entities graphs Order persistence requires you to work with up to four entities. Although you’ll update only the order and its details, the customer that places the order and the prod- ucts in the details are equally involved as read-only data. Because more entities are involved, we talk about an entities graph (or objects graph); sometimes its persistence can Listing 7.6 Deleting an entity in both connected and disconnected scenarios 188 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database be challenging, because entities in the same graph may need different actions. For instance, some may be added while others are modified or ignored. To see these problems in practice and how to solve them, let’s get back to our user. To start with, the user needs a mask where they can choose the customer, fill in order data, and specify the products to be ordered. 7.3.1 Persisting a graph of added entities When the user saves the order, the persistence process must be triggered. This is what you have to do: 1 Create an Order instance. 2 Associate the Order with a Customer. 3 Create an OrderDetail instance. 4 Associate the OrderDetail with a product. 5 Add the OrderDetail to the Order. 6 Repeat steps 3 to 5 for each detail. 7 Add the Order to the context. 8 Persist the modifications. The code that performs these steps varies depending on whether you opt for foreign- key or independent associations, but the basic idea is the same. We’ll look at both options in turn. PERSISTING A GRAPH OF ADDED ENTITIES USING FOREIGN-KEY ASSOCIATIONS Thanks to the foreign-key feature, associating a customer with the order is pretty easy; you just have to set the foreign-key property with the primary key of the related entity. Setting the CustomerId property of the order to 1 automatically associates the order with the customer that has that ID. The same thing happens when you set the ProductId column of the detail. As we mentioned, Entity Framework doesn’t support an object graph being par- tially loaded when an order is added—the details are added too. You can see this in the following listing. C# var order = new Order { CustomerId = 1, OrderDate = DateTime.Now.Date }; order.ShippingAddress = new AddressInfo() { Address = "2th street", City = "New York", Country = "USA", ZipCode = "0000001" }; Listing 7.7 Creating an order using foreign-key associations 189Persisting entities graphs var detail1 = new OrderDetail() { ProductId = 2, Quantity = 3, UnitPrice = 10 }; var detail2 = new OrderDetail() { ProductId = 1, Quantity = 5, UnitPrice = 10 }; order.OrderDetails.Add(detail1); order.OrderDetails.Add(detail2); ctx.Orders.AddObject(order); ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim order As New Order With { .CustomerId = 1, _ .OrderDate = DateTime.Now.Date } order.ShippingAddress = New AddressInfo() { .Address = "2th street", .City = "New York", .Country = "USA", .ZipCode = "0000001" } Dim detail1 As New OrderDetail() { .ProductId = 2, .Quantity = 3, .UnitPrice = 10 } Dim detail2 As New OrderDetail() { .ProductId = 1, .Quantity = 5, .UnitPrice = 10 } order.OrderDetails.Add(detail1) order.OrderDetails.Add(detail2) ctx.Orders.AddObject(order) ctx.SaveChanges() Persisting a new order isn’t difficult thanks to foreign keys. They don’t require you to load the associated customer and products. You only work with the Order and Order- Detail entities. Foreign keys are simple to use, but they’re not the only way to maintain relation- ships between entities. During model design, you may decide not to use foreign keys and to rely on independent associations instead. Or perhaps you’re upgrading an application to Entity Framework 4.0 from Entity Framework 1.0, which has no concept of foreign keys. 190 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database PERSISTING A GRAPH OF ADDED ENTITIES USING INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATIONS When you use an independent association, the CustomerId column of the Order table is mapped to the CompanyId property of the Customer class. There’s no CustomerId property in the Order class. As a result, to associate a customer with an order, you have to create a customer instance and associate it with the order. The same process applies to the association between the details and their product. Because you need only the ID of the customer and the ID of the product, instead of retrieving them from the database, you can create an instance (a stub) for each of them, set the ID, and then associate the instances with the order and the details. The following listing contains a first draft of the code for this technique. C# var cust = new Customer() { CompanyId = 1 }; var product1 = new Product() { ProductId = 1 } var product2 = new Product() { ProductId = 2 }; var order = new Order { Customer = cust, OrderDate = DateTime.Now.Date }; order.ShippingAddress = new AddressInfo() { Address = "2th street", City = "New York", Country = "USA", ZipCode = "0000001" }; var detail1 = new OrderDetail() { Product = product1, Quantity = 3, UnitPrice = 10 }; var detail2 = new OrderDetail() { Product = product2, Quantity = 5, UnitPrice = 10 }; order.OrderDetails.Add(detail1); order.OrderDetails.Add(detail2); ctx.Orders.AddObject(order); ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim cust As New Customer() With { .CompanyId = 1 } Dim product1 As New Product() With { .ProductId = 1 } Dim product2 As New Product() With { .ProductId = 2 } Listing 7.8 Creating an order using independent associations 191Persisting entities graphs Dim order As New Order With { .Customer = cust, .OrderDate = DateTime.Now.Date } order.ShippingAddress As New AddressInfo() With { .Address = "2th street", .City = "New York", .Country = "USA", .ZipCode = "0000001" } Dim detail1 As New OrderDetail() With { .Product = product1, .Quantity = 3, .UnitPrice = 10 } Dim detail2 As New OrderDetail() With { .Product = product2, .Quantity = 5, .UnitPrice = 10 } order.OrderDetails.Add(detail1) order.OrderDetails.Add(detail2) ctx.Orders.AddObject(order) ctx.SaveChanges() Take a moment to look through the code again and ask yourself, “Will this code work?” The answer is, “No.” It will raise an exception during the persistence phase. More precisely, you’ll receive an UpdateException whose InnerException is a Sql- Exception stating that you can’t insert a null value into the Name column of the Company table. This happens because the customer is marked as Added, due to the AddObject method, so the persistence process tries to insert the customer too. Because you’ve set only the ID, the insert fails because the name is null, and the database doesn’t allow that. To make everything work correctly, you have to use the ChangeObjectState method to mark the customer as Unchanged before calling SaveChanges. The same method must be invoked to set the products as Unchanged. This way, only the order and its details are persisted; the rest remains untouched. The following listing shows the code that must be added to listing 7.8 to make everything work. C# ctx.Orders.AddObject(order); osm.ChangeObjectState(cust, EntityState.Unchanged); osm.ChangeObjectState(product1, EntityState.Unchanged); osm.ChangeObjectState(product2, EntityState.Unchanged); ctx.SaveChanges(); Listing 7.9 Correctly creating an order with independent associations 192 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database VB ctx.Orders.AddObject(order) osm.ChangeObjectState(cust, EntityState.Unchanged) osm.ChangeObjectState(product1, EntityState.Unchanged) osm.ChangeObjectState(product2, EntityState.Unchanged) ctx.SaveChanges() As you can see, independent associations are harder to manage. The user is happy for a while. But then the user discovers that when a new cus- tomer calls, the user can take the order but can’t associate it with the customer, because the new customer hasn’t been created yet. The user has to go back to the cus- tomers form, create the customer, and then reinsert the order. Instead, the user wants to be able to insert data about the new customer and the order in the same form. PERSISTING A GRAPH OF ENTITIES IN DIFFERENT STATES Achieving this goal is pretty easy. You can create a Customer instance with all the data, associate it with the order, and not set its state to Unchanged. If you write the code directly in the form, you’ll probably have a flag indicating whether the customer is new or not. If you use an external method, you could pass that flag, but a more independent solution would be better. The problem is how to decide whether the customer must be inserted into the database or not without hav- ing a flag. The ID is the key. In the case of foreign-key associations, if the foreign-key property is 0, the customer is new; otherwise, the customer already exists. In the case of inde- pendent associations, if the ID of the Customer entity is 0, the customer is new; other- wise, the customer exists. NOTE By following this simple rule, you can decide whether an instance is new or not and correctly persist any graph. If you have composed keys or you use GUIDs, another check might be needed, but the general idea remains the same. Using mapping information (metadata) you could even write an extension method that checks any graph in a generic way and set entity state automatically. Persisting a graph of added entities isn’t difficult. The real challenge comes when you have to save modifications made to the objects—to do this, you have to manually detect what’s changed. 7.3.2 Persisting modifications made to a graph You’ve just deployed the new version of OrderIT, and the user has called to congratu- late you on the excellent job. Five minutes later, the user gets back to you saying that they’ve made a mistake in the shipping address of an order and need to change it. That’s pretty easy to do. It doesn’t even involve a graph, because you can update the order and ignore its details. Soon the user is back again. A customer has changed their mind and needs more red shirts (ProductId 1), no shoes (ProductId 2), and a new green shirt (ProductId 3). 193Persisting entities graphs What’s worse, the user discovered that the order has been erroneously associated with the wrong customer. This is a big challenge. The data in the Order instance is untouched, but the asso- ciation with the customer has changed. Some items in the details list must be changed or removed, and others must be added. Coordinating all the updates will require some effort. PERSISTING MODIFICATIONS USING FOREIGN-KEY ASSOCIATIONS If you’re in a connected scenario, you read the data and show it on the form, and when the user saves the modifications, you apply them to the entities. In this case, everything is pretty simple, as the following listing shows, because you’re always con- nected to the context, which tracks any modifications. C# order.ActualShippingDate = DateTime.Now.AddDays(2); var product1 = new Product() { ProductId = 3 }; var detail1 = new OrderDetail() { Product = product1, Quantity = 5, UnitPrice = 3 }; order.OrderDetails.Add(detail1); order.OrderDetails[1].Quantity = 2; ctx.OrderDetails.DeleteObject(order.OrderDetails[2]); ctx.SaveChanges() VB order.ActualShippingDate = DateTime.Now.AddDays(2) Dim product1 As New Product() With { .ProductId = 3 } Dim detail1 As New OrderDetail() With { .Product = product1, .Quantity = 5, .UnitPrice = 3 } order.OrderDetails.Add(detail1) order.OrderDetails(1).Quantity = 2 ctx.OrderDetails.DeleteObject(order.OrderDetails(2)) ctx.SaveChanges() This code causes four operations to occur. The order shipping date is updated, a new detail is added, an existing quantity is modified, and another is deleted. Fairly easy to understand, isn’t it? In a disconnected scenario, everything is more difficult. Suppose you’re putting persistence logic in an external method—it doesn’t know anything about what has Listing 7.10 Updating an order in a connected scenario 194 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database been modified, added, or removed. It receives the order and then needs a way to dis- cover what’s been changed. In a layered application, this is a common scenario. The solution is simple. You query the database to retrieve the order and its details. After that, you use the ApplyCurrentValues method to update the order from the database with the value of the input order. Unfortunately, the ApplyCurrentValues method affects only the order, leaving the details untouched. To discover how the details have been modified, you have to use LINQ to Objects. The added order details are in the input order but not in the order retrieved from the database. (Because their OrderDetailId property is 0, you could use that search condition to locate added order details too.) The removed order details are among those downloaded from the database, but they won’t have been received by the method. The order details in both the database and the input order may have been modified, and by using ApplyCurrentValues, you can easily find out. Figure 7.3 illus- trates this technique. DB Input OrderId: 1 OrderId: 1 Updated Removed Updated Added OrderDetailId: 1 OrderDetailId: 2 OrderDetailId: 2 OrderDetailId: 0 Figure 7.3 An order and details with matching keys are updated. Details from the input order with a key of 0 have been added. Other details from the database order are deleted. At the end of the matching process, the order you have read from the database is updated with the input data and is ready to be persisted. The following listing shows the overall code for this technique. C# void UpdateOrder(Order order) { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { var dbOrder = ctx.Orders.Include("OrderDetails") .First(o => o.OrderId == orderId); var added = order.OrderDetails.Except(order2.OrderDetails); var deleted = order2.OrderDetails.Except(order.OrderDetails); var modified = order2.OrderDetails.Intersect(order.OrderDetails); ctx.Orders.ApplyCurrentValues(order); added.ForEach(d => dbOrder.OrderDetails.Add(d)); deleted.ForEach(d => ctx.OrderDetails.DeleteObject(d)); modified.ForEach(d => ctx.OrderDetails.ApplyCurrentValues(d)); ctx.SaveChanges(); } } VB Sub UpdateOrder(ByVal order As Order) Listing 7.11 Updating an order in the disconnected scenario 195Persisting entities graphs Using ctx as New OrderITEntities() Dim dbOrder = ctx.Orders.Include("OrderDetails"). First(Function(o) o.OrderId = orderId) Dim added = order.OrderDetails.Except(order2.OrderDetails) Dim deleted = order2.OrderDetails.Except(order.OrderDetails) Dim modified = order2.OrderDetails.Intersect(order.OrderDetails) ctx.Orders.ApplyCurrentValues(order) added.ForEach(Function(d) dbOrder.OrderDetails.Add(d)) deleted.ForEach(Function(d) ctx.OrderDetails.DeleteObject(d)) modified.ForEach(Function(d) ctx.OrderDetails.ApplyCurrentValues(d)) ctx.SaveChanges() End Using End Sub What’s lovely about this approach is that, thanks to foreign keys, the association with the customer can be modified too, because the foreign-key property is tracked as a scalar property and so is affected by ApplyCurrentValues. Naturally, the same behav- ior applies to the relationship between a detail and the product. NOTE The LINQ queries work only because these entities implement Equals and GetHashCode. If that’s not the case, you should pass an object that implements IEqualityComparer. When independent associations are used, things are, once again, harder to figure out. PERSISTING MODIFICATIONS USING INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATIONS When independent associations are involved, the code that modifies the order and its details remains the same. What’s different is the way you change the association with the customer. Because you don’t have the foreign-key property, ApplyCurrentValues doesn’t change the association between the order and the customer. The only way to change the customer is to assign an instance representing the new customer to the Customer property of Order. If the customer instance isn’t attached to the context, it will be associated to the context in the Added state. That’s clearly not what you need, because you don’t want to insert the customer but just change the customer associated with the order. You have three possible ways to do that:  Retrieve the customer from the database, so that it’s already attached to the context, and assign it to the order.  Associate the customer with the order, and then modify the entity state using the ChangeObjectState method.  Attach the entity to the context, and then associate it with the order. All of these options will work, so choosing one pattern or the other is a matter of per- sonal taste and case-by-case circumstances. Naturally, you can change the association between an order detail and a product in the same way. 196 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database The following listing shows how to change the customer association using the third option. You’ve already seen the code for the other options. Note that the same code can be used to change the association between an order detail and a product. C# var order = GetOrder(); ctx.Companies.Attach(order.Customer); dbOrder.Customer = order.Customer; ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim Order = GetOrder() ctx.Companies.Attach(order.Customer) dbOrder.Customer = order.Customer ctx.SaveChanges() Persisting modifications made to objects is difficult, because you need to check lots of things. When it comes to object deletion, the situation is simpler. 7.3.3 Persisting deletions made to a graph Our user has just received sad news—a customer has cancelled an order. As a conse- quence, the order must be removed from the database. In this scenario, the associa- tion type between the order, the customer, the details, and the products makes the difference. PERSISTING DELETIONS USING FOREIGN-KEY ASSOCIATIONS Once again, foreign-key associations make everything simple. In a connected sce- nario, you retrieve the order, call DeleteObject, and then call SaveChanges. In a disconnected scenario, you create an order instance populating the ID, attach it to the context, invoke DeleteObject, and invoke SaveChanges, and the game is done. There’s no need for a graph here because details are useless. The following list- ing shows the simplicity of deleting a graph in the disconnected scenario. C# void DeleteOrder(int orderId) { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { Order order = new Order() { OrderId = orderId }; ctx.Orders.Attach(order); ctx.Orders.DeleteObject(order); ctx.SaveChanges(); } } VB Sub DeleteOrder(ByVal Int32 As orderId) Listing 7.12 Changing the customer of an order using independent associations Listing 7.13 Deleting an order with foreign-key associations, disconnected scenario 197Persisting entities graphs Using ctx as New OrderITEntities() Dim order As New Order() With { .OrderId = orderId } ctx.Orders.Attach(order) ctx.Orders.DeleteObject(order) ctx.SaveChanges() End Using End Sub There is a little performance caveat you need to be aware of. Even if the EDM is aware of the cascade constraint in the database, the context will issue a DELETE command for each child entity attached to the context. Suppose you have an order with 30 details. You may expect that one delete for the entire order is issued, but it’s not like that. In the conceptual schema, a cascade con- straint between the order and order details is specified; so, if they’re attached to the context, they’re marked as deleted, and a delete for each of them is issued to the database. Naturally, if you don’t have the delete-cascade constraint, you must retrieve all details and mark them as deleted. Unfortunately, this solution is error prone, because in the time between retrieving the details and their physical deletion, a new detail could be added, and the context would know nothing about it. This would result in a foreign-key error when deleting data from the database, because this detail wouldn’t be deleted and would remain an orphan when the order was deleted. An alternative solution is to launch a custom database command that deletes all details and then lets the context issue a separate delete for the order. This spares the retrieval and deletion of all the details from the database, and this is good. NOTE You’re probably thinking that if you’re removing an order and someone else adds a detail in the meantime, there should be a concur- rency check. In the next chapter, we’ll talk about that, but let’s ignore it for now. In the end, if you use delete cascade, everything is simpler. The code doesn’t care about details, and database performance improves. Without the cascade, you have more con- trol over the deletion process, but that means more code and slower performance. That’s all there is to deleting entities using foreign-key associations. Independent associations are harder to manage because the relationships stored in the state man- ager claim their role. PERSISTING DELETIONS USING INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATIONS Conceptually speaking, deleting entities in a graph using independent associations is no different from deleting an entity in a graph using foreign-key properties. What changes is the code, because to delete an entity, the context requires all the one-to- one related entities to be attached. If you need to delete a customer, you don’t need orders because they’re on the many side. But if you need to delete an order, you need its customer, and this is weird because only the order ID should be needed. 198 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database The reason why deleting an order requires you to know the customer is that the state manager marks the relationship between the two entities as Deleted and trans- lates this into SQL, adding the foreign-key column to the WHERE clause of the DELETE command for the order. In the end, to delete an order, instead of issuing a statement like DELETE FROM Order WHERE OrderId = 1, the context emits DELETE FROM order WHERE OrderId = 1 AND CustomerId = 2. Unfortunately, this odd requirement is one of those things that you’ll have to live with. In the connected scenario, the difference between independent and foreign-key associations doesn’t exist. When you retrieve the order, the state manager already knows about its customer and their relationship, so it has everything it needs. In the disconnected scenario, you must attach the customer along with the order. This is trivial; all you need to do is create the order, associate the related customer, attach the order to the context, and then pass it to the DeleteObject method. Because the cascade constraint exists, details are automatically deleted too, as you can see in the following listing. C# void DeleteOrder(int orderId, int customerId) { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { var order = new Order() { OrderId = orderId }; order.Customer = new Customer() { CompanyId = 1 }; ctx.Orders.Attach(order); ctx.Orders.DeleteObject(order); ctx.SaveChanges(); } } VB Sub DeleteOrder(ByVal Int32 As orderId, ByVal Int32 As customerId) Using ctx as New OrderITEntities() Dim order As New Order() With { .OrderId = orderId } order.Customer = New Customer() With { .CompanyId = 1 } ctx.Orders.Attach(order) ctx.Orders.DeleteObject(order) ctx.SaveChanges() End Using End Sub If the delete cascade constraint doesn’t exist, the same considerations made for for- eign keys apply. The only thing to point out is that in order to delete the details, their related products must be loaded too (just as the customer is required by the order). To remove an order without delete-cascade constraints, you have to load the whole graph. That’s it. Now the user can manipulate orders any way they need. There’s only one thing that the user needs to do now: associate products with a supplier. Listing 7.14 Deleting an order with independent associations 199A few tricks about persistence 7.3.4 Persisting many-to-many relationships Many-to-many relationships introduce nothing new. You have learned everything you need in the previous sections. To add a product to a supplier, you create the supplier and the product instances, add the product to the supplier’s list of products, and call SaveChanges. The same result can be obtained the opposite way. You can create the supplier and product, add the supplier to the product’s list of suppliers, and invoke SaveChanges. When you have to remove a product from a supplier in the connected scenario, you remove the product from the supplier’s list and call SaveChanges. In the discon- nected scenario, you retrieve data from the database and compare it to the input data to identify the changes. As you can see, there’s nothing new here. Now we can look at a new question. What happens if you wrongly associate an order with a customer that doesn’t exist? More generally, what happens when some- thing goes wrong during persistence? And what if you need to execute a custom com- mand? Those questions will be answered in the next section. 7.4 A few tricks about persistence Many things may cause an error during persistence. A string that’s too long, a foreign- key violation, a not-nullable column set to null, a duplicate key, and so on—these are typical reasons for exceptions. Let’s look at how you can handle exceptions in code. 7.4.1 Handling persistence exceptions Generally speaking, handling an exception is simple; you wrap the call to SaveChanges inside a try/catch block, and you’re done. In terms of exceptions caused by Entity Framework, the situation is similar, but you have one specific excep- tion to catch: UpdateException. UpdateException contains information about the entry whose entity persistence caused the error. The entry is exposed by the StateEntries property, which is of type ReadOnly- Collection. The StateEntries property is a list because it returns an EntityEntry for the entity that caused the exception, plus all its related RelationshipEntry instances. You receive only one entity, because as soon as the problem is encountered, the persistence process stops and the current entry is passed to the exception. Important information is stored in the InnerException too. Here you’ll find the raw SqlException raised by the managed provider. If you mix up the information from the inner exception with that in the entries, you can build a log entry that is useful for understanding what went wrong. If you want to go further, you can build a form that gives the user enough information to understand what the problem was and how it can be solved (if possible). The follow- ing listing shows how to catch the exception and write it to a log. 200 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database C# try { ... ctx.SaveChanges(); } catch (UpdateException ex) { Log.WriteError(ex.StateEntries, ex.InnerException); } VB Try ... ctx.SaveChanges() Catch ex As UpdateException Log.WriteError(ex.StateEntries, ex.InnerException) End Try Handling errors is simple; you can easily log information, rethrow the exception, dis- play information to the user, or do whatever you need. We suggest wrapping SaveChanges in a method and invoking that when persisting entities. This way, you don’t have to clutter your code with try/catch blocks every time you save data. The next feature about persistence that you must know is how to send custom com- mands to the database to update data. This turns out to be particularly useful when manipulating orders and their details. 7.4.2 Executing custom SQL commands Entity Framework can persist any modifications, but there are cases where a custom SQL command simplifies things compared to having Entity Framework persist every- thing. Let’s see how a custom SQL command can help in the OrderIT application. In OrderIT, there are always 0 items in stock. This value is never updated when the product is created or when an item is sold. That’s because in chapter 5, you mapped the AvailableItems property to the AvailableItems column in the Product table and set the property as Computed. This means the property is never used to update the mapped column in the database; when an entity is persisted, the computed column value is immediately queried from the database and put into the property. Essentially, this approach relieves the context from updating the available items by delegating the update to the database or a custom SQL command like a stored proce- dure. This approach was necessary to correctly calculate the value. To correctly calculate the available items, you need to modify the code you have already written to add the following actions: 1 When you create the product, you let the context create the row in the database and then issue a SQL command that updates the AvailableItems column. Listing 7.15 Managing persistence exceptions 201A few tricks about persistence 2 When you create or update an order, if the detail is new, you issue a SQL com- mand that subtracts the sold items from the number in stock; if the detail is removed, you issue a SQL command that adds the number of sold items to the number in stock; and if the detail is changed, you issue a SQL command that subtracts the old quantity and then adds the new quantity to the number in stock. Why do it this way? Why not let Entity Framework persist the column? The reasons are two: concurrency and simplicity.  Concurrency—Suppose two users create an order simultaneously. They both read the product data at the same time, and the first user then updates the data; the second user will subsequently be updating stale data. A concurrency check could be a solution, but this would be a waste of user time. The user shouldn’t have to reinsert the order because the number of items in stock has changed since the data was last read.  Simplicity—Updating a product requires the product to be attached, even if you use foreign-key associations. What’s more, you have to update the Available- Items property and the overall entity state, resulting in more complex code. A manual UPDATE is more straightforward and less complex. Performing the task this way is pretty simple. Before invoking SaveChanges, you take all the details in Modified state and add the quantity to AvailableItems. After SaveChanges, you take all the Added and Modified entities and subtract the quantity from AvailableItems. Finally, for each detail entity in Deleted state, you add the quantity to AvailableItems. To execute a custom SQL command, you use the ObjectContext class’s Execute- StoreCommand method. This method has the same features as the ExecuteStore- Query method you saw in chapter 4. You can use a numbered list as well as classic ADO.NET parameters in SQL code, and the parameter values can be passed as DbParameter or simple values. This listing shows how you can use such a method. C# ctx.ExecuteStoreCommand("Update Product set ➥ AvailableItems = AvailableItems - 3 where productid = 1"); VB ctx.ExecuteStoreCommand("Update Product set ➥ AvailableItems = AvailableItems - 3 where productid = 1") You learned in chapter 4 that embedding SQL in the application code isn’t always a good idea, because you tie the application to a specific database. This might not be problem in many situations, but a stored procedure can be more desirable. You’ll learn how to replace the preceding code with a stored procedure in chapter 10. Listing 7.16 Executing a custom SQL command to update data 202 CHAPTER 7 Persisting objects into the database 7.5 Summary You now know how to persist objects into the database. Although the order-detail sce- nario is simple, it introduced lots of caveats and intricacies. Delete-cascade con- straints, connected and disconnected scenarios, foreign keys and independent associations, and frequently updated columns are situations that you’ll often encoun- ter during development. Now you’re ready to master them. It doesn’t matter whether it’s an order-detail scenario or different types of data: the concepts remain the same. You’re almost ready to write a complete application, but we still have to cover two important concepts related to persistence: transaction management and concurrency checks. The first is particularly important when you need to launch custom com- mands that must be executed in the same transaction of the context. The second is essential to avoid updating stale data when multiple users work on the same entity at the same time. In the next chapter, we’ll cover these two subjects. 203 Handling concurrency and transactions Suppose you want to book a flight online. You search for the flight you want and find an available seat, but when you click the reservation button, the system says the flight is fully booked. If you search for the flight again, it isn’t shown. What happened is that at the moment when you searched for the flight, a seat was available; but in the time between the search response and the booking attempt, someone else booked the last seat. There were concurrent searches for the last seat, and the first person to book it won. If the booking application hadn’t checked for concurrency, the flight would have been overbooked. When you book a flight, you register on the carrier’s website, and your informa- tion is stored so it can be retrieved and updated anytime you want. This kind of data is rarely updated and is only modified by you or a carrier’s employee. Conten- tion in this context is so low that you can easily live without concurrency checks. This chapter covers  Understanding the concurrency problem  Configuring concurrency  Managing concurrency exceptions  Managing transactions 204 CHAPTER 8 Handling concurrency and transactions These examples demonstrate why and when concurrency management is essential for a serious application. This chapter will dig deep into this subject, because it’s a simple Entity Framework feature to use, but it’s easy to misunderstand. The second subject covered in this chapter is transaction management. In the pre- vious chapter, we looked at manually updating product-availability data before and after SaveChanges. These updates were not executed in the same transaction as the commands issued by the SaveChanges method, which would cause data inconsistency if exceptions occurred during persistence. The commands issued manually and the commands generated by SaveChanges must be executed in the same transaction. Similarly data must often be updated on more than one database or sent to out- side systems, like Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ), and everything must be trans- actional. Thanks to the classes in the System.Transaction namespace, it’s easy to manage these scenarios. If you have never used these classes, you’ll enjoy seeing them in action. It’s time to cover concurrency. The example of booking a flight gave a good pic- ture of what concurrency is all about, so now we’ll look at how the concurrency prob- lem fits into OrderIT. 8.1 Understanding the concurrency problem The user’s business is growing every day, and the company now needs employees to register and manage incoming orders. This means that two or more people will be working on the application at the same time, accessing and sometimes modifying the same data. OrderIT needs to coordinate updates to avoid having two employees work- ing on the same order at the same time and overriding each other’s data. 8.1.1 The concurrent updates scenario Consider this scenario: a big customer has different departments that place orders. Department 1 calls employee 1 to place an order. A few hours later, department 1 calls employee 1 again to update the order. At the same time, department 2 calls employee 2 to update the same order, adding some products. If you think about the code in the previous chapter, you can probably imagine where this is headed. The two employees retrieve the order. Employee 1 modifies some details, adds a couple more, and saves the order. Employee 2 removes a detail and saves the order a minute later. What happens is that employee 1 saves data and employee 2 overrides it with other data. The two employees will never be aware of this problem, and an incor- rect shipment will be delivered to the customer. There’s a worse scenario. If department 2 called to delete the order instead of modifying it, the customer would lose the entire order. Figure 8.1 illustrates potential problems arising from not managing concurrency during persistence. Technically speaking, there could be contention on every editable entity in the application. It’s always possible for two users to work contemporarily and unknowingly Employee 1 Employee 1 Employee 2 Employee 2 Detail 1 Detail 2 1 2 3Reads data Saves data Saves data Detail 1 Modified detail 2 New detail Detail 1 Detail 2 New detail Detail 2 Detail 1 Detail 1 Detail 2 New detail 4 Detail 1 Modified detail 2 New detail 3 Figure 8.1 A typical concurrency scenario. Both users read the same data, employee 1 saves the records first, and employee 2 overrides them later. New detail 3 and the modifications to detail 2 are lost. 205Understanding the concurrency problem on the same data. But in the real world, very little data is subject to contention, and often it’s not important enough to deserve a concurrency check. For instance, order data is vital and must always be checked. Customer and sup- plier data is surely important, but not as important as orders. What’s more, customers and suppliers are less frequently updated, reducing the risks a lot. As a result, it’s probably not worth handling concurrency checks for them. The same considerations apply to products; after they’re added to the database, they’re rarely changed except for their prices (which is something you won’t change often) and their quantity in stock (which is handled manually, as you saw in chapter 7). Now that the problem is clear, let’s look at the possible solutions. The first adopts a pessimistic approach, locking the database rows until they’re updated. This approach has pros and cons, as you’ll see in the next section. 8.1.2 A first solution: pessimistic concurrency control When you need to update data and want to be sure that nobody else can do so at the same time, the safest way to go is exclusively physically locking the data on the database. When data is locked, other users can’t access it either to read or update it. This way, nobody else can change the data until it’s updated or unlocked. This approach is named pessimistic, and it’s illustrated in figure 8.2. What’s good about pessimistic concurrency control is that it grants a single user exclusive access to the Reads order with locking Reads order and remains pending or fails Saves order Order Order Order Order Employee 1 Employee 2 Employee 2 Reads order successfully Figure 8.2 In pessimistic concurrency, employee 1 reads the data, and it can’t be read by employee 2 until it’s saved by employee 1. 206 CHAPTER 8 Handling concurrency and transactions information, eliminating any possibility of contentions. What’s bad is that exclusive locking produces many complications from a performance and usability point of view. Locking the row exclusively makes it impossible for other users to read informa- tion. That means even if another user wants to see the order, they can’t. If the user who holds the lock works on the order for a long time, they slow down other people’s productivity. What’s worse, if the application crashes (and don’t say it shouldn’t hap- pen; it does), the lock remains there until it expires or a DBA manually removes it. NOTE A less aggressive policy might allow other users to read data but not to modify it. Pessimistic concurrency is a good technique, but its cons often outweigh its pros. Unless you’re obliged to use it, other approaches are preferable. The basic idea behind pessimistic concurrency is that because there might be data contention, the data is locked by the first reader. Another technique that solves con- currency problems starts with an opposite approach: because data contention isn’t fre- quent, it’s pointless to lock data. The check for contention is performed only during the update phase. 8.1.3 A better solution: optimistic concurrency control How often will multiple users work simultaneously on the same order or customer or whatever else? If this happens, is it a problem for the first person who updates the data to win, and for the others to have to reapply their modifications? Usually the answers to these questions are “almost never” and “no,” respectively. Locking in this sort of situation would be only a waste of resources, because there is low, or no, contention. A softer approach can be taken. You can allow all users to read and even change data, but when you update the database, you must check that nothing in the record has been changed since data retrieval. This is the optimistic approach. The easiest way to do this is to add a version column that changes on every row modification. In the case of concurrent modifications, the first to save the data wins; the others can’t update the data because the version has changed since they read it. Figure 8.3 illustrates this concept. Checking the version column is as easy as including the value initially read from the database in the SQL WHERE clause, along with the ID of the order. This means the real key of the row is the primary-key columns plus the version column, as shown here: UPDATE [order] SET ..., version = 2 WHERE OrderId = 1 AND version = 1 If the query updates the row, you know that the version hadn’t changed since the order Order v1 Order v1 to v2 Order v1 Reads order Reads order Saves order Saves order and gets concurrency excepon Order v1 Employee 1 Employee 2 Figure 8.3 With optimistic concurrency, employee 1 and employee 2 read order version 1. Employee 1 saves the order, which is updated to version 2. Employee 2 saves order version 1 and gets an exception. 207Understanding the concurrency problem was read. If the query doesn’t update any rows, that’s because the version number had changed, and there was a concurrency problem. In figure 8.3, the same UPDATE is issued by two employees: employee 1 wins, and employee 2 gets the exception because the version had changed. When using optimistic concurrency, we recommend you use an autogenerated col- umn for the row version (TimeStamp or RowVersion for SQL Server) so you don’t have to manage its value manually. NOTE Sometimes you can’t change the table structure to add a version column, such as when you have a legacy database. In this case, you can use some or all of the columns to perform a concurrency check. Those you choose for the concurrency check will end up in the WHERE clause. By not using locks, optimistic concurrency improves system scalability and usability because the data is always available for reading. This improvement comes at the cost of managing versioning in the code, but that’s not a heavy burden, as you’ll discover later. The main drawback is that unless you write some sophisticated code, the users who get the concurrency exceptions will have to read the updated data and then reapply their modifications. It’s a waste of time that is usually affordable, but sometimes it isn’t. 8.1.4 The halfway solution: pessimistic/optimistic concurrency control This last technique takes the pros of the previous approaches. It doesn’t allow concur- rent modifications to an order, nor does it physically lock the row on the database. The way it works is pretty simple. First you add version and flag columns to the table. Then, when a user edits the data, the user’s application issues a command to the database to set the flag column to true. If two users do this simultaneously, the first wins. After that, anyone can read the data, but nobody can modify it because the cli- ent checks the flag and denies any modifications until it’s set back to false. This is the pessimistic/optimistic approach. This technique minimizes contention over the data, but it suffers from the same limitations as pessimistic concurrency control. If the application crashes, the lock must be removed manually. If the user who’s editing the order goes to get coffee or to a meeting without saving or canceling the modifications, other users are prevented from making modifications. You can create a demon that kills locks held for longer than a certain amount of time, but that increases the complexity needed do to man- age concurrency. This last technique isn’t a perfect solution; it’s another string in your bow. Broadly speaking, optimistic concurrency is the best choice in most scenarios. If it doesn’t fit your needs, try the pessimistic/optimistic approach; and only if that isn’t appropriate should you move on to pessimistic concurrency. Now that you have a clear understanding of the concurrency problem, it’s time to look at how you can take care of it from a database point of view. It’s time to see how Entity Framework can help in managing concurrency. 208 CHAPTER 8 Handling concurrency and transactions 8.2 Handling concurrency in Entity Framework Entity Framework makes concurrency management easy. It handles most of the plumbing, leaving you only the burden of managing configuration and handling exceptions when they occur. The first thing you need to know is that Entity Framework doesn’t support pessimis- tic concurrency control. That’s by design, and the development team doesn’t intend to add this feature in the future. That gives you an idea of how little pessimistic con- currency is used in the real world. By design, only optimistic concurrency is supported. The pessimistic/optimistic approach is an artifact that can be re-created in a few lines of code. 8.2.1 Enabling optimistic concurrency checking It’s time to enable optimistic concurrency in OrderIT. To do so, you need to follow these steps: 1 Add a version column to the Order, Company, and Product tables. Name the column Version, and set its type as TimeStamp (RowVersion if you SQL Server 2008 or higher). 2 Right-click the designer, and choose Update Model from Database. The designer opens a dialog box displaying the last form of the wizard, which lets you generate the model from the database (we discussed the wizard in chapter 2). Click the OK button. 3 The designer updates the Order, Company, and Product entities, adding a Version property and mapping it to the new Version column in the mapped tables. Because the TimeStamp/Row- Version type is managed by SQL Server, the columns in the SSDL and the prop- erty in the CSDL are automatically marked as Computed. 4 Right-click the Version property in the Company entity, and select Properties. 5 In the Properties window, change the Concurrency Mode to Fixed, as shown in figure 8.4. 6 Repeat steps 4 and 5 for the Order and Product entities. In terms of EDM, step 5 sets the Concurrency- Mode attribute of the Version property to Fixed, as shown here: ... Figure 8.4 Enabling concurrency checking for a property in the designer 209Handling concurrency in Entity Framework That’s it. When you’re done, the Version property will automatically be appended in the WHERE clause of the UPDATE and DELETE SQL commands. It’s important to note that the value used in the WHERE clause isn’t the one from the entity but the one from the original value of the entry in the state manager. If you attach the entity to the context, and the Version property is 1, that value will be used in the query even if you set the property’s value to 2 (which you should never do inten- tionally, but could be done by a bug). This makes sense because for concurrency you have to use the original value from the database and not a new one. Now that the configuration is finished, it’s time to move on to the code. Although Entity Framework manages all the plumbing, you still need to write code to introduce concurrency management into the persistence process. More specifically, you have to manage the version column and handle the concurrency exception. 8.2.2 Optimistic concurrency in action In the previous chapter, we looked at how to persist entities in different scenarios using different techniques:  Connected scenario  Disconnected scenario with the ChangeObjectState method  Disconnected scenario with the ApplyCurrentValues method  Connected and disconnected scenarios with graphs Let’s analyze how concurrency affects these techniques. HANDLING CONCURRENCY IN THE CONNECTED SCENARIO The connected scenario is once again the easiest to code. It doesn’t require any modi- fication because the original value of the Version property is in sync with the data- base. If you read the entity from the database and Version is 1, that value will be used in the WHERE clause, so there is nothing you have to do. HANDLING CONCURRENCY IN THE DISCONNECTED SCENARIO WITH CHANGEOBJECTSTATE In the disconnected scenario, you have an entity and you have to attach it to the con- text and persist it. As in the connected scenario, the code doesn’t change here. You must only make sure that the Version property has the same value as when the data was initially read. For instance, suppose you have created a web form to display customer data. You read the Customer entity, display it, store its Version property in the ViewState, and then dispose of both the entity and the context. When the user saves the modifica- tions, you create a new context and re-create the entity, populating properties with the form’s data. When you attach the re-created entity to the new context, the value of the properties is used by the context to populate the original value of the entry in the state manager. The result is that the value of the Version property at the moment it’s attached to the context is the value used in the WHERE clause. 210 CHAPTER 8 Handling concurrency and transactions If you set the value of the Version property to the value previously saved in ViewState after the entity is attached to the context, the original value of the Version property in the state manager entry is null because when the entity was attached, the Version property was null. The result is that the UPDATE command uses the NULL value in the WHERE clause, and the row isn’t updated; this causes a concurrency excep- tion to be raised by Entity Framework. If you serialize the entire Customer entity in ViewState or in the ASP.NET session, you don’t need to maintain the version. Because the object isn’t disposed of when the form is displayed, when the user saves data you can retrieve the object from ViewState or the ASP.NET session and update the object’s properties with the form values, leav- ing the version unmodified. When you attach the object to the context, the Version property is already set, so the original value in the entry is set too. When you persist the customer, the UPDATE command will place the correct value in the WHERE clause. HANDLING CONCURRENCY IN THE DISCONNECTED SCENARIO WITH APPLYCURRENTVALUES When you use the ApplyCurrentValues method in the disconnected scenario, you query for the current data in the database and then apply your changes. This means the original values of the entry are those read by the database. When you call Apply- CurrentValues, the current values in the entry are modified but the original values (which are those read from the database) aren’t. Here a big problem arises. When you invoke SaveChanges, the generated WHERE clause uses the original value of the Version property, which holds the current data- base value. The consequence is that the database’s current value is used in the WHERE clause, causing the data to be modified even if it has since been changed by someone else. Let’s look at an example: employee 1 reads the customer with ID 1 and version 1 from the database. Later, employee 2 reads and updates the same customer (so that it’s now ID 1, version 2 in the database). Then employee 1 updates the customer and saves it with ID 1, version 1. When employee 1 triggers persistence, you read the customer from the database (ID 1, version 2) and use ApplyCurrentValues to update the customer data with the input customer object containing the modified data. After the call to ApplyCurrent- Values, the current values of the entry contain the modified data, but the original val- ues are still those read from the database (ID 1, version 2). The result is that the UPDATE command generated during persistence will be the following: UPDATE ... WHERE CompanyId = 1 and Version = 2 As you see, even if the version of the customer has been changed since employee 1 read it, the updates are applied because the version isn’t the original one read by employee 1 but the one last read from the database. The modifications made by employee 2 are lost. 211Handling concurrency in Entity Framework Fortunately, there is a way to granularly change the original values of an entry. This allows you to modify the original value of the Version property, setting it to the one held by the entity (1 in the preceding example), ensuring that the WHERE clause is correct. To accomplish this, you have to use the ObjectStateEntry’s GetUpdatable- OriginalValues method, which returns an OriginalValueRecord instance. This class has a set of SetXXX methods that allow you to modify the values inside OriginalValue- Record. The following snippet shows how you can use the SetValue method, which is the most generic one: C# var entry = ctx.ObjectStateManager.GetObjectStateEntry(dbEntity); var origValues = entry.GetUpdatableOriginalValues(); origValues.SetValue(origValues.GetOrdinal("Version"), entity.Version); VB Dim entry = ctx.ObjectStateManager.GetObjectStateEntry(dbEntity) Dim origValues = entry.GetUpdatableOriginalValues() origValues.SetValue(origValues.GetOrdinal("Version"), entity.Version) SetValue is a nontyped method. We used it because Version is imported as a Byte[] and there isn’t a SetByteArray (or similar) method. If you already know that you’re updating a string or integer or another simple type, you can use SetString, SetInt32, SetDateTime, SetBoolean, and so on. When you have updated the original value of Version, you can safely invoke SaveChanges. The complete code is shown in the following listing. C# private void UpdateCustomerWithApplyCurrentValues(Customer cust) { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { var dbCust = ctx.Companies.OfType() .First(c => c.CompanyId == cust.CompanyId); ctx.Companies.ApplyCurrentValues(cust); var entry = ctx.ObjectStateManager.GetObjectStateEntry(dbCust); var origValues = entry.GetUpdatableOriginalValues(); origValues.SetValue(origValues.GetOrdinal("Version"), cust.Version); ctx.SaveChanges(); } } VB Private Sub UpdateCustomerWithApplyCurrentValues(ByVal cust As Customer) Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() Dim dbCust = ctx.Companies.OfType(Of Customer)(). First(Function(c) c.CompanyId = cust.CompanyId) ctx.Companies.ApplyCurrentValues(cust) Dim entry = ctx.ObjectStateManager.GetObjectStateEntry(dbCust) Listing 8.1 Performing concurrency checks with ApplyCurrentValues 212 CHAPTER 8 Handling concurrency and transactions Dim origValues = entry.GetUpdatableOriginalValues() origValues.SetValue(origValues.GetOrdinal("Version"), cust.Version) ctx.SaveChanges() End Using End Sub You have now seen that performing a concurrency check on an entity is mostly a mat- ter of configuration. A little tweak in the code is required only in this particular sce- nario. But when graphs come into play, more changes must be made. HANDLING CONCURRENCY WITH GRAPHS IN THE CONNECTED AND DISCONNECTED SCENARIOS You know that order persistence involves a graph consisting of the order and its details. Technically speaking, we could put a Version property in both entities, but we’ve chosen to put it only on the order for this example. We made this choice because the details can’t exist without an order; even if you modify only one detail, the order version should be updated. If yours is the only application working on the database, everything is fine. If other applications also work on the database, all have to respect the rule of updating the order when a detail is touched. If this didn’t happen, the concurrency checks would be inconsistent, and you should add a version property in the order details too. (We won’t take this route in this chapter.) To update the order version even if only a detail is changed, you have to make sure the Order instance is in Modified state; otherwise, no update will be performed and no concurrency check will happen. If you work in a connected scenario and don’t change any properties, or if you use ApplyCurrentValues and nothing was modified, the state of the entity remains Unchanged. Using ChangeObjectState to set the order to Modified ensures that every- thing is updated properly. OPTIMISTIC CONCURRENCY AND INHERITANCE When dealing with inheritance, there is an important rule to know: you can’t use a property of an inherited type for concurrency. For instance, you couldn’t use a prop- erty in the Customer or Supplier entity for concurrency checks; only properties in the Company entity can be used. If, to enable concurrency, you use properties from an inherited type, you’ll get a validation error from the designer or a runtime excep- tion when instantiating the context. In OrderIT, this would also apply to the Product hierarchy. Products are persisted using the TPT strategy (as discussed in chapter 2). When dealing with TPT, you may need to update only a property of an inherited entity (for example, Shirt or Shoe in OrderIT). When SaveChanges generates the SQL, it updates only the table containing the column mapped to the modified property. The table containing the versioning column isn’t touched, because there aren’t any modi- fied properties that must be persisted to it. This way, the concurrency check isn’t performed. To perform the concurrency check, Entity Framework performs a nice trick. Sup- pose a user modifies a shirt and changes only the size. Size is a column in the Shirt 213Handling concurrency in Entity Framework table, so its modification doesn’t affect the Product table, which contains the version column. When SaveChanges is called, Entity Framework issues a fake UPDATE com- mand against the Product table to perform a concurrency check, as you can see in this listing. C# var dbProduct = ctx.Products.OfType() .First(p => p.ProductId == 2); dbProduct.Gender = "f"; ctx.SaveChanges(); VB Dim dbProduct = ctx.Products.OfType(Of Shirt)(). First(Function(p) p.ProductId = product.ProductId) dbproduct.Gender = "f" ctx.SaveChanges() SQL exec sp_executesql N'declare @p int Issues fake update on Product table B update [dbo].[Product] set @p = 0 where (([ProductId] = @0) and ([Version] = @1)) select [Version] Retrieves current version of product C from [dbo].[Product] where @@ROWCOUNT > 0 and [ProductId] = @0',N'@0 int,@1 binary(8)',@0=2,@1=0x000000000000084F exec sp_executesql N'update [dbo].[Shirt] Updates Shirt table D set [Gender] = @0 where ([ProductId] = @1) ',N'@0 char(1),@1 int',@0='f',@1=2 The first query executes the fake UPDATE on the Product table to see if the command would update a row B. If the update affects 0 records, a concurrency exception is thrown. The SELECT C is executed only because Version property is marked as Computed, so its value is immediately retrieved from the database after any command. Finally, if no concurrency exception has been raised, the UPDATE on the Shirt table is executed D. You’ve now seen how to make Entity Framework generate the correct SQL to check for concurrency. What we haven’t done yet is handle the exception generated when you update stale data. 8.2.3 Catching concurrency exceptions When an update doesn’t affect any rows, the context raises an OptimisticConcurrency- Exception exception, which inherits from UpdateException and doesn’t add any methods or properties. Its only purpose is letting you handle exceptions related to per- sistence and concurrency. Handling this exception is simple, as shown in this listing. Listing 8.2 Performing concurrency checks with TPT hierarchies 214 CHAPTER 8 Handling concurrency and transactions C# try { ... ctx.SaveChanges(); } catch (OptimisticConcurrencyException ex) { Log.WriteError(ex.StateEntries, ex.InnerException); } catch (UpdateException ex) { //Some logic } VB Try ... ctx.SaveChanges() Catch ex As OptimisticConcurrencyException Log.WriteError(ex.StateEntries, ex.InnerException) Catch ex As UpdateException //Some logic End Try The catching logic is pretty simple. Just keep in mind that if you handle both concur- rency and update exceptions, you have to catch the concurrency exception first. Because OptimisticConcurrencyException inherits from UpdateException, if you put the catch block with UpdateException first, the code in that block is executed and the other catch blocks are ignored even if the exception is of type OptimisticConcurrency- Exception. Catching the exceptions is straightforward, but what should you do when you catch them? Logging the exception is pointless, because it isn’t caused by a bug in the code. Letting the system solve the problem is too risky. The right approach is to create instruments to let the user decide what to do. 8.2.4 Managing concurrency exceptions Suppose that employee 1 and employee 2 are unknowingly modifying data about a cus- tomer at the same time. Employee 1 changes the web-service password and saves the data. Employee 2 changes the name, saves the data, and gets the exception. It would be great if employee 2 could see what’s been changed since the data was read and try to fix the problem, instead of reloading the form and modifying the data from scratch. In this example, employee 2 could reload the form and enter the new name again; in big- ger forms with lots of information, this might be an unbearable waste of time. Your best ally is the ObjectContext class’s Refresh method, which restores entry and entity values, depending on your choice, with data from the database. It accepts the entity to be refreshed and an enum specifying what data must be refreshed. The Listing 8.3 Intercepting concurrency exception 215Handling concurrency in Entity Framework enum is of type System.Data.Objects.RefreshMode and has two possible values: ClientWins and StoreWins. If you pass ClientWins, the method updates the original values of the entry in the state manager (the object context cache) with those from the data source. The cur- rent values and the entity remain untouched. Furthermore, all properties are marked as Modified even if they’re unchanged. If you pass StoreWins, the original and current values of the entry and the entity are refreshed with data from the data source. Furthermore, the state is rolled back to Unchanged because the entity now reflects the database’s state. This means all the modifications made by the user are lost. Getting back to the example, you can use the Refresh method and then use the current and original values of the entry to show the user how things have changed on the database since the data was last read. Users can review the changes and choose between the database version and their own entries. REFRESHING VALUES FROM THE DATABASE Refreshing values from the database is fairly easy: you invoke Refresh and pass in the ClientWins value, as shown in the following listing. This way, the original values in the state manager entry reflect the server data, and the current values in the state man- ager entry reflect the data edited by the user. C# try { ctx.SaveChanges(); } catch (OptimisticConcurrencyException ex) { var errorEntry = ex.StateEntries.First(); ctx.Refresh(RefreshMode.ClientWins, errorEntry.Entity); ... } VB Try ctx.SaveChanges() Catch ex As OptimisticConcurrencyException Dim errorEntry = ex.StateEntries.First() ctx.Refresh(RefreshMode.ClientWins, errorEntry.Entity) ... End Try If you invoke SaveChanges after Refresh, the database is correctly updated with employee 2’s new name value, because all properties are marked as Modified. What’s bad about this is that employee 1’s password change is updated with employee 2’s value, which is the old one before employee 1’s modification. That’s why employee 2 must see the changes and confirm them. Listing 8.4 Refreshing entities with values from the server 216 CHAPTER 8 Handling concurrency and transactions BUILDING THE COMPARISON FORM There are many ways to show original and current values to the user. You can take a form-by-form approach or opt for a generic solution. We’ll take the generic approach here because it’s quicker. At first, you might consider creating a form that displays a grid with the name and original and current values of each property. The problem with this implementation is that complex types can’t be represented in a row. We choose a tree view. It has check boxes that allow the user to specify which properties to save and which to ignore. Fig- ure 8.5 shows such a form. Figure 8.5 The tree view showing original and current values of the conflicting Customer entry. Employee 2 is changing the name from “Giulio Mostarda” to “Stefano Mostarda”. In the meantime, employee 1 has changed the password from “PWD1” to “password1”. The form may seem complex at first, but it’s easy to understand when you get used to it. NOTE Including check boxes for properties of complex properties and for original and current value nodes is pointless. They’re included because we’re lazy and didn’t want to override the tree-view rendering. Here’s the main code used to create the form in figure 8.5. C# private void EntriesComparer_Load(object sender, EventArgs e) { var modifiedProperties = _entry.GetModifiedProperties(); for (int i=0; i<_entry.OriginalValues.FieldCount; i++) { var isModified = modifiedProperties.Any(n => n == _entry.OriginalValues.GetName(i)); TreeNode node = new TreeNode(CreateNodeText( _entry.OriginalValues.GetName(i), isModified)); Listing 8.5 Showing entry values in a tree view display 217Handling concurrency in Entity Framework node.Tag = _entry.OriginalValues.GetName(i); tree.Nodes.Add(node); if (_entry.OriginalValues[i] is DbDataRecord) DrawComplexType(node, _entry.OriginalValues[i] as DbDataRecord, _entry.CurrentValues[i] as DbDataRecord); else DrawProperty(node, _entry.OriginalValues[i], _entry.CurrentValues[i]); } } VB Private Sub EntriesComparer_Load(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Dim modifiedProperties = _entry.GetModifiedProperties() For i As Integer = 0 To _entry.OriginalValues.FieldCount - 1 Dim isModified = modifiedProperties.Any( Function(n) n = _entry.OriginalValues.GetName(i)) Dim node As New TreeNode(CreateNodeText( _entry.OriginalValues.GetName(i), isModified)) node.Tag = _entry.OriginalValues.GetName(i) tree.Nodes.Add(node) If TypeOf _entry.OriginalValues(i) Is DbDataRecord Then DrawComplexType(node, TryCast(_entry.OriginalValues(i), DbDataRecord), TryCast(_entry.CurrentValues(i), DbDataRecord)) Else DrawProperty(node, _entry.OriginalValues(i), _entry.CurrentValues(i)) End If Next End Sub DrawProperty generates a node whose text indicates the name of the property and whether it’s marked as Modified. It then renders two child nodes for the current and original values of the property. DrawComplexType creates a node and then invokes DrawProperty to generate a child node for each of its properties. In the end, building the visualizer is straightforward. What’s challenging is writing the code to let users persist its modifications. In this case, employee 2 selects the Name property to mark it as to-persist and then clicks the Merge button. At this point, you have to roll back the state to Unchanged and then manually mark the properties selected by the user (Name in this case) as Modified. To switch the state to Unchanged, you use the entry’s ChangeState method. But the problem with this method is that not only does it change the state, it also overrides the original values with the current ones (remember, it calls the AcceptChanges method of the ObjectStateEntry class). This poses a problem, because the current value of Version still contains the old value, which will overrides the original (most updated) value. If you invoke SaveChanges now, you’ll still get an exception. 218 CHAPTER 8 Handling concurrency and transactions Let’s consider this step by step. Employee 1 and employee 2 read the customer with Version 1. Employee 1 updates Version to 2. Then, employee 2 saves the data using Version 1 and gets an exception. When Refresh is invoked, the original value of Version becomes 2, but the current Version remains 1. When ChangeState is then invoked, the original value of Version becomes 1 because it’s overwritten with the original value. This way the UPDATE will always fail. Table 8.1 shows this workflow. The last row shows that the original value is set to the incorrect value. The trick to resolving this is the same one you saw in listing 8.1. You save the original value of Version into a variable, modify the state to Unchanged, and then restore the original value using the variable by using the GetUpdatableOriginalValues method and the OriginalValueRecord class’s methods that you saw in section 8.2.2. This list- ing shows the code. C# private void Merge_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) { ApplyChanges = true; object version = _entry.OriginalValues["Version"]; _entry.ChangeState(EntityState.Unchanged); _entry.GetUpdatableOriginalValues() .SetValue( _entry.OriginalValues.GetOrdinal("Version"), version); foreach (TreeNode node in tree.Nodes) { if (node.Checked) _entry.SetModifiedProperty(node.Tag.ToString()); } Close(); } Table 8.1 The update workflow and the problem with the version value Employee Action Database version Current version Original Version Employee 1 Reads customer 1 1 1 Employee 2 Reads customer 1 1 1 Employee 1 Saves customer 2 Employee 2 Saves customer and gets exception 2 1 1 Employee 2 Refresh method 2 1 2 Employee 2 ChangeState to Unchanged 2 1 1 Employee 2 Saves customer and gets exception 2 1 1 Listing 8.6 Persisting only selected columns 219Handling concurrency in Entity Framework VB Private Sub Merge_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) ApplyChanges = True Dim version As Object = _entry.OriginalValues("Version") _entry.ChangeState(EntityState.Unchanged) _entry.GetUpdatableOriginalValues(). SetValue( _entry.OriginalValues.GetOrdinal("Version"), version) For Each node As TreeNode In tree.Nodes If node.Checked Then _entry.SetModifiedProperty(node.Tag.ToString()) End If Next Close() End Sub This code saves the version, rolls back the entity to Unchanged, sets the version, and then sets the checked properties as Modified. The visualizer form is a generic form that is opened by another form to resolve conflicts. ApplyChanges is a property of the visualizer form that informs the calling form that the SaveChanges method must be invoked after the user has finished checking the changed values. The complete code for the method that saves the data from the edit form now looks like the following. C# try { ctx.SaveChanges(); } catch (OptimisticConcurrencyException ex) { var errorEntry = ex.StateEntries.First(); ctx.Refresh(RefreshMode.ClientWins, errorEntry.Entity); var form = new EntriesComparer(errorEntry); form.ShowDialog(); if (form.ApplyChanges) ctx.SaveChanges(); } VB Try ctx.SaveChanges() Catch ex As OptimisticConcurrencyException Dim errorEntry = ex.StateEntries.First() ctx.Refresh(RefreshMode.ClientWins, errorEntry.Entity) Dim form = New EntriesComparer(errorEntry) form.ShowDialog() If form.ApplyChanges Then ctx.SaveChanges() End If End Try Listing 8.7 Complete code for managing concurrency exceptions 220 CHAPTER 8 Handling concurrency and transactions Under some circumstances, you can handle concurrency problems automatically, without user involvement. For instance, you may have a rule stating that if the Name is modified, the user must check what happened. Another rule may state that if a user modifies the shipping address while another modifies the billing address, the system must reconcile everything automatically. Fortunately, by working with Refresh, this shouldn’t be too difficult to achieve. NOTE In this example, we assumed that concurrency is handled by a property named Version. Using metadata from the EDM (which we’ll dis- cuss more in chapter 12), you can write a generic method that looks for properties that have the ConcurrencyMode attribute set to Fixed, and use those properties instead of embedding a property name in code. Congratulations. You have achieved the master level in concurrency management. As a reward, you can go on to the next stage, which is transaction management. It mostly involves persistence processes, but you’ll discover that it might even have an impact on queries. 8.3 Managing transactions When you invoke SaveChanges, the context automatically starts a transaction and commits or rolls it back depending on whether the persistence succeeded. This is all transparent to you, and you’ll never need to deal with it. But sometimes persistence is complex. Think about the product-availability calcu- lation in the previous chapter. When you update an order, you iterate over each detail, adding the old quantity using a custom command, and then invoke SaveChanges. Then you add, for each detail, the new quantity using another custom command. The problem with such a solution is that the custom commands aren’t executed in any transaction. If a problem occurs during SaveChanges, the first set of custom com- mands is executed and committed, the order isn’t committed, and the second set of custom commands isn’t even executed. The result is that the product availability val- ues are compromised. That’s a simple example. A more complex scenario is when you have to integrate your application with an external system. For instance, when you save the order, you may have to send a message over MSMQ or update another database. Everything must be executed in the scope of a transaction. Even if these actions have different natures and use different technologies, they can be grouped together in the same transaction by using the TransactionScope class. It’s defined in the System.Transactions namespace inside the System.Transactions assembly. The TransactionScope class is pretty simple to use. You instantiate it in a using statement, and before disposing of it, you either invoke its Complete method to mark the transaction as committed or do nothing to roll it back. In the using block, you put all the code that must execute in the scope of the transaction. The following snippet shows how simple the code is: 221Managing transactions C# using (var transaction = new TransactionScope()) { ... scope.Complete(); } VB Using transaction = New TransactionScope() ... scope.Complete() End Using It’s that easy. But how is it possible? How can a class handle transactions that span mul- tiple databases and different technologies? The answer lies in the Microsoft Distrib- uted Transaction Coordinator (MSDTC or simply DTC). It’s a component embedded in Windows that coordinates transactions across different platforms. Connecting to the DTC is an expensive task, so TransactionScope tries not to do it unless it’s necessary. When you connect to the database, the DTC starts a classic trans- action: SqlTransaction, OleDbTransaction, or another as appropriate. If you con- nect to a second database or another platform like MSMQ, TransactionScope automatically promotes the transaction to the DTC. As the following listing shows, this behavior is totally transparent; you don’t have to change your code to adapt to the dif- ferent transaction technology. C# using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { var cust = new Customer() { ... }; ctx.Companies.AddObject(cust); using (var transaction = new TransactionScope()) { ctx.SaveChanges(SaveOptions.DetectChangesBeforeSave); using (var altCtx = new OrderITEntities("name=OrderIT2")) { var newCust = new Customer() { ... }; altCtx.Companies.AddObject(newCust); altCtx.SaveChanges( SaveOptions.DetectChangesBeforeSave); Transaction is promoted } transaction.Complete(); ctx.AcceptAllChanges(); altCtx.AcceptAllChanges(); } } VB Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() Dim cust = New Customer() With { ... } ctx.Companies.AddObject(cust) Listing 8.8 An example of transaction promotions 222 CHAPTER 8 Handling concurrency and transactions Using transaction = New TransactionScope() ctx.SaveChanges(SaveOptions.DetectChangesBeforeSave) Using altCtx = New OrderITEntities("name=OrderIT2") Dim newCust = New Customer() With { ... } altCtx.Companies.AddObject(newCust) altCtx.SaveChanges( SaveOptions.DetectChangesBeforeSave) Transaction is promoted End Using transaction.Complete() ctx.AcceptAllChanges() altCtx.AcceptAllChanges() End Using End Using Consider the calculation of product availability during order persistence. To execute all the commands in a single transaction, you can wrap them in a TransactionScope using block. What’s absolutely great is that because only one database is involved, the transaction isn’t promoted to the DTC, sparing resources and gaining performance. NOTE SQL Server 2008 has improved its capabilities in avoiding transac- tion promotion. With SQL Server 2008, transaction promotion happens less frequently than it does with SQL Server 2005. If you want to know whether some code will cause a transaction to be promoted, you have to use SQL Profiler, because it always specifies when this happens. You can see an example in figure 8.6. Figure 8.6 The first INSERT is executed under a database transaction. Later, the transaction is promoted, and then the second INSERT is issued. SQL Profiler is useful during development and debugging. If you want to control how many transactions are promoted and monitor related statistics, you’ll have to resort to performance counters, which have a category dedicated to DTC. In listing 8.7, the value SaveOptions.DetectChangesBeforeSave is passed to the SaveChanges method. Passing such a value without combining it with the Save- Options.AcceptAllChangesAfterSave value guarantees that the entities’ modifica- tions in the context aren’t committed after the SaveChanges has finished executing. 8.3.1 The transactional ObjectContext You know that SaveChanges accepts an enum of type SaveOptions, indicating whether it has to invoke DetectChanges and AcceptAllChanges. If no value is passed to SaveChanges, or if the value SaveOptions.AcceptAllChangesAfterSave is specified, 223Managing transactions then when SaveChanges has finished its job, the objects in Modified and Added states return to Unchanged, and the ones in Deleted state are removed from the context. (This is the SaveChanges method’s commit phase for entities that you learned about in chapter 7.) If you pass the value SaveOptions.DetectChanges to the SaveChanges method and don’t pass SaveOptions.AcceptAllChangesAfterSave, the entities’ commit phase isn’t triggered. This is exactly what you need when extending the transaction span, because if something fails in commands executed after the SaveChanges method, the transaction is rolled back and the entities in the context maintain their state. After you’ve committed the transaction, you can manually call the AcceptAll- Changes method to bring the objects into a clean state. This is necessary because the entities’ commit phase in the object context isn’t transactional. You have to manually take care of keeping everything synchronized. Transactions are widely used to provide an all-or-nothing method of saving data on databases, but they’re useful when reading data too. 8.3.2 Transactions and queries You can’t roll back a read; it’s pure nonsense. But you can use a transaction to control an important aspect of data retrieval: the isolation level. You can use it to decide what types of records can be read and whether they can be modified. For instance, you may decide to search for rows that are in the database, including those that aren’t commit- ted yet. Or you may decide to include uncommitted rows and enable their modifica- tions too. These options are configurable via the IsolationLevel property of the TransactionScope class. It’s an enum of type IsolationLevel and can have the follow- ing values:  Unspecified  Chaos  ReadUncommitted  ReadCommitted  RepeatableRead  Serializable  Snapshot If you’re used to database transactions, you’ll know what these levels correspond to. We won’t cover them here, but if you want to delve more into this subject, the MSDN documentation is a good starting point: http://mng.bz/hGel. The following snippet shows how to set the isolation level of a transaction: C# var transaction = new TransactionScope(TransactionScopeOption.Required, new TransactionOptions() { IsolationLevel = IsolationLevel.ReadUncommitted 224 CHAPTER 8 Handling concurrency and transactions } ); VB Dim transaction As New TransactionScope(TransactionScopeOption.Required, New TransactionOptions() With { .IsolationLevel = IsolationLevel.ReadUncommitted } ) Some years ago, transactions would have been a complex subject. Nowadays, thanks to the DTC component and the TransactionScope class, controlling them is incredibly simple. 8.4 Summary You’ve now finished the second part of this book, which means you have enough knowledge to develop an application using Entity Framework as a persistence engine. Concurrency and transaction management complete the circle, because they inte- grate with persistence, which was covered in the previous chapter. Now you can handle concurrent writes to the same data and make custom SQL commands work in the same transaction as the SaveChanges method, even if those SQL commands are external to Entity Framework. That makes you an Entity Frame- work pro. It’s time to become a master by learning a few other features. For instance, Entity SQL isn’t as easy to use as LINQ to Entities is, but sometimes it makes life easier. Another feature that you must learn about is the use of stored procedures. In environ- ments where the DBA is the governor of the database, learning how to use stored pro- cedures and functions is fundamental. These and other topics will be the subject of the next part of the book. Part 3 Mastering Entity Framework In part 1, you learned about Entity Framework’s fundamentals, and in part 2 you put Entity Framework to work. In part 3, you’ll learn about some advanced features that are necessary to get the best out of Entity Framework. Mapping data between database and entities, reading data from the database, and updating data is vital to creating an application, but there’s still a lot to learn. What about stored procedures? How can you customize the generated code? How can you use the mapping metadata to write generic code? We’ll answer these questions in this part of the book. Chapter 9 covers Entity SQL. Although LINQ to Entities is the most attractive language for querying the model, Entity SQL is still useful. There are tasks that require lots of lines of LINQ to Entities code that you can do with a single clause in Entity SQL. Chapter 10 is about stored procedures. You’ll learn how to integrate them in Entity Framework and how to use them to read and update data. Chapter 11 is about the DefiningQuery element and about reusing code through the use of database and user-defined functions in LINQ to Entities. You’ll see how you can dramatically simplify query code. Chapter 12 introduces one of the hidden gems of Entity Framework: code and database generation. Code-generation templates enable you to fully custom- ize code generation. You’ll also learn about database-generation customization and about extending the designer. Chapter 13 describes how to read mapping information and how to take advantage of that information to write generic code. Such code can make applications much eas- ier to write and maintain. 227 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL In this chapter, we’ll cover one of the hidden gems of Entity Framework: Entity SQL. LINQ to Entities has made this language almost obsolete, and developers don’t feel comfortable with it—its string-based nature is less expressive than the object-oriented LINQ. But thinking that Entity SQL is useless is a huge mistake, because some types of queries are easier to write using such a language. In the first part of the chapter, we’ll discuss the querying capabilities of Entity SQL, focusing on different types of common operations, exactly as we did in chap- ter 4 when discussing LINQ to Entities. After that, we’ll explain how to easily use query-builder methods to use Entity SQL in combination with the ObjectContext. Later, we’ll talk about some advantages Entity SQL has over LINQ to Entities and look at the Entity Client data provider, which is the lowest level of Entity Framework and is used to interact almost directly with the database. We’ll begin by looking at the basics of querying. This chapter covers  Executing queries using Entity SQL  Executing queries using query-builder methods  Using the Entity Client data provider A brief history of Entity SQL When Entity Framework was first presented at Tech-Ed EMEA in 2006, it was called ADO.NET vNext. (Visual Studio 2008, codenamed Orcas, was no more than a proto- type, and the LINQ project was taking its first steps.) To perform queries, the speaker used a strangely familiar syntax. It was a string-based language that used a SQL-like syntax. At that time, creating a new language to query the model was the only choice, because LINQ wasn’t ready yet. The Entity Framework team decided not to start from scratch but to use a syntax that was developer-friendly: the SQL syntax. That’s why the language was named Entity SQL. Initially, the language was very similar to SQL; you almost couldn’t spot the differ- ence. But SQL is meant to query tabular database structures, and it lacks concepts like inheritance, polymorphism, and other OOP features. Because Entity Framework must accommodate these characteristics, Entity SQL had to be adapted. This led to the introduction of new keywords, and the language began to evolve. Now it’s grown to the point where it shares just a few keywords with SQL. When LINQ to Entities came around, Entity SQL, which had little appeal, became a secondary query language, because its counterpart was far more intuitive and pro- ductive. LINQ expressiveness immediately made LINQ to Entities the principal query language. Articles began talking about LINQ to Entities as if it were the entire Entity Framework technology, and people weren’t even aware that Entity SQL was in the game. Nonetheless, Entity SQL is still included in Entity Framework; and due to some LINQ to Entities limitations, it remains the most powerful (although hidden) language for querying. Entity SQL will remain an integral part of Entity Framework. Even if the pres- ence of LINQ to Entities puts it in second place, it will be maintained and evolved like any other part of the framework. 228 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL 9.1 Query basics Entity SQL’s SQL-like structure makes it more familiar for developers. Let’s look at this similarity by analyzing a simple Entity SQL query. The following query retrieves all orders. SELECT VALUE c FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS c The SELECT keyword is mandatory, and each query must begin with it. After SELECT, you must specify what data you want to retrieve. In this case, you’re retrieving a known CLR type, so you use the keyword VALUE. Next, you use the FROM keyword, followed by the full name of the entity set that you’re querying. Finally, you specify the alias of the entity set with the AS keyword. Listing 9.1 A simple Entity SQL query 229Query basics NOTE Unlike in SQL, the alias is mandatory and is commonly referred to as the defining variable. This is important, because in Entity SQL queries, you always refer to a property starting from the defining variable. You’ve now written your first Entity SQL query. There are several ways to execute it:  Through ObjectContext  Through ObjectContext with query-builder methods  Through Entity Client For now, you’ll use ObjectContext features to execute Entity SQL queries. In section 9.8, we’ll talk about query-builder methods, and in section 9.9 we’ll show you how to use Entity SQL in combination with Entity Client. To execute an Entity SQL query through the ObjectContext class, you have to invoke its CreateQuery method, passing the Entity SQL query as the parameter, and the return type as the generic parameter. Here’s an example of consuming such a method: C# using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { ObjectQuery result = ctx.CreateQuery( "SELECT VALUE c FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS c"); foreach(var item in result) { //code that handles orders } } VB Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() Dim result = ctx.CreateQuery(Of Order)( "SELECT VALUE c FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS c") For Each item As var In result 'code that handles orders Next End Using The result variable contains a list of Order objects that you can use for whatever you need. Keep in mind that, as for LINQ to Entities, the query isn’t executed until the data are actually used by the code. This means the query is executed when the code reaches the foreach loop and not before. Now that you understand the basics of Entity SQL, we can move on and start cover- ing queries. As we mentioned, we’ll follow the same path as chapter 4, so we’ll begin with filtering and then move to projecting, grouping, sorting, and joining. NOTE We won’t show the context instantiation in the examples again. The ctx variable will represent it. The first query we looked at returns all orders without applying any filters. In the next section, we’ll look at how to restrict the data returned. 230 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL 9.2 Filtering data Filtering the data you want returned is the most common operation of a query. Entity SQL performs this basic operation exactly as SQL does, with the WHERE clause. The fol- lowing listing shows how to retrieve orders that must be shipped to New York. C# var result = ctx.CreateQuery("SELECT VALUE c ➥ FROM OrderITEntities.Orders as c ➥ WHERE c.ShippingAddress.City = ➥ @city"); result.Parameters.Add(new ObjectParameter("city", name)); return result.ToList(); VB Dim result = ctx.CreateQuery(Of Order)("SELECT VALUE c ➥ FROM OrderITEntities.Orders as c ➥ WHERE c.ShippingAddress.City = ➥ @city ") result.Parameters.Add(New ObjectParameter("city", name)) Return result.ToList() In the WHERE clause, two features come up clearly. The first is the syntax when dealing with complex properties . When you refer to the scalar value of a complex property, you have to reach it as if you were navigating to it in VB or C# code. The second feature is the parameter syntax, which is the same syntax used when executing queries through the classic ADO.NET provider for SQL Server. After declar- ing the parameter in the query, you have to create an ObjectParameter and add it to the collection that contains parameters for the query. NOTE From now on, we won’t show the code required to run the query; we’ll focus on the Entity SQL syntax. The query in listing 9.2 is fairly simple and deals with only one entity. In the real world, such queries are very rare; usually, multiple related entities are involved in a query. Understanding how to work with associations is fundamental to writing Entity SQL queries, and we’ll look at that next. 9.2.1 Working with associations You know that in a model, associations are one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-many. Let’s start with one-to-one associations, like the one between an order and its customer. FILTERING WITH A SINGLE ASSOCIATION Filtering based on a single association is easy: you navigate to the property as if you were using it in code. Because the property represents a single instance, it’s seen as an extension of the main object, so its use is trivial. The following snippet shows an example of filtering on an association and retriev- ing all orders that are placed by customers in New York: Listing 9.2 Retrieving all orders shipped to New York 231Filtering data SELECT VALUE o FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o WHERE o.Customer.BillingAddress.City = 'New York' Like LINQ to Entities and unlike SQL, you don’t have to worry about joins between tables. The Entity Framework generator creates the SQL, making use of the mapping information. FILTERING WITH COLLECTION ASSOCIATIONS Filtering based on a collection property is a bit more complicated than filtering based on a single reference property. This is because the filter must be applied on a value calculated on the collection data. It may be a count, a sum, or the mere existence of data in the associated collection. For example, the next snippet retrieves orders that have at least one detail related to a product whose brand property is MyBrand: SELECT VALUE o FROM OrderITEntities.Orders as o WHERE EXISTS (SELECT d FROM o.OrderDetails AS d WHERE d.Product.Brand = 'MyBrand') EXISTS is an Entity SQL function that’s equivalent to the Any method of LINQ to Enti- ties and to the SQL EXISTS clause. In this case, it’s used to filter the orders based on the presence of at least one detail that contains a product with brand MyBrand. NOTE The LINQ to Entities syntax is different than that used by Entity SQL, but if you compare the SQL generated by the two languages, you’ll find it’s exactly the same. The only difference is in the parameter name; in LINQ to Entities, you can’t specify parameter names, whereas in Entity SQL you’re forced to do so. Checking for the existence of a child element in a collection isn’t the only filter you may want to apply. Often, an aggregated value is the discriminator for a filter. For example, if you wanted to retrieve all orders with no discount, you could take those where the sum of the discount in the details was 0, as in the following snippet: SELECT VALUE o FROM OrderITEntities.Orders as o WHERE SUM(SELECT VALUE d.discount FROM o.OrderDetails as d) = 0 As you can see, the SUM function takes as input another query that returns the dis- count of each detail. In SQL, it would be impossible to write a query with this structure because SUM can be used only in the SELECT, HAVING, and GROUP BY clauses. Here you can use it in the WHERE clause, which makes the query more natural from a logical point of view. Thumbs up for Entity SQL! Another example of filtering based on aggregated data is searching for orders that contain more than one product. In OrderIT, due to the discount policy, a single prod- uct can appear twice in an order, so you can have two details but one product. That means you can’t simply count the details to find orders with more than one product sold. By using the COUNT and DISTINCT functions, you can easily determine how many different products are in an order, as follows: 232 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL SELECT VALUE o FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o WHERE COUNT( SELECT VALUE DISTINCT(d.product.productid) FROM o.OrderDetails AS d ) > 1 The DISTINCT clause removes duplicates, and then COUNT adds up how many products are in the order. Like SUM, the COUNT clause is used inside the WHERE clause. As you can see, this way of querying is more intuitive than plain old SQL. Filtering based on a collection isn’t difficult when you understand the mechanism of working on aggregated values. But filtering based on data is only part of the game. You can also perform filtering on a count basis. The simplest example is when you want to retrieve only the first n rows, or you need to page data in a grid on a web page. 9.2.2 Paging results How many times have you been asked to create a report containing the top 10 of something? It’s a common request. The top 10 (or 100) request can be considered a filtering matter because you’re narrowing down the number of objects returned. To take only the first n occurrences, you use the LIMIT clause. It must be put at the end of the statement, followed by the number of objects you want returned, as in the following snippet: SELECT VALUE o FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o ORDER BY o.OrderId LIMIT 5 Notice the use of the Order By clause. It’s mandatory when using LIMIT. If you don’t specify the sort field explicitly, you’ll get a runtime exception. Another typical requirement is paging data in web applications. This goal is easily achievable by combining the use of LIMIT with SKIP. The latter’s task is to skip n rows before retrieving the number of rows specified by LIMIT. Suppose you want to retrieve the second page of a grid that shows five records per page. In this case, you have to skip the first five rows and limit the retrieved ones to five. That’s what the following example does: SELECT VALUE o FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o ORDER BY o.orderid SKIP 5 LIMIT 5 It’s not mandatory to put SKIP before LIMIT, but inverting them would result in the query returning the first five occurrences, because the parser considers clauses in the order it receives them. All the preceding queries return full entities. More precisely, the preceding que- ries return a list of Order objects. Often you don’t need the full instance, but only some of its properties. What you need is a projection. 9.3 Projecting results The process of projecting data in Entity SQL is natural. As in SQL, you specify the pro- jected data in the Entity SQL SELECT clause. What’s different between a query that returns an entity and one that returns a projection is that the VALUE keyword must be omitted for the projection. 233Projecting results Projecting with Entity SQL is also different from projecting in LINQ to Entities because the output result is different. Due to its typed syntax, LINQ to Entities can return an anonymous type with the selected properties. Entity SQL is string-based, and the compiler can’t create a class from strings. 9.3.1 Handling projection results The output of a projected query is an ObjectQuery instance. As you know, DbDataRecord is the class that represents a row in a DbDataReader. This means you have to forget strong typing and use a generic object, as in the following listing. C# var result = ctx.CreateQuery("SELECT c.CompanyId, c.Name ➥ FROM OrderITEntities.Companies AS c"); foreach (var item in result) Console.WriteLine((int)item["CompanyId"] + "-" + (string)item["Name"]); VB dim result = ctx.CreateQuery(Of DbDataRecord)("SELECT c.CompanyId, ➥ c.Name FROM OrderITEntities.Companies AS c") For Each item In result Console.WriteLine(item("CompanyId") + "-" + item("Name")) Next Returning data as a list of DbDataRecord objects isn’t the most desirable approach. First, the invoking code needs to be aware of the column names. Second, you lose the strong typing and compile-time checking. Returning a class (DTO) in this case is the best way to go, but it’s a more time- consuming approach because it involves more steps. First you have to create an ad hoc class to hold the data. Then you have to execute the query. Finally, you need to use a LINQ to Objects query to move data from the DbDataRecord to the class. You can see the code in the following listing. C# public class KeyValue DTO class { public T Id { get; set; } public K Value { get; set; } } public List> GetCompaniesProjection() Data-access method { var q = ctx.CreateQuery( "SELECT c.CompanyId, c.Name ➥ FROM OrderITEntities.Companies AS c").ToList(); return q.Select(i => new KeyValue( (int)i["CompanyId"], i["Name"].ToString())).ToList(); } Listing 9.3 Using projected data Listing 9.4 Returning projected data as typed objects 234 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL foreach (var item in GetCompaniesProjection()) Data-access consumer Console.WriteLine(item.Id, item.Value); VB Public Class KeyValue(Of T, K) DTO class Public Property Id() As T Public Property Value() As K End Class Public Function GetCompaniesProjection() As Data-access method List(Of KeyValue(Of Integer, String)) Dim q = ctx.CreateQuery(Of DbDataRecord)( "SELECT c.CompanyId, c.Name ➥ FROM OrderITEntities.Companies AS c").ToList() Return q.Select(Function(i) New KeyValue(Of Integer, String) (i["CompanyId"], i["Name"]))).ToList() End Function For Each item In GetCompaniesProjection() Data-access consumer Console.WriteLine(item.Id, item.Value) Next As you can see, the invoking code is now much more readable. The dirty stuff of con- verting the projection from a DbDataRecord to an object is handled by the data-access method. The invoker doesn’t need to worry about typing and column names because it works directly with objects. NOTE Instead of creating the DTO class, you could create a Company instance, setting only the CompanyId and Name properties. Although using the Company class works perfectly, this approach results in an object that’s only partially filled with values. A DTO is much better. Another thing you can do with projections is concatenate properties. You can join all the billing-address properties of an order into a scalar property, as in the following snippet. This makes data binding easier: SELECT (o.ShippingAddress.Address + '-' + o.ShippingAddress.City + '-' + o.ShippingAddress.Country + '-' + o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode) AS ShippingAddress FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o You can also group properties into a complex property. In this case, the column in the DbDataRecord doesn’t hold a scalar value, but another DbDataRecord, which in turn contains the scalar values. This nifty method of organization allows you to nest com- plex properties infinitely. Grouping is achieved through the ROW function. The following query shows an example that returns only the city and street address of an order grouped into a single property: SELECT o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, ROW(o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.Address) 235Projecting results AS ShippingAddress FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o The way you access the scalar columns doesn’t change, but when you access the column that contains the grouping prop- erty, the situation is different because it contains a DbDataRecord instance contain- ing the scalar columns. Figure 9.1 displays how the grouping property is organized. As a result of this organization, you have to cast the inner DbDataRecord’s column to DbDataRecord in order to access the scalar column’s value. The next snippet shows the simplicity of the code: C# var sa = ((DbDataRecord)item["ShippingAddress"])["Address"]; VB Dim sa = DirectCast(item("ShippingAddress"), DbDataRecord)("Address") There’s nothing more you need to know about projections based on single entities, so let’s move on to projecting with associations. 9.3.2 Projecting with associations It’s no surprise that associations can participate in projections. As with filtering, you have to distinguish between projections that involve one-to-many associations and pro- jections with a one-to-one association. That’s the only similarity between projecting and filtering. PROJECTING WITH SINGLE ASSOCIATIONS Handling projections for single associations is simple. Because a single association can be seen as a sort of extension of the class, retrieving it is easy. You have two options when projecting a single association: return a projection of the main entity plus the entire associated one, or return a projection of the main entity plus a projection of the associated one. In the first case, you need to put the name of the associated property in the SELECT clause, as follows: SELECT o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.Customer FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o In the output result, the column containing the associated property directly exposes the object (Customer). To retrieve its data, you cast the column to Customer and then access its properties. If you project the association too, you need to put the properties in the SELECT clause using the usual navigation syntax, like this: SELECT o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, o.Customer.CompanyId, o.Customer.Name FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o Figure 9.1 The ShippingAddress column in the DbDataRecord is a DbDataRecord representing the complex property. 236 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL The result is flat because all properties are scalar values. There’s no need to do any additional processing. PROJECTING WITH COLLECTION ASSOCIATIONS There are three main ways you can project with collection associations, depending on what you need:  Return partial data from the main entity, plus all the data from the collection.  Return partial data from both the main entity and the associated collection.  Return calculated values from the list of associated data. Let’s start with the first case. A typical situation is when you retrieve parts of the selected orders and their full details. To do this in Entity SQL, you have to put the property in the SELECT clause. The column containing the collection holds a List instance, where T is the type of object in the collection. The value of the column must be cast to List and then iterated. This is what the next listing does. C# var result = ctx.CreateQuery("SELECT o.OrderId, ➥ o.OrderDate, o.OrderDetails Retrieves association➥ FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o"); foreach (var item in result) { Console.WriteLine(item["OrderId"]); var details = (List)item["OrderDetails"]; Iterates over association foreach (var detail in details ) Console.WriteLine(" " + detail.OrderDetailId); } VB Dim result = ctx.CreateQuery(Of DbDataRecord)("SELECT o.OrderId, ➥ o.OrderDate, o.OrderDetails Retrieves association➥ FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o") For Each item In result Console.WriteLine(item("OrderId")) Dim details = DirectCast(item["Details"], Iterates over association List(Of OrderDetail) For Each detail in details) Console.WriteLine(" " & detail.OrderDetailId); Next Next The second case, returning partial data from both the main entity and the associated collection, often happens when you retrieve parts of the selected orders, plus the quantities, IDs, and products from their details. In Entity SQL, to project collection data, you insert a subquery in the SELECT specifying the columns of the association you want to retrieve. The subquery is shown in bold in the following example. Listing 9.5 Projecting an order plus full details 237Grouping data SELECT o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, (SELECT d.OrderDetailId, d.Product.ProductId, d.Quantity FROM o.OrderDetails As d) as Details FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o The output result is a three-column DbDataRecord whose third column is a collection. The difference between this collection and the one generated by the previous query is that because it contains a projected detail, it holds a list of DbDataRecord instances. Even if the objects are different, the concept still remains the same: to access the association data, you have to cast the column to List and iterate over the items in the list. Figure 9.2 illustrates the column data in this case. The last case, returning calculated values from a list of associated data, is common and useful when you need to retrieve orders and their total amounts. In this case, you don’t get a collection; you get a scalar value that is easier to manage. From the query perspective, the amount is calculated using a subquery, in the SELECT clause that returns only a property, as in the next snippet: SELECT o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, SUM(SELECT VALUE (d.UnitPrice - d.Discount) * d.Quantity FROM o.OrderDetails As d) AS Total FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o The result is a list of DbDataRecord objects containing the OrderId, OrderDate, and Total columns. Because the Total column is a simple scalar value, it’s retrieved as a classic scalar column. Now you understand two important pieces of Entity SQL: filtering and projecting. The next step is learning how to group data using this language. 9.4 Grouping data Grouping data is a basic function of any advanced query language. SQL, LINQ, LINQ to Entities, and Entity SQL have this feature in their toolbox. Once again, grouping data in Entity SQL is similar to doing so in SQL. You use a GROUP BY clause to specify the grouping fields. That’s all. As a first example, let’s extract the orders and group them by shipping city: SELECT o.ShippingAddress.City, (SELECT VALUE o2 FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o2 WHERE o.ShippingAddress.City = o2.ShippingAddress.City) AS Orders FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o GROUP BY o.ShippingAddress.City The output of this query is an ObjectQuery, where each record con- tains a column for the shipping city and another for the orders, as shown in figure 9.3. Figure 9.2 The result of projecting both orders and details Figure 9.3 The result of a grouping query. The first column contains the grouping field—City, in this case. The second column contains the orders shipped to the city. 238 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL To process the records extracted by the query, you need to iterate over them. Remem- ber that the second column contains a List object and not a List object because the query didn’t perform any projection. You can also group data on more than one property. For instance, you might have to group orders by shipping city and zip code. To do this, you’d include both columns in the GROUP BY clause, separating them with a comma (,) as in the following query: SELECT o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode, (SELECT VALUE o2 FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o2 WHERE o.ShippingAddress.City = o2.ShippingAddress.City) AS Orders FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o GROUP BY o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode The DbDataRecord output contains the columns in the SELECT clause. Data retrieved by the query can be projected; you aren’t forced to return an entire entity. To do so, remove the VALUE keyword from the SELECT clause, and select the properties you need, as shown in the next snippet. The difference between this and the previous example is that the column that contains the projected data isn’t a List instance but a List instance: SELECT o.ShippingAddress.City, (SELECT o2.OrderId, o2.OrderDate FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o2 WHERE o.ShippingAddress.City = o2.ShippingAddress.City) AS details FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o GROUP BY o.ShippingAddress.City Sometimes you may need to filter data after it’s grouped. More often, you may need to filter on an aggregated value. For instance, you may want to retrieve data only for those cities that have more than two orders. As with SQL, the solution is the HAVING clause. It must be put after the GROUP BY clause and can specify any valid Entity SQL expression (COUNT is used in the following example): SELECT o.ShippingAddress.City, (SELECT VALUE o2 FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o2 WHERE o.ShippingAddress.City = o2.ShippingAddress.City) AS details 239Sorting data FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o GROUP BY o.ShippingAddress.City HAVING COUNT(o.ShippingAddress.City) > 2 As you can see, grouping data is a fairly easy task. By mixing GROUP BY and HAVING, you can perform powerful queries. Next, it’s time to look at sorting. 9.5 Sorting data Sorting in Entity SQL is identical to sorting in SQL. The ORDER BY clause is used, fol- lowed by a list of comma-separated columns that the sorting is based on. You can even set the sorting direction with the DESC and ASC keywords: Here’s an example of sorting on one column: SELECT VALUE o FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o ORDER BY o.ShippingAddress.City And here’s a similar example of sorting on multiple columns: SELECT VALUE o FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o ORDER BY o.ShippingAddress.City, o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode Sorting is a simple matter of using the ORDER BY clause. But when associations are involved, you can do interesting things. 9.5.1 Sorting data based on associations The first thing you may want to do when associations are involved is to sort data on the basis of an aggregated value calculated on a collection association. For instance, the next example sorts the orders based on their total amounts: SELECT VALUE o FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o ORDER BY Sum(SELECT VALUE (d.UnitPrice - d.Discount) * d.Quantity FROM o.OrderDetails AS d) What’s great in this query is that you can use a subquery in the ORDER BY clause. This is something SQL doesn’t allow—it’s another Entity SQL feature that makes life easier. Another interesting Entity SQL feature is the ability to retrieve an entity, or a pro- jection of it, and have only its associated collection data sorted. The following exam- ple retrieves the orders and sorts their details by the items sold: SELECT o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, (Select VALUE d FROM o.OrderDetails AS d ORDER BY d.Quantity) AS Details FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o When it comes to associations that point to a single reference, sorting is trivial. The reference points to a single instance, so you can navigate to properties as usual. In the following snippet, the orders are sorted by their customer city: 240 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL SELECT VALUE o FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o ORDER BY o.Customer.ShippingAddress.City That’s all you need to know about sorting. In the next section, we’ll talk about another feature: joins between objects. 9.6 Joining data You already discovered in chapter 4 that manually joining data is unnecessary because Entity Framework automatically takes care of relationships when generating SQL. But there are some situations where you may need to manually join objects, so you must be aware of this mechanism. Once again, Entity SQL syntax for joins is identical to SQL syntax; you use the JOIN clause. In the following example, orders and companies are joined by the shipping city and the customer ID: SELECT o.OrderId, o.OrderDate FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o JOIN OrderITEntities.Companies AS c ON o.Customer.CompanyId = c.CompanyId AND o.ShippingAddress.City = c.ShippingCity The last feature needed to query data is the inheritance-querying mechanism. This is a bit different from what you’ve seen so far, because it’s something that doesn’t exist in SQL. 9.7 Querying for inheritance When talking about inheritance, two types of queries can be performed:  Queries that return objects, exposing them through the base class  Queries that return only objects of a specified type The first type of query is pretty simple and doesn’t involve any Entity SQL inheri- tance knowledge. Because the entity set you query exposes objects through the base class, you perform a query using properties on that class. At runtime, Entity Frame- work generates the concrete classes by analyzing the mapping information. The second type of query requires some explanation, because Entity SQL inheri- tance features come into play via the OFTYPE function. This function is placed immedi- ately after the FROM clause and accepts the full entity-set name and the full type name to be retrieved, as shown in the next snippet: SELECT VALUE c FROM OFTYPE(OrderITEntities.Companies, OrderIT.Model.Customer) AS c Naturally, you can add filters. Because this query retrieves customers, you can add a WHERE clause on the customer properties. The next snippet looks for customers who are enabled to use the web service: SELECT VALUE c FROM OFTYPE(OrderITEntities.Companies, OrderIT.Model.Customer) AS c WHERE c.WSEnabled = true 241Using query-builder methods Not only can you filter data, but you can also project, sort, and group it any way you want. This is all you really need to know to consider yourself an Entity SQL master, but Entity SQL is wide subject. It has a lot of functions and operators. MSDN has great doc- umentation for the Entity SQL Language; you can find the MSDN language reference at http://mng.bz/f3ew. So far, you’ve used the CreateQuery method for querying, passing in the entire Entity SQL string. To simplify the creation of Entity SQL queries, you can use a set of methods, named query-builder methods, to shorten the code. 9.8 Using query-builder methods Query-builder methods are a convenient way to organize Entity SQL queries and can often simplify dynamic query creation. These methods do exactly what their name suggests: they let you build an Entity SQL query using methods instead of having to write the entire Entity SQL on your own. Query-builder methods don’t cover all aspects of querying, but, in our experience, 90% of a project’s queries can be devel- oped using them. Query-builder methods aren’t extension methods like the LINQ to Entities meth- ods. They’re included in the ObjectQuery class and implement the fluent tech- nique, which allows them to be chained, because they return an ObjectQuery instance. The query-builder methods are listed in table 9.1. Table 9.1 The query-builder methods Method Functionality Distinct Specifies that returned data must be unique Except Limits query results by excluding results based on the results of another object query Include Eager-loads related associations Intersect Limits query results by including only the results that exist in another object query OfType Retrieves only instances of objects of the specified type OrderBy Defines the sorting properties Select Defines the properties to retrieve SelectValue Defines the properties to retrieve, and returns them in the object specified Skip Sorts the data by a key, and skips the first n occurrences Top Returns only the first n occurrences Union Merges the results of two queries, removing duplicates UnionAll Merges the results of two queries Where Defines filters 242 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL Let’s see a simple query in action. This one retrieves all orders shipped to New York: C# var result = ctx.Orders.Where("it.ShippingAddress.City = 'New York'"); VB Dim result = ctx.Orders.Where("it.ShippingAddress.City = 'New York'") This query is simple; it uses the Where method to filter returned data. Despite its sim- plicity, there is one thing to point out: the it defining variable. it is the name of the defining variable, but the name can be changed programmatically using the Object- Query instance’s Name property. Note that you must be aware of some caveats when changing the defining variable. It’s bound to the chaining mechanism, which we’ll cover next. 9.8.1 Chaining methods Chaining multiple query-builder methods together is a simple and powerful mecha- nism for shaping a query at runtime. Suppose you have a method with many filter parameters. When you create the query, you have to apply the filters only for the input parameters that have a value. In this case, you can call the Where method multiple times, as shown here. C# ObjectQuery result = ctx.Orders; if (city != String.Empty) result = result.Where("it.ShippingAddress.City = '" + city + "'"); if (zipCode != String.Empty) result = result.Where("it.ShippingAddress.ZipCode = '" + zipCode + "'"); VB Dim result As ObjectQuery = ctx.Orders If city <> String.Empty result = result.Where("it.ShippingAddress.City = '" + city + "'") End If If zipCode <> String.Empty result = result.Where("it.ShippingAddress.ZipCode = '" + zipCode + "'") End If The Entity SQL code generated by a chaining method isn’t necessarily what you may expect. If you were to create the Entity SQL string on your own, you would probably create a WHERE clause with multiple ANDs. Entity SQL behaves differently, generating a nested query for each call to the Where method. Although this may seem to be a cum- bersome approach, it guarantees the needed flexibility in code generation. The following query is the Entity SQL generated by the code in listing 9.6, obtained by inspecting the CommandText property of the ObjectQuery class: SELECT VALUE it FROM ( Listing 9.6 Chaining query-builder methods 243Using query-builder methods SELECT VALUE it FROM ([Orders]) AS it WHERE it.ShippingAddress.City = 'New York' ) AS it WHERE it.ShippingAddress.ZipCode = '98765' As you see, the second WHERE causes a query-nesting process. Earlier, we said you can change the defining variable name programmatically, but you should be aware of a caveat when doing so. When you have just one method call, you can change the defining variable name and then use it in the method: VB ctx.Orders.Name = "o" ctx.Orders.Where("o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode = '98765'") C# ctx.Orders.Name = "o"; ctx.Orders.Where("o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode = '98765'"); But if you’re chaining multiple methods, you have to change the name before each method. This is mandatory, because queries are nested, and it is automatically used as the defining variable name for each one: VB Dim result As ObjectQuery = ctx.Orders result.Name = "o" result = result.Where("o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode = '98765'") result.Name = "o2" result = result.Where("o2.ShippingAddress.ZipCode = '98765'") C# ObjectQuery result = ctx.Orders; result.Name = "o"; result = result.Where("o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode = '98765'"); result.Name = "o2"; result = result.Where("o2.ShippingAddress.ZipCode = '98765'"); You should now understand why, despite its power, Entity SQL isn’t famous among Entity Framework adopters. Its string-based nature makes it less appealing than LINQ to Entities. Nevertheless, query-builder methods make things easier and are fantastic when the query must be created at runtime. Entity SQL is friendlier than LINQ to Enti- ties in such cases. 9.8.2 Query-builder methods vs. LINQ to Entities methods A typical situation when a query must be built dynamically is when the sorting field is decided at runtime based on user input. This often happens if the user can sort a grid by clicking a column header. Due to LINQ to Entities’ strong typing nature, this task can be handled only by using a set of if or switch statements. Because Entity SQL is string-based, query-builder methods, and Entity SQL in gen- eral, make runtime construction easy. The following listing shows the code required for runtime query construction using both LINQ to Entities and query-builder methods. 244 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL C# IEnumerable result; Dynamic sorting with LINQ to Entities Bif (sortField == "city") result = ctx.Orders.OrderBy( o => o.ShippingAddress.City); else if (sortField == "ZipCode") result = ctx.Orders.OrderBy( o => o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode); else result = ctx.Orders.OrderBy( o => o.ShippingAddress.Country); var result = ctx.Orders.OrderBy( Dynamic sorting with Entity SQL C "it.ShippingAddress." + sortField); VB Dim result as IEnumerable Dynamic sorting with LINQ to Entities Bif sortField == "city" result = ctx.Orders.OrderBy(Function(o) o.ShippingAddress.City) elseif (sortField == "ZipCode") result = ctx.Orders.OrderBy(Function(o) o.ShippingAddress.ZipCode) else result = ctx.Orders.OrderBy(Function(o) o.ShippingAddress.Country) Dim result = ctx.Orders.OrderBy( Dynamic sorting with Entity SQL C "it.ShippingAddress" & sortField) Wow. Just one statement C, as compared to seven B. Isn’t that great? You should now understand why we said that Entity SQL in combination with query-builder methods is more useful than LINQ to Entities in such cases. Listing 9.6 uses string concatenation to create a query; this is bad. We just wanted to demonstrate that Entity SQL offers great flexibility in creating a query. But in that sort of situation, there’s no doubt that the best way to go is to use parameters. We intro- duced them in section 9.2, and we’ll discuss them in more detail in the next section. 9.8.3 Using parameters to prevent injection Lots of queries are parameterized through arguments. For instance, a query that looks for customers by their billing city accepts the customer’s city as an argument. In this type of query, we strongly recommend you to use parameters to avoid SQL injection attacks. You should never concatenate user input to create Entity SQL code. If you have already developed solutions using ADO.NET, you should be accustomed to parameters. If not, you’ll find them easy to use. NOTE You can learn more about SQL injection and about how parame- ters help you in avoiding this type of attack from the MSDN article “SQL Injection” at http://mng.bz/76s4. Listing 9.7 Chaining query-builder methods vs. chaining LINQ to Entities methods 245Using query-builder methods To simplify the use of parameters, each query-builder method that requires parame- ters (the majority) accepts a list of ObjectParameter objects as a second argument. The parameters are accepted as param/ParamArray, so you can declare and instantiate them in a single statement, as shown in the following snippet: C# ctx.Orders.Where("it.ShippingAddress.City = @city", new ObjectParameter("city", city)); VB ctx.Orders.Where("it.ShippingAddress.City = @city", New ObjectParameter("city", city)) The SQL code generated by a LINQ to Entities query uses parameters, so there’s noth- ing you have to do to use them; with Entity SQL, you must explicitly use parameters in your query. We’ve never seen it happen, but if you encounter a situation where you can’t use parameters, you’ll have to check the user input for malicious data. Even if the user input is smarter than your validation process, it still has to perform a complicated action: inject code that’s perfectly valid for Entity SQL and in turn SQL. Although Entity SQL and SQL are similar, there are subtle differences. For instance, Entity SQL doesn’t support the semicolon (;) character, which is often used in SQL injection to interrupt a SQL statement and create a new malicious one. This doesn’t mean Entity SQL is more secure than plain old ADO.NET, but it surely makes life harder for attackers. Nevertheless, the greater difficulty of injection doesn’t mean you can lower your defenses; always take care of this aspect of security. Naturally, all of these considerations apply to Entity SQL in general, and not only to query-builder methods. PARAMETER TRANSLATION When an Entity SQL query with parameters is translated into SQL, the generated SQL uses the parameter feature of each database engine. For instance, OrderIT uses SQL Server, which has the sp_executesql stored procedure. This stored procedure accepts a string that represents both the SQL string and a set of parameters that are used to execute the query. Generic solutions like O/RM have a generic structure that makes them ready for any situation. When it comes to parameters, this means many O/RM tools use the maximum size of the parameter type. For instance, a string parameter is translated in SQL as a varchar(8000). This is one place where Entity Framework is optimized. It uses the real size of the value of the parameter, instead of assuming the maximum size for the type. Although it may seem negligible, this is a huge optimization. So far, we’ve used the context as the gateway to the data. But Entity Framework has another layer that lets you communicate with the database: the Entity Client data provider. 246 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL 9.9 Working with the Entity Client data provider You learned in chapter 1 that the Object Services layer isn’t directly connected to the database. It’s situated on the Entity Client data provider (Entity Client from now on), which is an ADO.NET data provider built for Entity Framework. Entity Client is respon- sible for many Entity Framework internal behaviors (like transforming data read from the database into a format that’s later transformed into objects by the Object Services layer), and it uses the ADO.NET data provider specified in the connection string to physically interact with the database. Because the Entity Client is an ADO.NET data provider, like OracleClient, Sql- Client, and OleDb, it contains a set of classes that implement the standard ADO.NET base classes:  EntityConnection—Inherits from DbConnection and represents the connec- tion to a database. It adds some functionality to the base class.  EntityTransaction—Inherits from DbTransaction and represents a transac- tion to the database. It’s a wrapper needed to implement a full ADO.NET provider.  EntityCommand—Inherits from DbCommand and represents the class necessary to execute any command to the database.  EntityParameter—Inherits from DbParameter and represents a parameter of a query.  EntityDataReader—Inherits from DbDataReader and contains the result of a query executed by the EntityCommand class. If you’re familiar with ADO.NET development, these classes will be nothing new. Keep in mind that the Entity Client doesn’t physically connect to the database; it relies on the underlying ADO.NET provider. Entity Client is a wrapper that works with the EDM to generate SQL from queries and to shape the results of queries. The only language you can use to query the database via Entity Client is Entity SQL (LINQ to Entities works only with Object Services). The following listing shows how you can retrieve orders by writing an Entity SQL query, not a SQL one. C# using (var conn = new EntityConnection( Parameters.ConnectionString)) { using (EntityCommand comm = new EntityCommand("SELECT VALUE o ➥ FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o", conn)) { conn.Open(); EntityDataReader reader = comm.ExecuteReader( CommandBehavior.SequentialAccess); while (reader.Read()) { ... Listing 9.8 Retrieving orders with Entity Client 247Working with the Entity Client data provider } } } VB Using conn As New EntityConnection( Parameters.ConnectionString) Using comm As New EntityCommand("SELECT VALUE o ➥ FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o", conn) conn.Open() Dim reader As EntityDataReader = comm.ExecuteReader( CommandBehavior.SequentialAccess) While reader.Read() ... End While End Using End Using This example is quite simple: it creates a connection, creates a command, executes a query, and consumes data. If you have written at least one query in your life, you should be able to follow what it does. Let’s focus on the objects that are used in it, starting with the connection. 9.9.1 Connecting with EntityConnection EntityConnection is the class that establishes a connection with the underlying ADO.NET provider. Two main points are worth looking at here. The first point to highlight is the connection string that’s passed to the Entity- Connection class. In chapter 3, you learned the different ways you can pass the con- nection string to the ObjectContext. The same paths can be followed when using the EntityConnection class. You can pass the full connection string, or a formatted string that contains the keyword Name followed by an equal sign (=) and then the name of the connection string in the configuration file: Name=OrderITEntities The second thing to note is that EntityConnection exposes the StoreConnection property that represents the physical connection to the database. The property is of DbConnection type, but the real underlying type is the one you specified in the con- nection string. Having access to the real database connection turns out to be particularly useful in scenarios that aren’t natively supported by Entity Framework. For instance, Entity Framework doesn’t support stored procedures that return multiple resultsets. To bypass this limitation, you can retrieve the physical connection to the database, launch the stored procedure, and then handle the result manually. NOTE You can also use this method to execute native queries on the database. But although this is technically possible, we strongly discourage it. As you’ll discover in the next chapter, you have other ways to launch native commands against the database. 248 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL EntityConnection is a gateway to the metadata of the EDM too. Through its Get- MetadataWorkspace method, you can access all of the information of the EDM and get information about the objects, their relationships, and their mapping to the database. We’ll talk more about this subject in chapter 12. 9.9.2 Executing queries with EntityCommand The EntityCommand class doesn’t introduce any new concepts that you haven’t seen in any other ADO.NET-specific provider. The only additional feature it introduces is the ability to enable or disable the caching of the query. The property involved is Enable- PlanCaching, which is a Boolean whose default value is true. We’ll talk more about the plan-caching feature in chapter 19, which is dedicated to performance. The ExecuteReader method has a peculiarity: you have to pass the Command- Behavior.SequentialAccess parameter. This indicates that when reading columns from the reader, you have to access them sequentially, not randomly. If you access the columns randomly, you’ll get an InvalidOperationException. The reason for this requirement is to avoid excessive memory usage. The following snippet shows exam- ples of correct and incorrect code: C# var f1 = Reader[1]; Incorrect (random) accessvar f2 = Reader[0]; var f1 = Reader[0]; Valid (sequential) accessvar f2 = Reader[1]; VB Dim f1 = Reader(1) Incorrect (random) accessDim f2 = Reader(0) Dim f1 = Reader(0) Valid (sequential) accessDim f2 = Reader(1) The situation doesn’t change if you access columns by name. You always have to access them in sequential order. The EntityCommand class has a unique feature: the way it sizes parameters. In the previous section, you saw that Entity Framework automatically adjusts the size and type of a query parameter based on the value it contains. Although that’s a good thing, in some scenarios you may want full control over parameter sizes or types. In this situation, the EntityParameter class comes into play. EntityParameter isn’t any different from other providers. Its instantiation pro- cess, properties, and methods are exactly the same. The fact that you can control parameter type and size is all that makes it different from the LINQ to Entities and ObjectParameter implementations of parameters. 9.9.3 Processing query results with EntityDataReader Hardly surprisingly, the EntityDataReader class is the container for data returned by the EntityCommand’s ExecuteReader method. As you’ll discover, this DbDataReader imple- mentation is likely the most different from any of the other providers you have seen. 249Working with the Entity Client data provider In terms of query results, what’s their format in the data reader? Are the results shaped like the database query, or are they formatted like classes? The answer is two- fold. The data is shaped like classes, but it’s held in a generic structure like the DbDataRecord instead of a typed object. This has two effects. First, when the data is retrieved from the database, the Entity Client uses the projection, if present, or queries the EDM to understand how the data should be returned to the code. Figure 9.4 illustrates how the data is organized in log- ical, not in database, format. Figure 9.4 The structure of an EntityDataReader record returned by listing 9.8 Second, although you work with a data reader, you aren’t connected to the data- base. The underlying ADO.NET provider data reader that contained the data pulled off by the query has already been processed by the Entity Client. This may seem unusual if you’re accustomed to ADO.NET development. Now you know how the data is shaped, but how do you access it? When the column holds a scalar value, you get the value by name or index; but when the column con- tains a complex property, you have to cast it to DbDataRecord and then access its scalar columns. In the case shown in figure 9.4, casting the ShippingAddress columns to DbDataRecord gives you access to the inner columns. NOTE Columns inside the inner DbDataRecord must be accessed sequen- tially too. Wouldn’t it be good if you could transform a DbDataReader into objects? This would make your code easier to understand. Well, thanks to the ObjectContext class’s Translate method, this is possible. TRANSFORMING A DBDATAREADER INTO OBJECTS Working with a DbDataReader isn’t type safe and is extremely error prone. Working with objects is far more appealing. Thanks to the ObjectContext class’s Translate method, you can transform a DbDataReader into a list of objects in a single line of code. This method uses the same materialization process used by the ObjectContext’s ExecuteStoreQuery method: it sets properties by comparing their names with the col- umns in the reader. The Translate method accepts a generic parameter representing the object that’s materialized and the DbDataReader instance, as shown in the following listing. C# using (var conn = new EntityConnection(Parameters.ConnectionString)) { using (var comm = new EntityCommand("SELECT value o ➥ FROM OrderITEntities.OrderDetails AS o", conn)) Listing 9.9 Materializing order details 250 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL { conn.Open(); var reader = comm.ExecuteReader(CommandBehavior.SequentialAccess); using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { var result = ctx.Translate(reader); Invokes Translate methodB foreach(var item in result) { ... } } } } VB Using conn = New EntityConnection(Parameters.ConnectionString) Using comm = New EntityCommand("SELECT value o FROM ➥ OrderITEntities.OrderDetails AS o", conn) conn.Open() Dim reader = comm.ExecuteReader(CommandBehavior.SequentialAccess) Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() Dim result = ctx.Translate(Of OrderDetail)(reader) Invokes Translate methodB For Each item In result ... Next End Using End Using End Using What’s good about Translate is that it accepts a DbDataReader B. Because DbData- Reader is the base class for all ADO.NET data readers, you can use this method to materialize data readers from queries made through any ADO.NET provider (SQL Server, OLE DB, and so on). Furthermore, Translate isn’t bound to the EDM, so it can materialize any CLR object. The only rule is that all properties must have a counter- part in the data reader. What’s bad about Translate is that because it uses the same materialization mech- anism used by ExecuteStoreQuery, it suffers from the same limitations. So far, you’ve used the Entity Client to query the database. In almost all cases, this is how you’ll use this layer. But occasionally, you may need to execute a Create, Update, Delete (CUD) operation that you can’t or don’t want to perform using the context. In that situation, the Entity Client is the only way to go. 9.9.4 Going beyond querying with Entity Client Often there are scenarios where it’s wiser to adopt a manual solution, even if you could use Entity Framework. A typical example is when you need to perform a bulk operation. Suppose that in OrderIT you wanted to increase the price of all products by 5 percent. 251Summary If you handle this requirement the Entity Framework way, you’ll have to retrieve the all products, modify their prices, and send the updates back to the database. If you have 100 products, you’ll have to launch 101 commands: 1 for retrieval and 100 for the updates. Awful. You can avoid this waste of resources by using a stored procedure that performs an update. You’ll learn exactly how to perform such a task in the next chapter, which dis- cusses stored procedures; the point here is that you can invoke such a stored proce- dure using the Entity Client. The method that allows you to invoke stored procedures is EntityCommand’s ExecuteNonQuery. To use this method, you set the CommandType property of the com- mand to CommandType.StoredProcedure and set the command text to the name of the stored procedure. Naturally, everything must be mapped in the EDM, but you’ll see more about that in the next chapter. Entity SQL vs. LINQ to Entities At first glance, there’s no comparison between Entity SQL and LINQ to Entities. Why use the string-based approach of Entity SQL when you can have the autocompletion, IntelliSense, and compile-time checking features of LINQ to Entities? It’s a common question. Throughout the chapter, you’ve seen many situations where the Entity SQL syntax is ugly and awkward compared with the LINQ to Entities syntax. But there are cases where Entity SQL is the only or the most reasonable way to achieve something. The most noticeable of Entity SQL’s benefits is the dynamicity introduced by the query-builder methods. They simplify query composition for scenar- ios where the fields to be used are retrieved at runtime. Entity SQL is also sometimes cleaner than LINQ to Entities. When a query becomes complex, the LINQ to Entities syntax grows ungracefully, keeping readability low. If you’re accustomed to the SQL language, the SQL-like syntax of Entity SQL can help in keeping the query more comprehensible for developers. In the end, we suggestion you use LINQ to Entities to write most of your queries. When things become too complex, query-builder methods should be your second choice. When the situation is extreme, you can resort to using Entity SQL. 9.10 Summary In this chapter, you have seen the full querying potential of Entity SQL. You’re now aware of all the querying mechanisms of Entity Framework. The only part you haven’t learned about yet is the use of database functions in Entity SQL—that’s a subject we’ll cover in chapter 11. After reading this chapter, you should understand how to use Entity SQL for pro- jecting, grouping, filtering, and sorting data, and to perform other typical query- related tasks. You have even learned how to simplify the generation of Entity SQL que- ries by using query-builder methods. We also covered the subject of combining LINQ 252 CHAPTER 9 An alternative way of querying: Entity SQL to Entities queries and query-builder methods to further ease query composition at runtime. You also learned about possible security breaches, and how to mitigate the problem by using parameters. In the last part of the chapter, you learned how to use the Entity Client data pro- vider to execute queries on a layer closer to the database and to process the results as generic objects and not as typed ones. Now it’s time to investigate how Entity Framework deals with stored procedures. There’s a lot to learn about this subject, because you can both query and update data, and many scenarios aren’t particularly obvious. 253 Working with stored procedures Now that you’ve mastered Entity SQL, we can move forward and take a closer look at another advanced feature of Entity Framework: the use of stored procedures. Because LINQ to Entities makes it so easy to write queries, leaving the burden of creating SQL code to the framework, you may think that stored procedures are no longer needed. From a developer’s point of view, writing queries against the domain model with LINQ to Entities is more natural than writing a stored proce- dure that returns raw data. But there is another side to this coin: the DBA. Often, DBAs want full control over the commands that are executed against the database. Furthermore, they want only authorized users to have read and write per- missions on the tables, views, and so on. A well-defined set of stored procedures gives the DBA this control over the database and guarantees that the SQL is highly optimized. This chapter covers  Mapping stored procedures in the EDM  Retrieving data using stored procedures  Embedding SQL commands in the EDM  Updating data using stored procedures 254 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures Another situation where stored procedures are useful is when you want to put some logic in them. In OrderIT, when an order is placed, you have to update the quantity of in-stock products by subtracting the items sold. A stored procedure is the ideal place to put such logic. The first half of this chapter discusses stored procedures that read data. You may encounter several different situations when using such stored procedures, and each one deserves attention. We’ll cover this topic in great detail. After that, we’ll look at how to use stored procedures to persist data instead of using dynamically generated SQL. Before digging into querying with stored procedures, let’s start with the basics: how to make stored procedures available to Entity Framework. 10.1 Mapping stored procedures Entity Framework doesn’t allow a stored procedure to be queried until it’s mapped in the EDM. As usual, this is a three-step affair: import the stored procedure into the stor- age schema, create its counterpart in the conceptual schema, and finally map every- thing in the MSL. The designer is powerful enough to let you perform all these operations graphi- cally without touching the EDMX file manually. But you’ll learn as you read this chap- ter that you need a deep knowledge of the EDM to use its stored procedure–related features. Such knowledge is necessary because the designer doesn’t cover all EDM capabilities; to use specific features, you’ll have to manually modify the EDMX file. In this section, we’ll map the following stored procedure, which returns all the details of an order, given its ID: CREATE PROCEDURE GetOrderDetails @OrderId as int As SELECT OrderDetailId, Quantity, UnitPrice, Discount, ProductId, OrderId FROM OrderDetail WHERE OrderId = @OrderId Let’s see how to make it available to the code. You’ll use the designer to accomplish this task. When that’s done, you’ll see how the steps made using the designer modify the EDMX file. 10.1.1 Importing a stored procedure using the designer The designer doesn’t allow you to write stored procedures and bring them into the database. That means it doesn’t matter whether you opt for the model-first or database-first approach; you always have to create your stored procedures in the data- base and later import them into the EDM. Here you’ll import the stored procedure mentioned at the end of the previous sec- tion into the EDM, but these general steps can be used to import any stored proce- dure. Follow these steps: 255Mapping stored procedures 1 Right-click the designer, and select the Update Model from Database option. 2 In the wizard, expand the Stored Proce- dures node, and check the GetOrder- Details stored procedure, as shown in figure 10.1. 3 Click Finish to import the stored procedure. 4 In the Model Browser, open the Order- ITModel.Store node, open its Stored Procedures child folder, and right-click GetOrderDetails, as shown in figure 10.2. In the context menu, select Add Func- tion Import. 5 In the Returns a Collection Of section of the wizard, click the Entities radio button and select the OrderDetail entity from the drop-down list, as shown in figure 10.3. Now the EDM contains all the information needed to invoke the stored procedure. In the Model Browser window (shown in figure 10.4) you can see that the stored proce- dure has been imported into the conceptual side of the EDM. That was easy—with a bunch of clicks, everything is ready. But what happened under the covers? What does the EDM look like now that the stored procedure has been imported and mapped? We’ll look at that next. Figure 10.3 The wizard makes the stored procedure available on the conceptual side and maps its result to the OrderDetail class. Figure 10.4 Once imported, the GetOrderDetails stored procedure is visible in the Model. Figure 10.1 The GetOrderDetails stored procedure in the wizard Figure 10.2 The GetOrderDetails stored procedure in the Model Browser window 256 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures 10.1.2 Importing stored procedures manually The wizard steps in the previous section can be performed manually by modifying the EDM. As you’ll discover, it’s not a difficult task. There are three main steps: 1 Declare the stored procedure in the storage schema. 2 Declare the function in the conceptual schema (so that it becomes available to the code). 3 Create the mapping between the stored procedure in the storage schema and the function in the conceptual schema. We’ll look at these steps in turn. DEFINING A STORED PROCEDURE IN THE STORAGE SCHEMA The first EDM schema involved is the storage schema. Here you define the shape of the stored procedure via the Function node inside the Schema element, as in the next snippet: The Name attribute contains the logical name of the function inside the EDM, and StoreFunctionName specifies the name of the stored procedure in the database. If StoreFunctionName isn’t specified, Name must be set to the name of the stored proce- dure. The ability to specify a name that is different from the stored procedure name turns out to be useful when procedures have meaningless names and you want to use more friendly ones. The ParameterTypeSemantics attribute is an enumeration that specifies how the .NET parameter types are converted to the equivalent SQL types. The default value is AllowImplicitConversion, which instructs the runtime to take care of the conversion so you don’t have to worry about it. The IsComposable attribute specifies whether the stored command can be used to create other commands or not. Its default value is true, but for stored procedures it must be set to false because stored procedures can’t be queried on the server. (You can’t write SELECT * FROM StoredProcName.) Finally, the Schema attribute identifies the owner of the stored procedure (it has nothing to do with EDM schemas). If the stored procedure has parameters, you have to nest a Parameter element for each one. In this element, the Name attribute contains the name of the parameter, Type specifies the database type of the parameter, and Mode identifies the direction. Mode is an enumeration that contains one of three values: In (input-only), Out (output-only), and InOut (input-output). The preceding attributes of the Parameter element are mandatory, but Parameter has other optional attributes. The first is MaxLength, which is used when the parame- ter is a string and you need to specify the maximum length for its value. If you have 257Mapping stored procedures decimal parameters, you can also use Precision and Scale to specify how much data the number can contain. At this point, you’ve imported the stored procedure in the EDM. This is the same thing you achieve when completing step 3 of the wizard we discussed in section 10.1.1. Now you need to declare the function in the conceptual schema so that it becomes available to the code. DEFINING A FUNCTION IN THE CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA In the conceptual schema, a stored procedure is referred to as function. When you cre- ate a function in the conceptual schema, you’re actually importing a stored procedure from the storage schema. This is why, in the conceptual layer, the element responsible for declaring the function is called FunctionImport and is nested in the Entity- Container node. In the next snippet, you can see that not only does FunctionImport declare the function, it also describes the function’s parameters and results: The Name attribute represents the name of the function in the conceptual layer and is the only mandatory attribute. This name is decoupled from the stored-procedure name in the storage schema because it’s the mapping schema that binds the function to the stored procedure. EntitySet specifies the entity set returned by the stored pro- cedure, and ReturnType declares the type returned. The Collection keyword is man- datory because even if the function returns only a single record, it’s included in a list. NOTE When the function returns an entity, specifying the entity set and the type may seem to be a duplication. But when you deal with objects that are part of an inheritance hierarchy, you may have different types for the same entity set, so you have to specify both to clearly identify the result of the function. What’s more, in situations where you don’t retrieve an entity but a custom type, you can omit EntitySet and declare only the ReturnType attribute. Not all stored procedures are used for querying—many are used to update data in tables and don’t return any results. In this case, you don’t include the EntitySet and ReturnType attributes. The Parameter element is used to specify function parameters (which match the stored-procedure parameters). Its attributes are exactly the same as those for the Parameter element in the storage file, with the only difference being that here Type is expressed as a .NET type: Int32, String, DateTime, and so on. The last step is creating the mapping between the stored procedure in the storage schema and the function in the conceptual schema. Not surprisingly, this is done in the mapping file. 258 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures BINDING A STORED PROCEDURE TO A FUNCTION IN THE MAPPING SCHEMA Mapping a stored procedure to a function is trivial. The following mapping fragment shows that you just need to add a FunctionMapping element inside EntityContainer- Mapping: FunctionImportName is the name of the function in the conceptual schema, and FunctionName is the name of the stored procedure in the storage schema. The EDM is now ready. It contains everything needed to invoke the stored proce- dure on the database and have the results returned as objects. It’s time to talk about the code. 10.2 Returning data with stored procedures Retrieving data with stored procedures is a common task in any data-centric applica- tion. What’s different when using an O/RM tool is that the results must be poured into objects that are then returned to the application. What’s more, the results of the stored procedures are just resultsets with columns, and these columns may be any- thing. The columns may match the properties of an entity, they may come from multi- ple joined tables, they may contain a single scalar value, or they can be anything else. We’ll discuss the following scenarios in the upcoming sections:  Stored procedures whose columns match the properties of an entity  Stored procedures whose columns don’t match the properties an entity  Stored procedures that return scalar values  Stored procedures that return objects in an inheritance hierarchy NOTE Stored procedures can return output parameters too. You must keep this in mind in any of the preceding scenarios. Each of these cases has a different solution and has its particular needs. The first three cases are the easiest to deal with. Thanks to the designer’s capabilities, you can handle them visually without getting your hands dirty in the EDM. The fourth case is a little more complicated, but it’s not too difficult. Let’s start with the first and analyze how a stored procedure’s results become an entity. 10.2.1 Stored procedures whose results match an entity Executing a stored procedure is pretty easy. Once it’s imported into the conceptual side of the EDM, you can use the ExecuteFunction method, whose signature is shown in the following snippet: C# public ObjectResult ExecuteFunction(string functionName, MergeOption mergeOption, params ObjectParameter[] parameters) 259Returning data with stored procedures VB Public Function ExecuteFunction(Of TElement) _ (ByVal functionName As String, ByVal mergeOption As MergeOption, _ ByVal ParamArray parameters As ObjectParameter()) _ As ObjectResult(Of TElement) parameters) The generic parameter is the class returned by the query. The arguments represent the function name as imported in the CSDL, the MergeOption for the returned enti- ties, and the parameters passed to the stored procedure. The following snippet shows how to use the ExecuteFunction method to invoke the stored procedure: C# ObjectParameter orderidParameter = new ObjectParameter("orderid", 1); var result = ctx.ExecuteFunction("GetOrderDetails", orderidParameter); VB Dim orderidParameter As New ObjectParameter("orderid", 1) Dim result = ctx.ExecuteFunction(Of OrderDetail)("GetOrderDetails", orderidParameter) The POCO template that generates code automatically generates a convenient wrap- per method for each function. The stored-procedure parameters are exposed as method arguments, so the invocation code is simplified. Due to this simplicity, we strongly recommend using these autogenerated methods, as shown in listing 10.1, instead of directly invoking ExecuteFunction. C# public virtual ObjectResult GetOrderDetails( Nullable orderid) { ObjectParameter orderidParameter; if (orderid.HasValue) orderidParameter = new ObjectParameter("orderid", orderid); else orderidParameter = new ObjectParameter("orderid", typeof(int)); return base.ExecuteFunction("GetOrderDetails", orderidParameter); } VB Public Overridable Function GetOrderDetails _ (ByVal orderid As Nullable(Of Integer)) As ObjectResult(Of OrderDetail) Dim orderidParameter As ObjectParameter If orderid.HasValue Then orderidParameter = New ObjectParameter("orderid", orderid) Else orderidParameter = New ObjectParameter("orderid", GetType(Integer)) End If Listing 10.1 The autogenerated method to invoke a stored procedure 260 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures Return MyBase.ExecuteFunction(Of OrderDetail) ("GetOrderDetails", orderidParameter) End Function Notice that parameters are passed as nullable. The database allows you to pass a null value to any stored procedure parameter, so this possibility is left open in the code. The last piece of background you need to know is how the result of the stored pro- cedure becomes an entity. In the world of mapping, you would expect the stored pro- cedure result to be explicitly mapped against a class. Well, it’s not like that. HOW A STORED PROCEDURE’S RESULTS ARE MAPPED TO A CLASS An object is materialized from each row of the result based on the column and scalar property names. It’s almost the same materialization mechanism used by the Object- Context class’s ExecuteStoreQuery method. NOTE We said almost because later you’ll see that you can slightly tweak the materialization process using the EDM. Let’s look at the GetOrderDetails stored procedure. The OrderDetail entity that the GetOrderDetails stored procedure result is mapped to has the following scalar prop- erties: OrderDetailId, Quantity, UnitPrice, Discount, ProductId, and OrderId. To map the stored procedure result to the entity, the stored procedure must return a resultset containing the columns OrderDetailId, Quantity, UnitPrice, Discount, ProductId, and OrderId. The order in which they’re returned isn’t important, but the names of the class properties and the resultset column names must match exactly or you’ll get an InvalidOperationException with the message, “The data reader is incompatible with the specified ‘TypeName’. A member of the type, ‘PropertyName’, does not have a corresponding column in the data reader with the same name.” Figure 10.5 illustrates how the mapping works. Figure 10.5 The mapping between the function result and the class is based on the match between column and property names. Navigation properties are ignored by the materialization process. They are han- dled by class code. If they aren’t initialized within the constructor, they’re null; other- wise they’re set to whatever value the constructor gives them. This is true even if the foreign-key properties are set. If the query returns more columns than there are entity properties, the extra col- umns are ignored. If the query doesn’t return enough columns to match the entity 261Returning data with stored procedures properties, the materialization process fails, and you get the runtime exception men- tioned earlier. The example shown here is the easiest case: the stored procedure results line up perfectly with an entity. In the next section, we’ll discuss how to handle resultsets that don’t match up with an entity. 10.2.2 Stored procedures whose results don’t match an entity When a stored procedure’s results don’t match up with an entity, you can resort to complex types. You can create a new complex type in the designer (as you learned how to do in chapter 2) and map the stored procedure’s results to it. The materialization mechanism is the same as is used for entities; there are no differences. There are three possible situations where the stored procedure’s results don’t align with an entity:  The resultset is an aggregation or contains columns that don’t match with any entity.  The resultset columns contain data that match up with an entity but that have different names.  The entity has complex properties. Let’s start with the first case, where the result of the stored procedure isn’t an entity but is something else: a set of columns plus other aggregated columns, a set of col- umns that partially fill an entity, or perhaps a set of columns coming from a query that joins multiple tables and that don’t fit any entity. STORED PROCEDURES WHOSE RESULTS HAVE COLUMNS THAT DON’T LINE UP WITH AN ENTITY In OrderIT, the GetTopOrders stored procedure returns the top ten orders sorted by their total amount. Its code is as follows: CREATE PROCEDURE GetTopOrders AS SELECT TOP 10 c.Name, o.OrderId, o.OrderDate, SUM(od.UnitPrice * (Quantity - Discount)) as Total FROM [order] o JOIN company c ON o.CustomerId = c.CompanyId JOIN orderdetail od ON od.OrderId = o.OrderId GROUP BY c.Name, o.OrderId, o.OrderDate ORDER BY Total DESC This stored procedure returns a resultset that doesn’t match the Order class or any other entity in OrderIT. You can see the result in figure 10.6. In figure 10.7, you can see a class that matches the result of the stored procedure. There’s no entity like this in OrderIT, so how do you map the result of the stored pro- cedure, and to which class? The solution is simple: you map the results to an ad hoc class; more precisely, you map the results to a complex type (the TopOrder class in this case). Figure 10.6 The result of the GetTopOrders stored procedure Figure 10.7 The class that matches the results of the GetTopOrders stored procedure 262 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures NOTE Because the results of the stored procedure are specified in the EDM, the class must be in the EDM. You can’t use a class that isn’t in the EDM. Once again, the designer comes to the rescue by simplifying the plumbing. After you’ve imported the stored procedure from the database, you can import it into the conceptual side by using the form you saw earlier in figure 10.3. What’s different in this case is that instead of mapping the result to an entity, you map it to a complex type. If there are no complex types that match the stored proce- dure’s results, you can let the form inspect the stored procedure and create the com- plex type for you. Your productivity will increase to an incredible extent thanks to this feature. Follow these steps to import the stored procedure into the conceptual schema of the EDM: 1 Right-click the designer, and choose Update Model from Database. 2 In the wizard (shown earlier in figure 10.1), expand the Stored Procedures node, and check the GetTopOrders item. 3 Click Finish to import the stored procedure. 4 In the Model Browser, open the OrderITModel.Store node, open its Stored Procedures child, and then right-click the GetTopOrders item. In the context menu, select the Add Function Import option. 5 In the Returns a Collection Of section of the Add Function Import dialog box, click the Complex radio button. 6 In the Stored Procedure Column Information section of the dialog box, click the Get Column Information button. The stored procedure’s results structure will be displayed in a grid, as shown in figure 10.8. 7 Click the Create New Complex Type button to create a complex type from the results’ structure. 263Returning data with stored procedures 8 A new item is added in the Complex drop-down list, and you can change its name. By default, the name follows the pattern FunctionName_Result, but you can change the name to whatever you want. (We opted for TopOrder.) 9 Click OK to finish the import. 10 Right-click the POCO templates that generate the context and entities’ code. Click the Run Custom Tool item in the context menu that pops up. At the end of the process, you’ll have the GetTopOrders method (which invokes the stored procedure) in the context class, and the TopOrder class that the result of the stored procedure is mapped to. It’s that easy. Now you have the EDM, the code to invoke the stored procedure in the context, and the code for the class that holds the results. All that with just a few clicks. Invoking the stored procedure is simple. You can call the ExecuteFunction method directly (not recommended): C# var orders = ctx.ExecuteFunction("GetTopOrders"); VB Dim orders = ctx.ExecuteFunction(Of TopOrder)("GetTopOrders") Or you can use the autogenerated GetTopOrders context method (recommended): C# var orders = ctx.GetTopOrders(); VB Dim orders = ctx.GetTopOrders() Naturally, stored procedures are mutable, meaning that you can add, remove, and rename columns in the results. In such cases, you need to realign the complex type with these changes. Once again, the designer lets you do this visually by following these steps: 1 In the Model Browser window, expand the OrderITModel > Entity Container: OrderITEntities > FunctionImport nodes, and double-click the GetTopOrders item. Figure 10.8 The structure of the stored procedure’s results 264 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures 2 Click the Update button next to the Complex drop-down list. Doing so triggers the stored procedure inspection and automatically updates the complex type structure. 3 In the Explorer Solution window, right-click the template that generates code for entities, and select Run Custom Tool to regenerate the class’s code. The class that the stored procedure maps to is updated to reflect the changes in the stored-procedure results). There’s no need to update the context because its code doesn’t change. Again, the designer spares you a lot of work. It’s fantastic being able to use stored pro- cedures and simply configure everything from the designer. Another scenario where the stored procedure’s results don’t fit an entity is when the results don’t contain all of an entity’s data. For instance, a stored procedure may return the ID and the name of all customers, and ignore all other properties. In this case, one possible way to go would be to modify the stored procedure to return all col- umns. This approach has two problems: you may not be able to modify the stored pro- cedure, and returning unused data is a waste of resources. Once again, complex types are the best solution. So far, we’ve assumed that the stored procedure’s column names match the prop- erties of the entity. But sometimes entity properties are named differently from data- base columns, or the stored procedure may rename the result columns for some reason. STORED PROCEDURES WHOSE RESULT COLUMNS’ NAMES ARE DIFFERENT FROM ENTITY PROPERTIES A typical case where column names in a stored procedure’s results differ from entity property names is when you have a legacy database with meaningless table and col- umn names. For example, some legacy databases still have table and column names that are limited to eight characters. Due to this limitation, columns names are almost or totally meaningless (such as USISAPPM standing for USer IS APPlication Manager). In such a situation, it’s best to rename all the classes and properties in the model so they’re clearer for developers. When a stored procedure is run, and the column names in the results don’t match property names in the entity, the materialization fails. To solve this problem, you can use the FunctionImportMapping section in the mapping schema to manually specify how a column maps to a property. Once again, the designer spares you from the man- ual work by adding a new window to visually perform this task. In the following steps, you’ll modify the GetOrderDetails stored procedure to return a result with column names that don’t line up with the OrderDetail entity, and you’ll see how to make the mapping work: 1 Modify the GetOrderDetails stored procedure by changing the name of the Quantity column as shown in the following code: SELECT orderDetailId, Quantity as q, UnitPrice, Discount, orderid FROM orderdetail WHERE orderid = @orderid 265Returning data with stored procedures 2 In the Model Browser window, expand the OrderITModel > Entity Container: OrderITEntities > FunctionImport nodes, right-click the GetOrderDetails item, and select the Function Import Mapping item. 3 In the mapping window, the properties are displayed on the left and the col- umns on the right. Change the name of the Quantity column to q (as shown in figure 10.9), and you’re done. It’s that easy. This approach is better than using a complex type just because a property name doesn’t match, isn’t it? Before moving on to the next subject, take a look at this snippet to see what the EDM’s MSL schema looks like after this modification: This code is saying that the return type is OrderDetail and that the property Quantity maps to the column q. Only the differently named columns must be included; by default, the other ones are matched by name. What’s good is that only the mapping schema changes; the conceptual and storage schemas are untouched. We’ve now talked about entities with scalar and navigation properties. The situa- tion gets more challenging when complex properties come into play. STORED PROCEDURES THAT RETURN RESULTSETS OF AN ENTITY WITH COMPLEX TYPES Mapping a function to an entity or a complex type with a complex property is tricky. The flat nature of a stored procedure’s results and the complex nature of objects make the materialization impossible, as you see in figure 10.10. The only way to go is to use a defining query, but as you’ll discover in chapter 11, this requires the database to be adapted and that’s not always possible. Stored procedures, and queries in general, return not only entities, but also scalar values. Using a class to contain a single value is pointless; other approaches are preferable. Figure 10.9 Mapping a column to a property with a different name Order OrderId OrderDate + ShippingAddress Address City Country ZipCode EstimatedShippingDate ActualShippingDate CustomerId Resultset OrderId OrderDate ShippingAddress ShippingCity ShippingZipCode ShippingCountry EstimatedShippingDate ActualShippingDate CustomerId GetOrderById Figure 10.10 Mapping function result to a class with a complex property is impossible due to the names mismatch. 266 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures 10.2.3 Stored procedures that return scalar values In OrderIT, the GetTotalOrdersAmount stored procedure returns the amount of all orders placed. This stored procedure returns a single decimal value; neither complex types nor entities are involved: CREATE PROCEDURE GetTotalOrdersAmount AS SELECT sum(Quantity * (UnitPrice - Discount)) FROM orderdetail Let’s see how to import this stored procedure in the EDM and how to use it. With the designer you import the stored procedure from the database and then import it in the conceptual side. In the wizard form (shown in figure 10.11), select the Scalar option, and select the Decimal type from the drop-down list. Finally, you need to update the context code using the POCO template, and you’re done. The autogenerated method in the context returns an ObjectResult object. Because it implements the IEnumerable interface, and you already know that only one item is returned, you can call the LINQ First method to retrieve the value. Remember that everything is generated as nullable; the result is no exception, as the following code demonstrates: C# decimal? amount = ctx.GetTotalOrdersAmount().First(); VB Nullable(Of Decimal) amount = ctx.GetTotalOrdersAmount().First() If, instead of using the designer, you want to manually modify the EDM, you’ll have to declare the stored procedure in the SSDL and map it to the MSL as you’ve seen before. In the CSDL, the situation is slightly different. Figure 10.11 The wizard imports into the conceptual schema a stored procedure that returns a single decimal value. 267Returning data with stored procedures First of all, because you aren’t retrieving an entity, you don’t have an entity set, and consequently an entity, to associate the result to. This means the EntitySet attribute in the FunctionImport element isn’t needed. Second, even if the function returns a single value, Entity Framework can’t know in advance whether the stored procedure returns more than one result, so it’s always mapped as a collection. This is clearly indicated by the use of the Collection keyword in the next mapping fragment: Naturally, it’s possible that a stored procedure returns a collection of scalar values. For instance, you may need to retrieve a list of order IDs. In that case, you can simply loop over the results of the function, and you’re finished. So far, we haven’t talked about polymorphic stored procedures. You know that you can query a hierarchy using LINQ to Entities and Entity SQL to obtain only a specified type or an entire hierarchy, regardless of the mapping strategy you choose. Stored procedures allow you to do this too, but the implementation is a bit more complex. 268 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures 10.2.4 Stored procedures that return an inheritance hierarchy When the stored procedure returns data about classes involved in an inheritance hier- archy, two very different scenarios are possible:  The resultset maps to a specified type of the hierarchy.  The resultset returns data about different types in the hierarchy. In the first case, the stored procedure’s results are mapped to a single entity. That’s not any different from what you’ve seen already. The materialization process doesn’t care whether the class is part of an inheritance hierarchy or not. It simply creates an instance and populates it. As usual, the only important thing is that column and prop- erty names match. Things get more complicated when the stored procedure returns data about dif- ferent types in the hierarchy. Suppose you have a stored procedure that returns all customers and suppliers. Because the materialization process doesn’t care about map- ping information, how can it know whether a row is about a customer or a supplier? RETURNING A HIERARCHY MAPPED WITH THE TPH STRATEGY To map a result to all types of an inheritance hierarchy, the stored procedure must return a resultset that includes all columns for the involved types. Because the result- set is mapped on a column basis, you must include a discriminator column that identi- fies which class must be generated from each row. This is the same concept you’ve seen for the TPH mapping strategy. NOTE For this section, we’ll assume that there aren’t any complex prop- erties but just scalar ones; otherwise, the following code won’t work. This section just explains how to use stored procedures to query an inheri- tance graph persisted with TPH. In chapter 11, you’ll see how to make complex properties, inheritance, and stored procedures work together. Let’s start by analyzing the customer/supplier scenario. In the model, the Get- Companies stored procedure returns all the companies without worrying whether they’re customers or suppliers. In this situation, the return type can’t be Customer or Supplier but must be Company. Company is abstract,, and mapping the stored procedure as described in the pre- ceding paragraph generates an exception at runtime. What’s worse, because the use of stored procedures bypasses any inheritance configuration, if Company isn’t abstract, all the objects returned by the invocation of the stored procedure are of Company type, even if the result contains rows about customers and suppliers. To solve the previous problems, you still use Company as the return type, but you also have to manipulate the mapping file of the EDM, specifying a discriminator col- umn and what concrete type corresponds to each value of that column. The node responsible for this configuration is FunctionImportMapping. Inside it, you nest a ResultMapping node containing as many EntityTypeMapping elements as there are possible return types. Each EntityTypeMapping element specifies the full 269Returning data with stored procedures name of the mapped type, and inside that you add a Condition node for each column of the function that acts as a discriminator. The result of this configuration is shown here. The conceptual file and storage file don’t specify any additional information other than what you’ve seen previously. Finally, here’s the code for the stored procedure. As you can see, it’s trivial: CREATE PROCEDURE GetTotalOrdersAmount AS SELECT * FROM company Now you can invoke the stored procedure. Thanks to the inheritance mapping set- tings and the correct names of the columns, everything works fine. NOTE We haven’t used the designer here because it doesn’t support this feature. You have to change the EDM manually. Using stored procedures to retrieve entities mapped using the TPH strategy is pretty easy. Mapping classes using a discriminator is something you’re familiar with. But what about the TPT approach? You don’t have a discriminator in this situation, so how do you map inheritance? RETURNING A HIERARCHY MAPPED WITH THE TPT STRATEGY The product scenario uses the TPT approach. Even if the data organization is different from the TPH strategy, the way inheritance is mapped with stored procedures doesn’t change at all. You still have to use a discriminator. You can’t rely on the relationship between tables, because here you’re dealing only with the resultset. This is why the only thing that changes in the TPT approach is the stored procedure code—it must per- form the join between the tables and create a discriminator column on the fly. In OrderIT, the GetProducts stored procedure returns all the products in the database. As you’ll see, this stored procedure is more complicated than you may think, because there are columns with the same names in different tables, and they must be handled carefully, as the following stored procedure demonstrates: Listing 10.2 Mapping resultset rows to types with a discriminator 270 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures ALTER PROCEDURE GetProducts AS SELECT p.*, isnull(sho.Color, shi.color) Color, isnull(sho.Size, shi.Size) Size, isnull(sho.Gender, shi.gender) Gender, sho.Sport, shi.SleeveType, shi.Material, case isnull(sho.gender, '0') when '0' then 'SHIRT' else 'SHOE' end as type FROM Product p LEFT JOIN Shoes sho ON (p.ProductId = sho.ProductId) LEFT JOIN Shirt shi ON (p.ProductId = shi.ProductId) This SQL takes the Product table and joins it to the tables that contain product- specific data. Naturally, it’s a left join, so you’re sure that all products are returned. Additional columns for shoes are left null when the row belongs to a shirt and vice versa. In addition to joining data, this query creates a column that’s used in the map- ping file to identify the row type: Type. As you can see, there are many ISNULL statements in this T-SQL command. In T-SQL, ISNULL returns the value of the first parameter unless it’s null. If it’s null, the second value is returned. You do this because the Shirt and Shoe tables share the same column names. If you extract them twice, the materializer will always use the first column, ignoring the second one. This means that if you extract shoe size and then shirt size as different columns, only the first one will be used to populate the property of both objects. If the object to be created is Shoe, everything works fine; but when the object is Shirt, it receives a null value, leading to exceptions or bugs due to erroneous data. Figure 10.12 illus- trates this problem. Figure 10.12 Mapping between the function result and the objects. Values in the first Color column are used to set both Shirt and Shoe entity properties. The second Color column is ignored. Using the ISNULL function allows you to have a single column that contains data for both records. This way, the value of the column will be used to populate both classes. In figure 10.13 you can see that the problem is solved. Figure 10.13 Mapping between the function result and the objects. The Color, Size, and Gender columns are used to fill properties of both classes. 271Returning data with stored procedures The type column acts as a discriminator, letting you map the results as if they were coming from a TPH strategy. Here’s the mapping code. Stored procedures return resultsets, but in some cases you may want them to return additional information. The best way to do this is to use output or input-output parameters. 10.2.5 Stored procedures with output parameters A typical example where you need an output parameter is when creating a stored pro- cedure that returns paged data. To build an efficient paging system, you must retrieve only the data that needs to be bound to a control (such as a grid) and the number of records to create a pager. In OrderIT, the GetPagedOrderDetails stored procedure retrieves the order details based on paging information and sets an output parameter with the total number of details. Its code is as follows. CREATE PROCEDURE GetPagedDetails @pageIndex int, @rowsPerPage int, @count int output AS Listing 10.3 Mapping resultset rows to types via a discriminator with TPT hierarchies Listing 10.4 Stored procedure that returns a resultset plus an output parameter 272 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures BEGIN WITH PageRows AS ( SELECT TOP(@pageIndex * @rowsPerPage) RowNumber = ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY orderdetailid), * FROM orderdetail ) SELECT * FROM PageRows WHERE RowNumber > ((@pageIndex - 1) * @rowsPerPage); select @count = COUNT(*) from orderdetail END Entity Framework natively supports output parameters for stored procedures. When you import a stored procedure by the designer, Entity Framework automatically inspects the stored procedure looking for output parameters and marking them in the EDM. If you modify the EDM manually, you need to set the Mode attribute of the Parameter element to Out for output parameters or InOut for both input and output, as in the next fragment: The context code autogenerated by the POCO template is more complicated than it may seem. So far, you’ve used the automatically generated methods, passing in a value for each input parameter of the function. Output parameters are a bit different. They must still be passed to the method, but as ObjectParameter objects instead of simple values. This is due to the way Entity Framework retrieves the output parameter’s value after execution. The fetching of stored procedure results is lazy. First the resultset is processed, and only after that are the output parameters retrieved. This means you can’t get the out- put parameter values until you’ve fetched all the resultset records. To avoid this, the template code generates the method parameter related to the stored procedure out- put parameter as an object of ObjectParameter type. If you pass an out value for C# or ref for VB, you will always have an empty value because the results have not been iterated yet. The following listing contains the correct code. C# public ObjectResult GetPagedOrderDetails( int pageIndex, int rowsPerPage, ObjectParameter parameter) Output parameter as ObjectParameter { return ExecuteFunction("GetPagedOrderDetails", new ObjectParameter("pageIndex", pageIndex), new ObjectParameter("rowsPerPage", rowsPerPage), parameter); } var par = new ObjectParameter("count", 0); var result = ctx.GetPagedOrderDetails(pageIndex, rowsPerPage, par).ToList(); Result iteration count = Convert.ToInt32(par.Value); Parameter setting Listing 10.5 Output parameters returned as ObjectParameter objects 273Returning data with stored procedures VB Public Function GetPagedOrderDetails( _ ByVal pageIndex As Integer, ByVal rowsPerPage As Integer, _ ByVal parameter As ObjectParameter) _ As ObjectResult(Of OrderDetail) Output parameter as ObjectParameter Return ExecuteFunction(Of OrderDetail)("GetPagedOrderDetails", _ New ObjectParameter("pageIndex", pageIndex), _ New ObjectParameter("rowsPerPage", rowsPerPage), parameter) End Function Dim par = New ObjectParameter("count", 0) Dim result = ctx.GetPagedOrderDetails(pageIndex, rowsPerPage, _ par).ToList() Result iteration count = Convert.ToInt32(par.Value) Parameter setting What’s bad about this approach is that the invoking code needs to know the names of the output parameters. This makes it impossible to encapsulate the logic of the func- tion call. An alternative is shown in the following listing. Here you iterate over the results directly into the context function, so that inside it you have both the results and the values of the parameters. C# public List GetPagedOrderDetails Result is listB (int pageIndex, int rowsPerPage, int count) Output parameter as simple valueC{ Dim outParam = new ObjectParameter("count", 0); var result = ExecuteFunction("GetPagedOrderDetails", new ObjectParameter("pageIndex", pageIndex), new ObjectParameter("rowsPerPage", rowsPerPage), outParam).ToList(); Result iteration D count = Convert.ToInt32(outParam.Value); Parameter settingE return result; } var count = 0; var result = ctx.GetPagedOrderDetails(pageIndex, rowsPerPage, out count); VB Public Function GetPagedOrderDetails( _ ByVal pageIndex As Integer, ByVal rowsPerPage As Integer, _ ByVal count As Integer) Output parameter as simple valueC As List(Of OrderDetail) Result is listB Dim outParam = New ObjectParameter("count", 0) Dim result = ExecuteFunction(Of OrderDetail)("GetPagedOrderDetails", _ New ObjectParameter("pageIndex", pageIndex), _ New ObjectParameter("rowsPerPage", rowsPerPage), outParam).ToList() Result iteration D count = Convert.ToInt32(outParam.Value) Parameter settingE Return result End Function Listing 10.6 Output parameters returned as simple values 274 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures Dim count as Integer Dim result = ctx.GetPagedOrderDetails(pageIndex, rowsPerPage, count) The function result is no longer an ObjectResult instance but a List B, because the data is fetched inside it. The method no longer accepts an Object- Parameter parameter but a simple value C. Inside the method, you execute the func- tion and immediately iterate its result using the ToList method D. Finally, you set the simple output parameter value E. Remember that returning results as a List is different from returning them as an ObjectResult. Choose each option on a one-by-one basis. Sometimes, instead of using output parameters, data is returned in a second result- set. Let’s see what you can do in this case. OUTPUT PARAMETERS IN A SECOND RESULTSET If you opt for a solution where the additional data is returned as a second resultset instead of in output parameters, you must keep in mind that ExecuteFunction doesn’t support multiple resultsets. It doesn’t fail if more than one resultset is returned from the stored procedure; it takes the first and ignores the others. The workaround is to use the Entity Client and its internal physical connection to manu- ally invoke the stored procedure and iterate over its results. This goes beyond Entity Framework, so you’re better off directly using ADO.NET. Now you know everything about reading data using stored procedures. But some- times you don’t have a stored procedure, and you’d like to. If you can’t create one because you don’t have permissions (or for any other reason) you can create one inside the EDM. 10.3 Embedding functions in the storage model Although the storage file describes the database, you can add information to it that isn’t related to the real database structure. More precisely, you can create functions that don’t exist in the database but that are still seen as functions by the engine. Fig- ure 10.14 shows the flow of a storage model function’s execution. Storage model DatabaseEnty Framework Get SQL from 1 2 LaunchSQL against Figure 10.14 The function-execution process: Entity Framework gets the SQL from the SSDL and then executes it against the database. Naturally, you have to define the SQL code for such functions, and you have to do it using the database-specific SQL code (for instance, T-SQL for SQL Server or PL-SQL for Oracle). This feature turns out to be useful when you want to optimize a query and you don’t have an appropriate stored procedure. Another situation where it’s useful is 275Updating data with stored procedures when you must use a particular database feature that neither LINQ to Entities nor Entity SQL allows you to use. The power of this feature really shines when you have to update data using stored procedures; we’ll cover this subject in section 10.4. Defining a function in the storage model is similar to defining a stored procedure. The only difference is that the Function element has a nested CommandText element, inside which you put the SQL code. Should the function need any parameters, you use the Parameter element. (The CommandText element must be put before Parameter elements.) The following snippet shows the definition of a function: select * from [orderdetail] where orderid = @orderid NOTE If the SQL code contains the < or > sign, you must use its escaped versions: > or <. This is necessary to avoid any conflict with the XML format of the mapping files. The conceptual and mapping schemas aren’t even aware that the function is embed- ded in the storage schema. As a result, the declaration of the function in the CSDL, and the mapping between the function and the stored procedure in the MSL, don’t change. The code generated by the POCO template and the way you use the code isn’t affected either. You can invoke the function exactly as you do for stored procedures. NOTE This feature isn’t supported by the Visual Studio Designer. What’s worse, every time you update the model from the database, it re-creates the storage schema from scratch, and the function is lost. Despite these limitations, this feature is a great example of mapping flexibility in Entity Framework and a great example of the advantages of EDM decoupling. The SQL embedded in the function can contain more than one command. It can con- tain any SQL command you need. Potentially, you could avoid writing stored proce- dures in the database and put all of them into the storage schema. But naturally, we wouldn’t recommend this practice to our worst enemies, let alone to you. So far, you’ve learned how to query data using stored procedures and storage- model functions, but that’s only half of the story. Stored procedures can perform any operation on the database, including making modifications. In the next section, we’ll investigate how to make Entity Framework interact with this type of stored procedure. 10.4 Updating data with stored procedures Updating data using stored procedures is a common way of hiding SQL and database complexity from the code. Sometimes such complexity can be difficult to manage in code, and a stored procedure may be a good place to put the logic. 276 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures For instance, using a stored procedure is useful when an operation on one entity requires updating another entity. In OrderIT, adding an order requires updating the stock of the ordered products. You’ve seen how to update the number of items in stock via code, but using a stored procedure would probably have been simpler. Sometimes, handling the update via Object Services isn’t convenient because of concurrency or other reasons. In OrderIT, this was the case with updating the number of items in stock when new items are added to the available ones. You learned in chap- ter 8 that if you update the number of items in stock, you risk concurrency check problems even if you don’t need the check to be performed. In such a case, a stored procedure is a good way to avoid concurrency checks. These are the possible scenarios when updating entities using stored procedures:  A stored procedure persists a standalone entity.  A stored procedure persists an entity in an inheritance hierarchy.  A stored procedure upgrades and downgrades an entity in an inheritance hierarchy.  A stored procedure performs an arbitrary operation not connected to any entities. The first two cases are straightforward and are almost identical in terms of how you handle them. The third case is a bit more complex and deserves particular handling. The last one covers launching commands other than those executed by Entity Frame- work for persistence. Let’s start by analyzing the simplest scenario, where a standalone entity is updated using stored procedures. 10.4.1 Using stored procedures to persist an entity Persisting an entity using stored procedures is an all-or-nothing affair. You can’t use a stored procedure that inserts data into the database and leave Entity Framework to generate the SQL for UPDATE and DELETE operations. That isn’t supported, and if you try it you’ll get a runtime exception. To demonstrate using a stored procedure to persist an entity, you’ll persist an Order. This is probably the most complex entity in the model, and it uses all the function-mapping features. It has foreign keys and complex properties, and it’s the parent of a relationship, which means its database-generated ID is necessary for insert- ing the details. The following steps will show you specifically how to map the stored procedure to insert an order, but the same process applies to updates and deletions: 1 Create the stored procedure as in the following listing. CREATE PROCEDURE InsertOrder @OrderDate datetime, @CustomerId int, Listing 10.7 A stored procedure that inserts an order 277Updating data with stored procedures @ShippingAddress varchar(50), @ShippingCity varchar(50), @ShippingZipCode varchar(15), @ShippingCountry varchar(50), @EstimatedShippingDate datetime, @ActualShippingDate datetime as INSERT INTO [Order] (OrderDate, CustomerId , ShippingAddress, ShippingCity, ShippingZipCode, ShippingCountry, EstimatedShippingDate, ActualShippingDate) VALUES (@OrderDate, @CustomerId, @ShippingAddress, @ShippingCity, @ShippingZipCode, @ShippingCountry, @EstimatedShippingDate, @ActualShippingDate) Inserts order SELECT SCOPE_IDENTITY() AS OrderId Returns ID 2 Import the stored procedure the same way as before. (You don’t need to create the function in the conceptual schema.) 3 Right-click the Order entity, and select the Stored Procedure Map- ping item. 4 In the Mapping Details window, associate each operation to the related stored procedure, as shown in figure 10.15. 5 Map the stored procedure’s parameters to the Order class’s properties. The designer automatically maps columns and properties whose names match. Complex properties must be mapped manually. 6 In the Result Column Bindings section (shown in figure 10.16), write OrderId in Parameter/Column column, and associate it to the OrderId property. This way, the column containing the autogenerated ID returned by the stored proce- dure (see the last line of listing 10.7) is used to set the OrderId property of the order after the stored procedure has been executed. Naturally, this is only needed for database-generated values; if you generate primary keys on your own, it’s not necessary. The preceding steps can also be used to map stored procedures that perform updates and deletions. The only difference is that step 6 isn’t required because UPDATE and DELETE commands don’t generate the ID of the row. That’s it. You don’t need to invoke these stored procedures manually. Because Entity Framework knows how they’re mapped to the properties, it invokes the stored procedures when it needs to persist the entity, instead of generating SQL code. To demonstrate this, suppose that you added an order and two details to the con- text. When you call the SaveChanges method, the SQL Profiler would look like fig- ure 10.17. Figure 10.15 Mapping a stored procedure to persist a new order. The same process applies for modifications and deletions. 278 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures What’s great about this technique is that if you decide to switch from using Entity Framework–generated SQL code to stored procedures, it’s completely transparent to you. What’s dangerous is that although the Entity Framework code updates only the modified properties of the entity, the stored procedures you write generally update all the properties. Always remember that, because if you persist a partially loaded entity (an entity where not all properties are set), you may end up losing your data. Before passing on to the next subject, let’s take a quick look at how the EDM is affected when you map stored procedures to persist an entity, as in the previous series of steps. STORED PROCEDURES THAT PERSIST AN ENTITY AND THE EDM From the SSDL point of view, the stored procedures are declared as usual; there’s nothing new about that. The same thing happens for the CSDL. Because the stored procedures are invoked automatically by Entity Framework, there’s no need to import them to the conceptual schema: you’ll never use them. What really changes is the mapping schema, as you see here. Listing 10.8 Mapping an entity to persistence stored procedures in the MSL Figure 10.16 Mapping the stored procedure’s parameters to the entity’s properties Figure 10.17 The order is inserted using a stored procedure; details are stored using Entity Framework–generated code. 279Updating data with stored procedures ... ... In the EntityTypeMapping element related to the Order type, you include a ModificationFunctionMapping element. It instructs Entity Framework that the persis- tence of the entity is delegated to the stored procedure defined in this element. Inside EntityTypeMapping, you define three nodes that correspond to the insert, update, and delete stored procedures: InsertFunction, UpdateFunction, DeleteFunction (the order isn’t important). We’ll focus on the mapping information for the insert function here, but this information is valid for the other elements too. The InsertFunction element con- tains the FunctionName attribute, which defines the full name of the stored procedure as declared in the storage schema. Inside it, you declare a set of ScalarProperty nodes to map scalar-entity properties to stored-procedure parameters; complex prop- erties are mapped using the ComplexProperty node. Furthermore, using the Result- Binding element, you define the mapping for data returned by the function. It’s particularly important for insert functions that can return the ID of the row just added to the database. After you’ve mapped all the parameters for the insert function, you have to map the update and delete ones too, and then you’re ready to go. What about concurrencies? You know that the automatically generated SQL reflects the concurrency settings. Because with stored procedures you have to manage everything manually, you have to handle concurrency too. 10.4.2 Using stored procedures to update an entity with concurrency Entity Framework natively supports optimistic concurrency. With stored procedures, this support is totally up to you, but the infrastructure and the designer help a lot. Because the state manager keeps track of the original values, you can pass them to the stored procedure along with the current ones. When you have both, you can perform the concurrency check in the stored procedure. What’s absolutely great is that the retrieval of the original values is hidden from the code. You specify it directly in the mapping using the designer. In the Mapping Details window (shown in figure 10.18), next to the Property column is a Use Original Value column containing check boxes. If Use Original Value is checked, the original value of the property is used; otherwise, the current value is used. Figure 10.18 The original value of the Version field is passed to the stored procedure. The other parameters take the property’s current value. 280 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures Manually mapping the version in the EDM is simple. Just add the Version attribute of the ScalarProperty element, and set it to Original to pass the original value, as in the following fragment: Or set ScalarProperty to Current to use the current value. NOTE Remember that even if you don’t need concurrency, the Version attribute is mandatory for the parameters declared in an Update- Function. A standalone entity is easy to map. The situation gets more complicated when the entity is part of an inheritance hierarchy. In the next section, we’ll investigate such a scenario. 10.4.3 Persisting an entity that’s in an inheritance hierarchy When inheritance comes into play, there are some additional considerations. Once again, all or nothing is the main rule: if you want to use stored procedures to persist an entity that’s part of an inheritance hierarchy, all of the concrete (non-abstract) entities that belong to the same hierarchy must be persisted using stored procedures. In the customer/supplier scenario, you have to create three stored procedures for the customer and three stored procedures for the supplier. It works like a charm with- out you needing to learn anything new. But the difference between the customer and supplier stored procedures is just a few fields. It would be nice to create a stored procedure that manages one operation for both entities. For instance, you could create a stored procedure that handles the insert for both customers and suppliers, and do the same for updates and deletions. This would spare some lines of code and keep the set of stored procedures smaller. 281Updating data with stored procedures USING ONE STORED PROCEDURE TO PERSIST A HIERARCHY The idea behind this technique is to create a single stored procedure to perform a type of update for both classes. (Potentially, you could write a single stored procedure that performs all CUD operations for all classes, but it would be a mess.) After the stored procedure is created, you can create two functions in the SSDL and personalize the command to invoke the real stored procedure with different parameters. This can be done using the CommandText element, as you saw in section 10.3. This technique is shown in listing 10.9. (For the sake of clarity, we have hidden the parameter declarations.) exec CreateCompany @Name, @BillingAddress, @BillingCity, Invokes SP for customer @BillingZipCode, @BillingCountry, @ShippingAddress, @ShippingCity, @ShippingZipCode, @ShippingCountry, @WSUserName, @WSPassword, @WSEnabled, null, null, 'C') exec CreateCompany @Name, null, null, Invokes SP for supplier null, null, null, null, null, null, null, null, null, @IBAN, @PaymentDays, 'S' The last step is mapping the stored procedures to the InsertFunction node of the customer and the supplier classes. That’s done the same way as before, so we won’t show it again here. Naturally, the same technique applies to update and deletion stored procedures. Listing 10.9 Declaring functions and letting them invoke stored procedures 282 CHAPTER 10 Working with stored procedures NOTE We didn’t use the designer because this feature isn’t supported. Everything must be done manually. And remember that the storage schema is rewritten each time you update the model from the database, so you’ll lose any changes when that happens. We have now analyzed the customer/supplier (TPH) scenario, but everything we have done is perfectly valid for the product (TPT) scenario. In both mapping strategies, you can encounter a case where you need to upgrade or downgrade an entity. Let’s see what that means. 10.4.4 Upgrading and downgrading an entity that’s in an inheritance hierarchy In OrderIT, you can’t persist a company or a product. You have to use the specialized classes (Customer, Supplier, Shoe, and Shirt) because the base classes have no mean- ing in the business (in fact, they’re abstract). In other situations, the base classes may have meaning as well as the inheriting classes. Think about a contact list where a sim- ple contact can become a customer. You can model this situation using the TPH strat- egy: Contact is the base class, and Customer inherits from it. When you create a new contact, it’s persisted in the table with a discriminator value of CO. At a certain point, the contact decides to buy something and becomes a cus- tomer. Lots of additional data is required, and the discriminator column must be changed to CU. We’ll call this process upgrade. If for some reason you need to delete the customer but keep the person or company as a contact, you perform a downgrade. Entity Framework doesn’t support this functionality. This means you have to per- form all the updates manually using stored procedures or custom SQL commands. If you aren’t comfortable with this approach, you can use the classic ADO.NET approach to modify data in the table. If you use the TPH strategy, you just have to modify the dis- criminator column to change the type. If you use the TPT strategy, you have to delete the record from the specialized table, leaving the data only in the main table. It’s important to highlight that the domain-driven design rules state that the type of an entity must always be the same during its lifetime. What we have described here is a situation where we’re changing the type of an entity. This is a situation we have encountered several times and have solved using stored procedures without any prob- lems, but you could also achieve the same goal in other ways. Because there are many variables involved, every case must be evaluated on its own. Sometimes you need to perform an update on the database that’s not connected to the persistence of an entity. For instance, you may want to log each time a user signs in. In this case, you don’t have a Log entity; what you need to do is add a record in a table. Using a stored procedure to do this is pretty simple. Let’s see how to do that. 10.4.5 Executing stored procedures not connected to an entity In chapter 7 you saw that a custom command can be executed using the Execute- StoreCommand method, but this has the disadvantage of breaking the database- 283Summary independence model, because it accepts a SQL string. A stored procedure is definitely a better way to go; it encapsulates the logic, makes the application database-agnostic, and keeps the DBA happy. You kill three birds with one stone. Having said that, to invoke a stored procedure that doesn’t return data, you have to use the ExecuteFunction method. It’s different from ExecuteStoreCommand because it doesn’t accept a generic parameter and returns only an Int32 containing the number of affected rows. The only arguments it accepts are the stored procedure name plus an array of ObjectParameter objects representing the parameters. Naturally, to be invoked via the context class, the stored procedure must be imported to the conceptual schema. Even if you import the stored procedure in the conceptual schema, the POCO template you’ve been using so far to generate code doesn’t generate a context method to invoke these types of stored procedures. Fortu- nately, with a little bit of work on the POCO template, you can change that. You’ll learn how to do that in chapter 13. 10.5 Summary Stored procedures are a key feature of any database, and they’re used in almost every project we have developed. It’s very important that you understand how to best use them in any situation. This chapter has given you some great insight into what you can do with Entity Framework and stored procedures. In this version of Entity Framework, native sup- port for stored procedures has been greatly improved, but there’s still a lot to do to make them work seamlessly. The designer offers great productivity improvements and the template-generated context class offers better integration, but the ability to map stored procedure to enti- ties with complex types and support for eager loading are still missing. We’ll probably see these features in the next release, but for the moment we have to live without them. We’re now finished with stored procedures, but there’s another similar feature that’s key in Entity Framework: database and model functions, which are discussed in the next chapter, together with defining queries. 284 Working with functions and views In the previous chapter, you saw that you can embed native SQL commands into the storage model of the EDM to simulate stored procedures. The same idea can be applied to create custom views that aren’t on the database. Creating such views can allow you to write simpler queries, easing the development process. Another thing that eases querying is the use of database and model functions. These are pieces of code that can be reused across different queries, avoiding repetitive code. In Entity Framework 1.0, these functions could be used only via Entity SQL, but now they’re available in LINQ to Entities too. What’s even better, now you can create your own set of functions in the EDM, allowing further customi- zation and even more reuse. This chapter is all about these feature. First we’ll discuss embedding views in the EDM, and specifically the defining query feature, which is one of the most This chapter covers  Using defining queries  Creating custom database functions  Creating model defined functions 285Views in the storage model: defining queries powerful, and hidden, features of Entity Framework. Then, we’ll talk about custom database functions and user-defined functions. By the end of this chapter, you’ll grad- uate from the university of the EDM. Let’s first look at how you can embed views into the storage model. 11.1 Views in the storage model: defining queries Conceptually, stored procedures and views are quite different. A stored procedure is a block of statements that optionally returns data; a view is an object that contains data obtained by a predefined query. But the main difference is that stored procedures can’t be combined on the server, whereas views can. If the stored procedures at your dis- posal already cover all your needs, you may not need views, but in our experience, views are often worth a place in your toolbox. There are two ways to handle views in Entity Framework:  Map them as if they were tables —In this case, Entity Framework makes no differ- ence between views and tables. If you modify properties of the entities returned by the query to a view, the context will keep track of them and will generate the statements required to update them on the database (which will fail). Although technically possible, we don’t recommend this approach.  Map them using a defining query —In this case, Entity Framework knows that the entity is read-only, and unless you specifically instruct it on how to update data, it disables this option. This is the most common scenario because, in most cases, data coming from a view is read-only. The storage schema is where you decide which approach to use. If you opt for the first choice, chapter 5 contains all the information you need, because Entity Framework treats views as tables. If you opt for the second option, the next section contains all you need to know. 11.1.1 Creating a defining query Views are a storage affair. It’s not surprising that when you have learned how to define them in the SSDL, there’s nothing more you have to learn. In fact, when you map an entity to a view, the conceptual and the mapping schemas simply define the entity and map it to the view as if it were a normal table. Before delving into the storage schema, let’s look at a query that generates a view. The following query retrieves the total amount of the orders, grouped by customer: CREATE VIEW SalesByCustomer AS SELECT c.Name, SUM(d.Quantity * (d.UnitPrice - d.Discount)) AS Total FROM dbo.[Order] AS o INNER JOIN dbo.Company AS c ON c.CompanyId = o.CustomerId INNER JOIN dbo.OrderDetail AS d ON o.OrderId = d.OrderId GROUP BY c.Name 286 CHAPTER 11 Working with functions and views Defining a view in the SSDL is simple. In the EntitySet element inside Entity- Container, you put a DefiningQuery node, and inside it you write the SELECT, in database-native SQL code, from the database view. The next snippet shows how this is done: SELECT Name, Total FROM SalesByCustomer When it comes to the entity description, you must choose a key. In this example, you could use the name of the customer, because there is one row per customer, and two customers can’t have the same name. In situations where there isn’t a unique natural key, consider including in the view an autogenerated column that acts as a key. After you’ve created a class, mapped it against the view, and generated the related entity set in the context, you can query it as if it were a table. The following listing demonstrates this. C# from s in ctx.SalesByCustomer orderby s.Total descending select s VB From s In ctx.SalesByCustomer Order By s.Total Descending SQL SELECT [Extent1].[Name] AS [Name], [Extent1].[Total] AS [Total] FROM ( SELECT Name, Total FROM SalesByCustomer ) AS [Extent1] ORDER BY [Extent1].[Total] DESC As you can see, when the SQL generator creates the code, the SQL in the Defining- Query node is embedded in a nested query, and operations defined in the LINQ to Entities or Entity SQL query act on the nested one. You have seen that the query in the DefiningQuery element isn’t the query that defines the view, but is a command that returns all of its data. This means that in a DefiningQuery element, you can write SQL code to cover any needs you may have. This is the real power of the defining query: if there’s something you can’t map using EDM, a defining query is the solution. An example of this power is when you have to map a stored procedure to an entity with complex properties. Listing 11.1 Code for querying a view, and the generated SQL 287Views in the storage model: defining queries 11.1.2 Mapping stored procedures to classes with complex properties You know that a stored procedure can’t be mapped to an entity that defines a complex property. This is because the mapping is based on column and property names, and complex properties break this model. A defining query creates a sort of EDM view, so an entity with complex properties can be mapped against it. If the SQL in the defining query returns data from a stored procedure (such as EXEC GetOrders 1), you can eas- ily map it to an entity with complex properties, overcoming the current limitations. If it seems too good to be true, that’s because it isn’t completely true. You must keep a couple of caveats in mind when following this path:  A defining query creates a read-only entity. A defining query specifies a query by which you retrieve data. If you need to update data retrieved using a defining query, Entity Framework can’t generate INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE (CUD) commands based on such a query. To solve this problem, you have to map CUD operations to ad hoc stored procedures.  Stored procedures can’t be queried. You can’t query stored procedures on the server; you can’t write a SQL statement like SELECT * FROM GetOrders. In spite of the second limitation, you can still achieve the goal of mapping a database function (not a stored procedure) to an entity with complex properties by bending the database model. The technique we’ll look at uses a SQL Server feature known as table-valued functions. Like stored procedures, table-valued functions expose the result of a query, but they can be queried on the server. The following snippet shows the code that invokes the table-valued function in the DefininqQuery: SELECT * FROM GetOrders() GetOrders is the table-valued function. Now you can easily map this view to the Order class, even if it contains the Address complex property. What happens when relationships come into play? Order has a relationship with its details and with the customer. Because Order is mapped to a query and not directly to a table, the SQL code may get complicated. Fortunately, the runtime query composi- tion of Entity Framework is what the Entity Framework team has concentrated more of its efforts on. An entity mapped to a storage object that uses a defining query can participate in relationships like any other table without any additional effort. The query-nesting process during SQL generation for a defining query is valid even when relationships are taken into account. The result is that the following queries work exactly as expected: 288 CHAPTER 11 Working with functions and views C# var order = ctx.Orders.Include("Details"); var customer = order.Customer; VB Dim order = ctx.Orders.Include("Details") Dim customer = order.Customer Mapping an entity to a defining query that invokes a table-valued function that returns all the records of a table may seem useless, but this way you can have database functions that map against entities with complex property too. It’s a good example of the power of the EDM. Now you know everything about functions and views that return data. The next things we’ll look at help in the reuse of queries: user-defined functions and scalar- valued functions. They allow you to define logic in (sort of) functions that can be reused in querying, so that writing queries becomes simpler. 11.2 User-defined functions and scalar-valued functions You often need to calculate the total amount of an order detail. The formula is pretty simple: (unit price - discount) * quantity. If you need to calculate this amount in lots of queries, you end up placing the same formula in many different places, and then if you need to change things, you have to check lots of queries. In a large project, this is unacceptable. To overcome this problem, you can create a function that performs the calculation for you. You can’t use a CLR function because LINQ to Entities isn’t able to translate it into SQL, and Entity SQL has no knowledge of CLR functions; so how can you solve the problem? The answer is to use a scalar-valued function. 11.2.1 Scalar-valued functions A scalar-valued function is a special type of database function that accepts any parame- ter you have and returns a scalar value. The following SQL code represents the (unit price - discount) * quantity function: CREATE FUNCTION GetTotalAmount (@unitprice as money, @quantity as int, @discount as money) RETURNS money AS BEGIN return (@unitprice - @discount) * @quantity END When you have the function, you need to import it into the storage schema using the designer, as you did for stored procedures. Then you can invoke the database function using the following Entity SQL query: SELECT o.OrderId, SUM(SELECT VALUE OrderITModel.Store.GetTotalAmount(d.UnitPrice, d.Quantity, d.Discount) 289User-defined functions and scalar-valued functions FROM o.OrderDetails As d) FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o In Entity Framework 1.0, only Entity SQL lets you use the database functions. There’s no way to use it in a LINQ to Entities query even if you import the function to the con- ceptual schema. This is because LINQ to Entities knows nothing about the EDM; it works on .NET classes and methods. Fortunately, this limitation was lifted in Entity Framework version 4.0. To use a scalar-valued function in LINQ to Entities, you need to create a stub method, as shown in the following listing, which acts as a bridge between LINQ to Entities and the EDM. C# [EdmFunction("OrderITModel.Store", "GetTotalAmount")] public static Nullable GetTotalAmount(Nullable unitprice, Nullable quantity, Nullable discount) { throw new NotImplementedException("Cannot invoke this method"); } VB _ Public Shared Function GetTotalAmount( _ ByVal unitprice As Nullable(Of Decimal), _ ByVal quantity As Nullable(Of Integer), _ ByVal discount As Nullable(Of Decimal)) As Nullable(Of Decimal) Throw New NotImplementedException("Cannot invoke this method") End Function This function has many prerequisites:  It must be static.  It must return the same type as the database function.  It must be marked with the EdmFunction attribute. (The attribute needs two mandatory parameters: the storage schema namespace and the name of the function.)  Its body should throw an exception. (This isn’t mandatory, but because the function is only a stub for LINQ to Entities, its code is never really invoked.) NOTE Unfortunately, the POCO template doesn’t generate the stub method, so you have to write everything on your own. In chapter 13, we’ll show you how to modify the template to generate this code too. After you’ve created the stub method, LINQ to Entities knows that this stub method is mapped to the database function in the storage schema, so you can consume it in your queries as shown in the following listing. We prefer putting the method in the context class, but you can place it wherever you like. Listing 11.2 Stub method that maps a function in the storage to a CLR method 290 CHAPTER 11 Working with functions and views C# from o in ctx.Orders select new { o.OrderId, Amount = o.OrderDetails.Sum(d => OrderITEntities.GetTotalAmount( d.UnitPrice, d.Quantity, d.Discount)) } VB From o In ctx.Orders Select New With { .o.OrderId, .Amount = o.OrderDetails.Sum(Function(d) OrderITEntities.GetTotalAmount( d.UnitPrice, d.Quantity, d.Discount)) } Placing querying logic in a database function facilitates code reuse and maintainabil- ity. This is probably one of the greatest features in Entity Framework 4.0 because in large-scale projects, reusability and maintainability are essential in the long term. But what if you can’t add the function to the database? What if you need a function that returns more than a scalar value? The database can’t help in such scenarios, so you have to resort to user-defined functions. 11.2.2 User-defined functions When the database can’t help, the EDM comes to the rescue. In this case, it lets you define a conceptual function that can be used in both Entity SQL and LINQ to Entities (always via a stub). The function is defined in the CSDL, which knows nothing about SQL. So the ques- tion is, how do you conceptually define a function? The answer is, using Entity SQL. You can create a function whose body is an Entity SQL expression that returns a result. This function is a user-defined function. The output result can be anything. It can be a scalar value, an object, or a DbData- Record. This is the big difference between user-defined functions and scalar-valued functions—the latter can only return scalar values. This doesn’t mean you should only adopt user-defined functions; they’re just more powerful. The choice is entirely up to you. User-defined functions have one big problem: they aren’t supported by the designer. You have to manually change the EDM to use them. If you don’t like touch- ing the raw XML, this is a real pain. The first step is to create the function in the conceptual schema, as shown here. Listing 11.3 Using the stub function in LINQ to Entities 291User-defined functions and scalar-valued functions (UnitPrice - Discount) * Quantity The declaration is straightforward. In the Function node, you declare the function name and return type. Then, you include a Parameter node for each input parameter. Finally, you create a DefiningExpression node, inside which the function code is written using Entity SQL. That’s it for the EDM. Next, you have to create the CLR stub method for the function to make it available to LINQ to Entities. That’s done the same way as for a scalar-valued function except that the first parameter of the EdmFunction attribute must contain the namespace of the conceptual schema, not the namespace of the storage one. Of course, the name must be changed too. The final code is shown in the following snippet: C# [EdmFunction("OrderITModel", "GetUDFTotalAmount")] VB _ Now you can invoke the function in both LINQ to Entities and Entity SQL queries. In LINQ to Entities queries, you won’t see the difference between a scalar-valued func- tion and a user-defined one. The code is exactly the same, because you simply invoke a method. In Entity SQL, you have to change the way you invoke the function com- pared with how you invoke the database scalar-valued function because the user- defined function is defined on the conceptual side. The difference is highlighted in the next snippet: SELECT o.OrderId, SUM(SELECT VALUE OrderITModel.GetUDFTotalAmount(d.UnitPrice, d.Quantity, d.Discount) FROM o.OrderDetails As d) FROM OrderITEntities.Orders AS o So far, scalar-valued functions and user-defined functions have reached the same goal. From now on, you’ll see how user-defined functions are more powerful. We’ll start with an interesting feature: the ability to pass objects as parameters. PASSING AN OBJECT AS A PARAMETER OF A FUNCTION Suppose that, in the future, you’re asked for another type of discount. To achieve this goal, you add a new column and property to the OrderDetail table and class. Natu- rally, this affects the way the total amount is calculated, because the new discount comes into play. Listing 11.4 User-defined function that returns and accepts scalar values 292 CHAPTER 11 Working with functions and views You need to change the GetUDFTotalAmount function to accept a fourth parame- ter, and that means changing all callers to pass that parameter. If the function is used in several places, this work can be tedious and error prone. The alternative is to change your approach and to pass the entire OrderDetail object. This way, if you need to add another parameter, you won’t have to change the code but just the func- tion in the EDM. That’s shown in this snippet: (detail.UnitPrice - detail.Discount) * detail.Quantity Notice that now there is only one Parameter node, and its type is a class mapped in the EDM (OrderDetail). The code is Entity SQL, so you can refer to the parameter properties as in a classic Entity SQL query. The stub signature is different because now it accepts an OrderDetail instance as a parameter, and not the unit price, quantity, and discount parameters. Naturally, both LINQ to Entities and Entity SQL queries must be adapted to this different parameter list. Passing an object as a parameter is only half of the game. You can even let the func- tion return objects. RETURNING A NONTYPED OBJECT FROM A FUNCTION Suppose that you often perform projections. Repeating this in every query is error prone and troublesome when something changes. It would be great if you could encapsulate the projection in a function and then reuse it. The following listing takes out the customer’s name and the main information about the shipping and billing addresses. ROW(detail.Name, detail.BillingAddress.Address, detail.BillingAddress.City, detail.ShippingAddress.Address, detail.ShippingAddress.City) Listing 11.5 User-defined function that accepts an object and returns a DbDataRecord 293User-defined functions and scalar-valued functions The return type of this function is a DbDataRecord that contains the columns specified in the ReturnType/RowType node. It’s important that the Entity SQL expression return the columns in the same order as they’re declared, and that they’re wrapped inside the ROW function. The stub method returns a DbDataRecord. There’s nothing more you need to do. Now you can use the function in listing 11.5 in both LINQ to Entities and Entity SQL queries, as in the following code: C# from c in ctx.Companies.OfType() select OrderITEntities.GetUDFAddresses(c) VB From c In ctx.Companies.OfType(Of Customer)() Select OrderITEntities.GetUDFAddresses(c) Entity SQL SELECT OrderITModel.GetUDFAddresses(c) FROM OFTYPE(OrderITEntities.Companies, OrderIT.Model.Customer) As c Working with the DbDataRecord isn’t bad, but having a class returned is much better. This is another great opportunity you can take advantage of. RETURNING A TYPED OBJECT FROM A FUNCTION The tweaks needed to switch from a DbDataRecord instance to a typed object are very minor. First, you have to create the class that holds the data. Because it must be in the CSDL, you can easily create that using the designer. Then you have to create the func- tion shown in the following fragment: OrderITModel.CustomerProjection(customer.Name, customer.BillingAddress.Address, customer.BillingAddress.City, customer.ShippingAddress.Address, customer.ShippingAddress.City) The first thing to notice here is that the return type is neither a scalar value nor a generic class, but a specific type (the complex one generated in the designer). The second point is that the return columns aren’t wrapped in a Row function, but in the return type class. This is an Entity SQL feature that allows the return of a typed object instead of a generic DbDataRecord. The stub method for such a function returns the object instead of a DbDataRecord. NOTE It’s mandatory to place the method parameters in the same order in which the properties of the class are declared. The LINQ to Entities and Entity SQL queries don’t change. The only thing that changes is the way the application manages the result, because now it’s a class and that’s much better. 294 CHAPTER 11 Working with functions and views All of the preceding functions have one thing in common—they return a single instance. Because functions are all about reuse and encapsulation, it would be a pity if you couldn’t return collections too. Fortunately, that’s possible. 11.2.3 User-defined functions and collection results Suppose that in many queries, you need to return only the order details that have no discount. Repeating these conditions in all the queries would be a problem; a ready- to-use function would definitely be better. User-defined functions can return an enumerable of scalar values, an enumerable of DbDataRecord instances, or an enumerable of objects. There’s no limit to what you can do. RETURNING A LIST OF SCALAR VALUES Let’s start with the basics and return the IDs of the details that have no discount. Cre- ating this function is pretty easy, as you can see in this snippet: SELECT VALUE d.OrderDetailId FROM o.OrderDetails AS d WHERE d.discount == 0 The ReturnType attribute contains the Collection keyword, which says that this func- tion returns a list of Int32 instances and not a single value. In the Entity SQL code in the DefiningExpression element, you place a full query, not just a simple expression. With these simple tweaks, a function can return a collection of items. The stub method must return an IEnumerable> object. That’s the only tweak needed to make the stub method work. Once again, you can use the method in your queries. RETURNING A LIST OF GENERIC OBJECTS You may need more information than just the ID of the details. For instance, you may need the quantity and the unit price. The following listing shows how you can do that using the DbDataRecord class. Listing 11.6 User-defined function that returns a list of DbDataRecord objects 295Summary SELECT d.OrderDetailId, d.UnitPrice, d.Quantity FROM o.OrderDetails AS d WHERE d.discount == 0 The ReturnType attribute disappears, and you create the ReturnType node to specify the shape of the result. Because it’s a list, you use a CollectionType element and then use RowType to specify the output properties. The stub returns an IEnumerable. You’re ready again to use the function in your queries. RETURNING A LIST OF TYPED OBJECTS Returning a list of typed objects is fairly simple. You just have to specify the type of the object returned and prepare the Entity SQL query using the following code: SELECT VALUE d FROM o.OrderDetails AS d WHERE d.discount == 0 This code is very similar to that used for returning a scalar value, and it needs no fur- ther explanation. The stub method for such function is simple. In fact, it returns an IEnumerable object. In the end, scalar-valued functions enable a great level of reuse in your code. That’s worth taking into account when you’re developing a project. 11.3 Summary Mastering functions and defining queries is important in any real-world project. Func- tions, in particular, really make a difference when you’re writing queries. They avoid repetitive code and promote code reuse to an incredible extent. No technology before this has ever enabled such code reuse in queries. You can’t help falling in love with them. What’s great about functions is that in addition to enabling the use of database functions in LINQ to Entities, they also enable you to write your own custom functions in Entity SQL and make them available to LINQ to Entities. Thumbs up! Now you have a complete understanding of the EDM, and you’ve been introduced to its potential and its intricacies. What you need to know next is how you can access EDM metadata in code. That’s the subject of the next chapter. 296 Exploring EDM metadata Roughly speaking, the EDM consists of three XML files carrying information about classes, database, and their mappings. It’s no surprise that Entity Framework is the first consumer of these XML files, using them to generate the SQL code for CRUD operations, to understand whether a column is an identity on the database, and much more. Reading XML files with LINQ to XML is easier than ever, but it will never be like having a set of well-designed APIs that access the same data. Entity Framework’s reg- ular need to access EDM metadata led to the need for simplicity, which in turn led to a set of APIs. At the beginning, the APIs were for internal use only, but they were later made public so that everyone could access them. Metadata retrieval introduces the possibility of writing generic code. By generic, we mean code that works with entities without even knowing what type the entities This chapter covers  Reading the EDM  Retrieving entity structures  Retrieving function structures  Writing generic code 297Metadata basics are. For instance, you could write a clever extension method that takes an entity and decides whether to perform an AddObject or an Attach based on the key value, as we described in chapter 6. Thanks to metadata, you can discover the key property at runtime, retrieve the value via reflection, and then perform the correct operation. By using custom annota- tions, you can even specify in the EDM which value causes an AddObject and which causes an Attach. Although this is a simple example, it makes clear why metadata is important. This chapter discusses all these subjects starting from the basics. First we’ll show how metadata can be reached and what pitfalls you may encounter when accessing it. After that, we’ll take a tour of the API system. Finally, you’ll finally put everything into action by building a metadata viewer and completing an example that chooses between the AddObject and Attach methods. 12.1 Metadata basics You know where the EDM is, but how are the APIs to access its data exposed? How are the different files in the EDM identified? And when is the metadata loaded? The APIs are accessible via three different classes: ObjectContext, Entity- Connection, and MetadataWorkspace. This may sound confusing, but there’s a good reason for this variety, which we’ll get to shortly. To identify the different files during data retrieval, you have to specify the dataspace when you query for a certain object, or a list of objects. The same APIs retrieve meta- data for both the conceptual and storage models, so you must state each time which file should be inspected. (MSL isn’t available via the APIs; you can only access it via LINQ to XML.) As for when the metadata is loaded, the CSDL is immediately available, but the SSDL can be inspected only after a request that requires that metadata is triggered (a query, for example). Those short answers will barely get you started. Let’s look at each of these topics in more detail. 12.1.1 Accessing metadata The class that exposes APIs to access metadata is MetadataWorkspace. It can be instantiated directly using one of its constructors or accessed through the Object- Context or EntityConnection class. Manually instantiating the MetadataWorkspace class can be tough because it requires lots of code; you’re better off using one of the other methods. NOTE We’ve directly instantiated the MetadataWorkspace class only when generating code via a template (in chapter 13, you’ll see why this is extremely useful). In all other cases, we’ve accessed the Metadata- Workspace class through the context, and only in very rare cases through the connection. 298 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata Let’s look at how you can access metadata through the ObjectContext. ACCESSING METADATA USING THE CONTEXT When you work with objects, the context is your gateway to the database. To correctly handle objects, the context works with the conceptual schema of the EDM. It must know whether a property is an identity, which properties are used for concurrency, and so on. Fortunately, the context constructor already knows about metadata because the connection string, which contains the metadata’s location, is passed in the construc- tor. That’s why you only need to access the MetadataWorkspace property, as shown in the next snippet: C# var ctx = new OrderITEntities(); var mw = ctx.MetadataWorkspace; VB Dim ctx As New OrderITEntities() Dim mw = ctx.MetadataWorkspace That’s really all you need to do when you have a context around. But this isn’t always the case—you may be working with a connection. ACCESSING METADATA USING THE CONNECTION The EntityConnection class exposes metadata through the GetMetadataWorkspace method, which returns a MetadataWorkspace object. After the connection is created, you can invoke the method: C# var ctx = new EntityConnection(connString); var mw = conn.GetMetadataWorkspace(); VB Dim conn As New EntityConnection(connString) Dim mw = conn.GetMetadataWorkspace() NOTE From now on, we’ll use the variable mw to identify a MetadataWork- space in the code. In chapters 3 and 7, you learned that the context relies on the underlying Entity- Connection to access the database. It turns out that the context relies on the connec- tion to access metadata too. When the context is instantiated, it creates the connection and then internally clones the metadata, making it available to the con- text consumer. We’ve developed many projects using Entity Framework and have never needed to access metadata without having a context or a connection in place. Obviously, that doesn’t mean it can’t happen to you. In that case, working directly with the Metadata- Workspace class may be the only way. 299Metadata basics ACCESSING METADATA USING THE METADATAWORKSPACE CLASS When you work with the context or the connection, you always have a connection string. When working with MetadataWorkspace class, metadata in the class can be ini- tialized in the constructor or via specific methods. When you use the constructor, you have to pass in the paths of the three EDM files plus the assemblies containing the CLR classes. If the three EDM files are embedded in an assembly, that assembly must be passed to the constructor. Note that if the three EDM files aren’t embedded in an assembly, you have to refer- ence them using their full paths; but if they’re embedded, you can use the same syn- tax used in the connection string, as the following listing demonstrates. C# Assembly asm = Assembly.LoadFile("C:\\OrderIT\\OrderITModel.dll"); var mw1 = new MetadataWorkspace Embedded files (new string[] { "res://*/ Model.csdl", "res://*/ Model.ssdl" }, new Assembly[] { asm }); var mw2 = new MetadataWorkspace Plain files (new string[] { "C:\\OrderIT\\Model.csdl", "C:\\OrderIT\\Model.ssdl" }, new Assembly[] { asm }); VB Dim asm = Assembly.LoadFile("C:\OrderIT\OrderITModel.dll") Dim mw1 = New MetadataWorkspace Embedded (New String() { "res://*/Model.csdl", "res://*/ Model.ssdl" }, files New Assembly() { asm }) Dim mw2 = New MetadataWorkspace Plain files (New String() { " C:\OrderIT\Model.csdl", " C:\OrderIT\Model.ssdl" }, New Assembly() { asm }) If you opt for creating the MetadataWorkspace class without passing EDM information in the constructor, the job gets harder. MetadataWorkspace internally registers a set of collections for each file type. What you have to do is initialize these collections one by one and register them using the RegisterItemCollection method. Each collection is of a different type, depending on the EDM file it handles. For instance, if you want to register metadata about the storage layer, you need to create a StoreItemCollection instance and pass in the SSDL file; the EdmItemCollection instance is used for the CSDL. Even without seeing the code, you can see that this approach isn’t desirable, because you have to write lots of code to instantiate and load the collections. We’ve never used this approach in the past and are unlikely to ever do so in the future. But if you encounter a case where this is the only way to make things work, you now know how to handle it. We mentioned earlier that the assembly containing the CLR classes must be passed to the MetadataWorkspace class constructor. Have you wondered why? Aren’t EDM metadata only about CSDL, SSDL, and MSL? That’s what we’ll look at next. Listing 12.1 Accessing the metadata using the MetadataWorkspace class 300 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata 12.1.2 How metadata is internally organized What’s great about the metadata APIs is that they’re reused across the different sche- mas of the EDM. It doesn’t matter if you’re scanning through the storage or the con- ceptual model, the APIs you use remain the same. So the question is, how do you specify what schema to look for? The answer is that the dataspace lets you specify what schema to look in. The dataspace is an enum of type DataSpace (System.Data.Metadata.Edm namespace) that contains the following values:  CSpace—Identifies the conceptual schema.  SSpace—Identifies the storage schema.  CSSpace—Identifies the mapping schema. Unfortunately, support for the map- ping schema is minimal; you can’t retrieve anything useful about it using the APIs. The best way to retrieve this metadata is to use LINQ to XML.  OSpace—Identifies the CLR classes. This may seem weird, but CLR classes are included in the metadata. That’s why you have to include them when instantiat- ing the MetadataWorkspace. Naturally, only object-model classes are included, and you’ll discover that this is feature is handy.  OCSpace—Identifies the mapping between the CLR classes and the CSDL. In .NET Framework 1.0, the mapping between CLR classes and properties with the conceptual schema is based on custom attributes. In .NET Framework 4.0, it’s based on the names of the classes and properties. This mapping information can be queried, but it’s there more for Entity Framework’s internal use than for helping you. The DataSpace is passed to all MetadataWorkspace methods, as you can see in the fol- lowing snippets: C# mw.GetItems(DataSpace.CSpace); mw.GetItems(DataSpace.SSpace); VB mw.GetItems(Of EntityType)(DataSpace.CSpace) mw.GetItems(Of EdmFunction)(DataSpace.SSpace) The first method returns all entities in the conceptual space, and the second returns all stored procedures in the storage schema. NOTE Keep the EntityType and EdmFunction classes in mind. They are pretty useful, as you’ll discover later in this chapter. You now know how to access the metadata and how to specify what schema you’re extracting data from. The next step is understanding when you can retrieve the data. 301Retrieving metadata 12.1.3 Understanding when metadata becomes available Metadata information is lazily loaded by Entity Framework; because Entity Framework doesn’t need it, you can’t access it. For example, when you instantiate a context, the conceptual schema is immediately loaded because the context works with it. If you try to query the storage schema, you’ll get a runtime InvalidOperationException with the message. “The space ‘SSpace’ has no associated collection.” No query has been performed, so Entity Framework hasn’t needed to access the MSL and SSDL. Naturally, wherever there’s an inconvenient limitation like this, a workaround is nearby. Most of the MetadataWorkspace methods come with an exception-safe version. For instance, you have GetItem as well as TryGetItem. You can use the Try* methods, and if data the data isn’t ready yet, you can artificially cause it to be loaded. The easiest way to force loading is to perform a query, but you won’t want to waste a round trip to the database. Fortunately, the ToTraceString method, used in the fol- lowing listing, does the trick. It causes Entity Framework to load the MSL and SSDL schemas to prepare a query, but it doesn’t actually execute it. C# ItemCollection coll = null; var loaded = mw.TryGetItemCollection(DataSpace.SSpace, out coll); if (!loaded) ctx.Orders.ToTraceString(); Forces schema loadingVB Dim coll As ItemCollection Dim loaded = mw.TryGetItemCollection(DataSpace.SSpace, coll) If Not loaded Then ctx.Orders.ToTraceString() Forces schema loadingEnd If You now have enough background to advance to the next stage: querying. You’ve had a sneak peek with the GetItems, GetItem, TryGetItem, and GetItem- Collection methods, and now it’s time to look at them more closely. 12.2 Retrieving metadata MetadataWorkspace has many methods for retrieving metadata, but you’ll generally only be using a few of them. All the metadata can be reached using a single generic API, but some types of metadata have dedicated retrieval methods (such as Get- EntityContainer and GetFunctions). We discourage the use of such dedicated meth- ods because using a single generic one makes the code easier to read. These are the generic methods for accessing metadata:  GetItems—Retrieves all items in the specified space  GetItems—Retrieves all items of type T in the specified space  GetItemCollection and TryGetItemCollection—Retrieve all items in the specified space returning a specialized collection  GetItem and TryGetItem—Retrieve a single item in the specified space Listing 12.2 Forcing the loading of the storage and mapping schemas 302 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata The first three of these methods do almost the same thing, with tiny differences. In the example that you’ll create in this chapter, we’ll only use GetItem, TryGet- Item, and GetItems. As you’ll see, the other methods aren’t all that necessary. You’re probably wondering what type T can be. If you want to retrieve all entities in the conceptual space, what should you pass as T? It’s important to understand this before going deeper into the various retrieval methods. 12.2.1 Understanding the metadata object model The metadata object model consists of classes that are in the System.Data.Metadata. Edm namespace, but not all classes in this namespace are related to the EDM. For instance, MetadataWorkspace acts as the gateway, but it doesn’t work with metadata. What we’re interested in are the classes strictly related to metadata. Each node in the CSDL and SSDL has a corresponding class (with some exceptions). What’s good is that in almost all cases, classes have the same name as their corresponding nodes. What’s even better is that because the SSDL and CSDL share the same structure, even the classes are the same. Table 12.1 shows the correspondences between EDM nodes and metadata classes. Table 12.1 The correspondence between metadata classes and EDM nodes EDM node Metadata class name EntityContainer EntityContainer EntityType EntityType ComplexType ComplexType Function EdmFunction Association AssociationType All the other EDM elements you learned about in chapter 5 are exposed as proper- ties of the classes in table 12.1. For instance, the EntityContainer class has a BaseEn- titySets property, which lists the AssociationSet and EntitySet elements, and a FunctionImports property, which exposes the FunctionImport elements, all in the EDM’s EntityContainer element. The EntityType class has a similar structure. It exposes the Properties property, containing all the Property elements inside the EntityType node in the EDM; and KeyMembers, which lists the PropertyRef elements inside the Key element that is nested in the EntityType node of the EDM. The ComplexType class is pretty simple because it contains only the properties, whereas EdmFunction exposes the Parameters and ReturnParameter properties. The AssociationType class is the most complex because it exposes the Role prop- erty, plus ReferentialConstraint, which has Principal and Dependent properties that in turn have PropertyRef elements. Now that you know about the classes, it’s time to look closely at the methods for accessing metadata that we introduced before. 303Retrieving metadata 12.2.2 Extracting metadata from the EDM Querying the EDM is just a matter of invoking methods on the MetadataWorkspace class. Let’s analyze these methods one by one; later, you’ll put everything in action. We’ll start with the GetItems method. EXTRACTING METADATA WITH GETITEMS When you need all the items in a schema, GetItems is the best method to use. Not only does it return objects you’ve defined, but also primitive types and function types that are embedded in the EDM. It’s easy to invoke, as the next snippet shows: C# var items = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(DataSpace.CSpace); VB Dim items = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(DataSpace.CSpace) The variable items contains 272 elements! It contains all EDM primitive types, like Edm.String, Edm.Boolean, and Edm.Int32; primitive functions like Edm.Count, Edm.Sum, and Edm.Average; and the objects you’ve defined. The preceding query operates on the conceptual schema, but the same consider- ations hold true for the storage schema. The only difference is that primitive types are in another namespace dedicated to the database. SqlServer.varchar, SqlServer.Bit, SqlServer.int, SqlServer.COUNT, SqlServer.SUM, and SqlServer.AVERAGE are just an example of what you’ll get. Figure 12.1 shows an excerpt from the Visual Studio Quick Watch window containing types from the CSDL and SSDL. Figure 12.1 On the left side is a snapshot of items returned by GetItems in the CSpace. On the right side are items returned by GetItems in the SSpace. The objects returned by GetItems are of type ReadOnlyCollection, which implements IEnumerable. That means you can query the data using LINQ. For instance, if you want to retrieve all primitive types, you can perform the following query: C# ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(DataSpace.CSpace) .Where(i => i.BuiltInTypeKind == BuiltInTypeKind.PrimitiveType); VB ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(DataSpace.CSpace). Where(Function(i) i.BuiltInTypeKind = BuiltInTypeKind.PrimitiveType) Like GetItems, GetItemCollection returns all the items that belong to a specific schema, but with a subtle difference: the type returned is different. 304 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata EXTRACTING METADATA WITH GETITEMCOLLECTION AND TRYGETITEMCOLLECTION The GetItemCollection method retrieves all items in the specified schema, and it returns them in an ItemCollection instance. ItemCollection inherits from Read- OnlyCollection, meaning that you can use LINQ to query its data, and it adds some convenient methods. Its use is shown in the following snippet: C# var items = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItemCollection(DataSpace.CSpace); VB Dim items = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItemCollection(DataSpace.CSpace) The items variable contains the same data extracted by GetItems. The difference is that now you can call additional methods like GetItems, GetFunctions, and others that are also exposed by the MetadataWorkspace class. These methods act on the data extracted by GetItemCollection, whereas the methods invoked on Metadata- Workspace need the schema to scan through. These additional methods exposed by the ItemCollection class don’t particularly simplify development. What really helps development is the TryGetItemCollection method, which you can use to check whether metadata in that space is loaded, as you saw in listing 12.2. Both GetItems and GetItemCollection return all data from the queried dataspace. If you want to filter it, you have to use LINQ or, in the case of GetItem- Collection, some specific methods. Either way, the core behavior doesn’t change; you retrieve all the data and then pick up what you need. But wouldn’t it be better to only have the items you wanted, without having to filter them after retrieving them? EXTRACTING METADATA WITH GETITEMS The GetItems method enables you to retrieve items of a certain type immediately. No additional methods and no LINQ queries are needed: just a method call. Isn’t that better? GetItems returns a ReadOnlyCollection, where T is the type searched for. If you searched all entities in the conceptual schema, the result would be a ReadOnly- Collection. The following example shows how to use this method: C# var items = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(DataSpace.CSpace); VB Dim items = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(Of EntityType)(DataSpace.CSpace) Because ReadOnlyCollection implements IEnumerable, you can perform LINQ queries on the result returned by GetItems. This is full control. Unfortunately, GetItems doesn’t have an exception-safe version, meaning that the metadata for the searched space must be loaded, or this method will raise an exception. 305Retrieving metadata All the methods we’ve seen so far return a list of items, but often you’ll just need one item. For instance, you may need to inspect the Supplier item to validate the IBAN property with a regular expression (remember the example in chapter 5?). EXTRACTING METADATA WITH GETITEM AND TRYGETITEM The GetItem method retrieves a single entity. It accepts the dataspace and a string representing the full name of the entity. It’s important that you understand what we mean by the full name. When you search through the CSpace or the SSpace, the namespace is the one specified in the Schema element. When you search through OSpace, the namespace is the CLR class namespace that doesn’t necessarily match with its counterpart in the CSDL. In the fol- lowing listing, you can see the difference in how data from different spaces is retrieved. C# var csItem = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItem ("OrderITModel.Supplier", DataSpace.CSpace); var osItem = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItem ("OrderIT.Model.Supplier", DataSpace.OSpace); VB Dim csItem = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItem(Of EntityType)( "OrderITModel.Supplier", DataSpace.CSpace) Dim osItem = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItem(Of EntityType)( "OrderIT.Model.Supplier", DataSpace.OSpace) The object returned by GetItem is of the type specified in the generic parameter. In this listing, csItem and osItem are of EntityType type. If an element isn’t found, or if the metadata for the dataspace isn’t loaded, Get- Item throws an exception. If you’re sure that the metadata is loaded and that the item exists in the space, GetItem is for you; otherwise, the exception-safe version TryGetItem, used in the following listing, is a better choice. C# EntityType osItem = null, csItem = null; var csloaded = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.TryGetItem ("OrderITModel.Supplier", DataSpace.CSpace, out csItem); var osloaded = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.TryGetItem ("OrderIT.Model.Supplier", DataSpace.CSpace, out osItem); VB Dim osItem As EntityType = Nothing Dim csItem As EntityType = Nothing Dim csloaded = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.TryGetItem(Of EntityType)( ("OrderITModel.Supplier", DataSpace.CSpace, csItem) Dim osloaded = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.TryGetItem(Of EntityType)( "OrderIT.Model.Supplier", DataSpace.CSpace, osItem) Listing 12.3 Using GetItem to retrieve metadata Listing 12.4 Using TryGetItem to retrieve metadata 306 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata Congratulations! You’re close to becoming a metadata Jedi. You have the knowledge; now it’s time to see how to use it. Let’s look at how you can build powerful stuff using what you’ve learned. 12.3 Building a metadata explorer The best way to use all you’ve seen in this chapter is to create a metadata explorer. The metadata explorer is a simple form with a tree view showing all elements defined in the conceptual and storage schemas. The elements are grouped in nodes, and the most important proper- ties of each type of element are shown. For instance, for each entity, all prop- erties are shown with the primary-key properties displayed in bold and the foreign-key properties shown in bold and red. Function return values and parame- ters are listed along with their types. After the metadata is loaded, the metadata explorer form is very similar to the designer’s Model Browser window. Fig- ure 12.2 shows the metadata browser you’re going to build. Take a quick look at the tree in figure 12.2. Doesn’t it remind you the structure of the conceptual and storage schemas? You have entities, complex types, functions, and containers. It’s much easier to read than raw XML, isn’t it? Representing both the conceptual and the storage schemas takes about 120 lines of code in the editor (but only about 80 if you don’t count blank lines and lines with only curly brackets). In the tree view, each schema is represented with two root nodes, labeled Conceptual Side and Storage Side, with four inner nodes: Entities, ComplexTypes (only for the conceptual schema), Functions, and Containers. Let’s see how you can populate the tree view, starting with the Entities node. 12.3.1 Populating entities and complex types The entities node has a child for each entity in the schema. Listing all the entities is just a matter of using GetItems, passing EntityType as the generic parameter, and creating a node for each item. Each entity node has three children:  Base types —Contains all classes that the entity inherits from  Derived types—Contains all classes that inherit from the entity  Properties —Contains all entity properties The following code creates the entities node. Figure 12.2 The tree view where metadata is shown. The conceptual side is divided into entities, complex types, functions, and containers. The same is done for the storage side. 307Building a metadata explorer C# var entities = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems (DataSpace.CSpace); foreach (var item in entities) { var currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes[0].Nodes[0] Node for entity .Nodes.Add(item.FullName); WriteTypeBaseTypes(currentTreeNode, item); Nodes for entity details WriteTypeDerivedTypes(currentTreeNode, item, entities); WriteProperties(currentTreeNode, item, ctx, DataSpace.CSpace); } VB Dim entities = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(Of EntityType)( DataSpace.CSpace) For Each item In entities Dim currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes(0).Nodes(0). Node for entity Nodes.Add(item.FullName) WriteTypeBaseTypes(currentTreeNode, item) WriteTypeDerivedTypes(currentTreeNode, item, entities) Nodes for entity details WriteProperties(currentTreeNode, item, ctx, DataSpace.CSpace) Next So far, everything is pretty easy. The core code lies in the three internal methods WriteTypeBaseTypes, WriteTypeDerivedTypes, and WriteProperties, whose names explain perfectly what they do. RETRIEVING ENTITY BASE TYPES The WriteTypeBaseTypes method retrieves the base types. It uses the BaseType prop- erty of EntityType, which points to another EntityType object representing the base class. For instance, the entity type representing Order has the BaseType property set to null, and the one representing Customer has the property set to Company. Here’s the code. C# private void WriteTypeBaseTypes(TreeNode currentTreeNode, EntityType item) { var node = currentTreeNode.Nodes.Add("Base types"); if (item.BaseType != null) node.Nodes.Add(item.BaseType.FullName); } VB Private Sub WriteTypeBaseTypes(ByVal currentTreeNode As TreeNode, ByVal item As EntityType) Dim node = currentTreeNode.Nodes.Add("Base types") Listing 12.5 Creating the entities node Listing 12.6 Creating the base types nodes 308 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata If item.BaseType IsNot Nothing Then node.Nodes.Add(item.BaseType.FullName) End If End Sub As you can see, looking for the base type is trivial. Finding types that inherit from an entity is a little more complicated. RETRIEVING ENTITY-DERIVED ENTITIES Retrieving which entities inherit from the current one requires a simple LINQ query that searches for entities whose base type matches the current entity. The Write- TypeDerivedTypes method that retrieves this data is shown in this listing. C# private void WriteTypeDerivedTypes(TreeNode currentTreeNode, EntityType item, ReadOnlyCollection entities) { var node = currentTreeNode.Nodes.Add("Derived types"); var derivedTypes = entities Retrieves derived entities B .Where(e => e.BaseType != null && e.BaseType.FullName == item.FullName); foreach (var entity in derivedTypes) { node.Nodes.Add(entity.FullName); } } VB Private Sub WriteTypeDerivedTypes(ByVal currentTreeNode As TreeNode, ByVal item As EntityType, ByVal entities As ReadOnlyCollection(Of EntityType)) Dim node = currentTreeNode.Nodes.Add("Derived types") Dim derivedTypes = entities.Where(Function(e) Retrieves derived entities B e.BaseType IsNot Nothing AndAlso e.BaseType.FullName = item.FullName) For Each entity In derivedTypes node.Nodes.Add(entity.FullName) Next End Sub The LINQ query is fairly simple B. You just match the FullName property of the cur- rent entity with the FullName property of all entities’ base types. That’s all. So far, everything has been simple. The next, and last, method retrieves properties and their information. That’s a bit harder, compared with what you’ve done so far. RETRIEVING PROPERTIES The method that writes properties for the current entity in the tree view is Write- Properties. This method accepts the entity to be inspected as a StructuralType instance. Because EntityType inherits from StructuralType, passing the parameter as an EntityType instance is perfectly valid. Listing 12.7 Creating the derived type nodes 309Building a metadata explorer StructuralType has a property named Member that lists all the entity’s properties. Highlighting the primary key ones is a simple matter of checking whether the current property name is included in the KeyMembers property, which is a list of primary-key properties. Determining whether a property is a foreign-key property is a bit more complex. It requires a LINQ query that looks for foreign-key associations where the end role is the current entity and the dependent properties contain the current property. These and other features are shown in the following listing. C# private void WriteProperties(TreeNode currentTreeNode, StructuralType item, OrderITEntities ctx, DataSpace space) { var node = currentTreeNode.Nodes.Add( (space == DataSpace.CSpace) ? "Properties" : "Columns"); foreach(var prop in item.Members) Enumerates properties B { var propNode = node.Nodes.Add( GetElementNameWithType(prop.Name, Gets property name C prop.TypeUsage, space)); var entityItem = item as EntityType; if (entityItem != null) { if (entityItem.KeyMembers Checks if property is primary key D .Any(p => p.Name == prop.Name)) { propNode.NodeFont = new Font(this.Font, FontStyle.Bold); } if (ctx.MetadataWorkspace Checks if property is foreign key E .GetItems(space) .Where(a => a.IsForeignKey).Any(a => a.ReferentialConstraints[0] .ToProperties[0].Name == prop.Name && a.ReferentialConstraints[0] .ToRole.Name == item.Name)) { propNode.NodeFont = new Font(this.Font, FontStyle.Bold); propNode.ForeColor = Color.Red; } } var metaNode = propNode.Nodes.Add("Metadata Properties"); foreach (var facet in prop.TypeUsage.Facets) Retrieves property facetsF { propNode.Nodes.Add(facet.Name + ": " + facet.Value); } foreach (var meta in prop.MetadataProperties) Retrieves property metadataG { metaNode.Nodes.Add(meta.Name + ": " + meta.Value); Listing 12.8 Creating the properties nodes 310 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata } } } VB Private Sub WriteProperties(ByVal currentTreeNode As TreeNode, ByVal item As StructuralType, ByVal ctx As OrderITEntities, ByVal space As DataSpace) Dim node = currentTreeNode.Nodes.Add( If((space = DataSpace.CSpace), "Properties", "Columns")) For Each prop In item.Members Enumerates properties B Dim propNode = node.Nodes.Add( GetElementNameWithType(prop.Name, Gets property name C prop.TypeUsage, space)) Dim entityItem = TryCast(item, EntityType) If entityItem IsNot Nothing Then Checks if property is primary key D If entityItem.KeyMembers.Any(Function(p) p.Name = prop.Name) Then propNode.NodeFont = New Font(Me.Font, FontStyle.Bold) End If If ctx.MetadataWorkspace. GetItems(Of AssociationType)(space). Checks if property is foreign key E Where(Function(a) a.IsForeignKey). Any(Function(a) a.ReferentialConstraints(0) .ToProperties(0).Name = prop.Name AndAlso a.ReferentialConstraints(0) .ToRole.Name = item.Name) Then propNode.NodeFont = New Font(Me.Font, FontStyle.Bold) propNode.ForeColor = Color.Red End If End If For Each facet In prop.TypeUsage.Facets Retrieves property facets F propNode.Nodes.Add(facet.Name & ": " & facet.Value) Next Dim metaNode = Retrieves property metadata G propNode.Nodes.Add("Metadata Properties") For Each meta In prop.MetadataProperties metaNode.Nodes.Add((meta.Name & ": ") & meta.Value) Next Next End Sub Wow, that’s a huge amount of code. But don’t worry. It’s the only long function in this chapter. As we mentioned before, the input entity is of type StructuralType and not EntityType. This happens because this function can be used to write complex types too, and both ComplexType and EntityType inherit from StructuralType. In the code, all properties are iterated via the Members property B. For each prop- erty, the following actions are taken: 311Building a metadata explorer  A node is created, setting the text with the result of the GetElementNameWith- Type method, which returns the property name and its type C. The code for this method isn’t shown here because it’s of no interest for this discussion. You can look at it in the book’s source code.  If the input item is an entity, a check is performed to see whether the property is part of the primary key D and if it’s a foreign key E.  A node for each facet is added. The facets are the attributes of the property node (nullable, maxLength, and so on) F.  A node for each metadata property is shown G. It’s important to note that metadata properties are exposed by every EDM-related class and that they contain the custom nodes you may add to an element. Do you remem- ber the custom node that expresses the validation of the IBAN property of Supplier? You can see it in figure 12.3. Figure 12.3 The regular expression of the IBAN is reachable through the property metadata. Now that the entities are described, it’s time to talk about complex types. RETRIEVING COMPLEX TYPES Complex types are similar to entities, but they’re simpler to manage because they can’t be inherited, which means there are no Base Type and no Derived type nodes, and they have no primary or foreign keys. Only the Properties node is shared between entities and complex types. The method that writes properties is already aware of complex types, so you can reuse it as the following listing demonstrates (note that in this listing and the rest of the chapter, the tree variable refers to the tree view in the form). C# foreach (var item in ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems (DataSpace.CSpace)) Listing 12.9 Creating the complex types nodes 312 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata { var currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes[0].Nodes[2].Nodes.Add(item.FullName); WriteProperties(currentTreeNode, item, ctx, DataSpace.CSpace); } VB For Each item In ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(Of ComplexType)( DataSpace.CSpace) Dim currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes(0).Nodes(2).Nodes.Add(item.FullName) WriteProperties(currentTreeNode, item, ctx, DataSpace.CSpace) Next That’s it! You retrieve complex types and then call WriteProperties for each of them. Cool, isn’t it? The second step is populating the functions. What’s nice here is that you only have parameters and results to show, so there’s not a lot to learn. 12.3.2 Populating functions The functions node contains a child for each function, which in turn has a child node for each parameter. The text shown in the root node for each function is formatted with the name followed by the return type. The technique is always the same: you retrieve all the functions using Get- Items, and for each of them you call a method that populates the parameters and return types. Here’s the code that does that. C# var functions = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems (DataSpace.CSpace) .Where(i => i.NamespaceName != "Edm"); Extracts only functions defined by you B foreach (var item in functions) { var currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes[0].Nodes[1].Nodes.Add( GetElementNameWithType(item.FullName, item.ReturnParameter.TypeUsage, DataSpace.CSpace)); WriteFunctionParameters(currentTreeNode, item.Parameters, DataSpace.CSpace); } VB Dim functions = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(Of EdmFunction)( DataSpace.CSpace) BExtracts only functions defined by you .Where(Function(i) i.NamespaceName <> "Edm") For Each item In functions Dim currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes(0).Nodes(1).Nodes.Add( GetElementNameWithType(item.FullName, item.ReturnParameter.TypeUsage, DataSpace.CSpace)) WriteFunctionParameters(currentTreeNode, item.Parameters, DataSpace.CSpace) Next Listing 12.10 Creating the functions nodes 313Building a metadata explorer Notice the filter applied to the items returned by GetItems B. It’s applied because primitive functions are returned too, and the namespace is the only way to differentiate them from those defined by you (which are the ones you’re inter- ested in). The WriteFunctionParameters method is trivial, as you can see in the following listing. It iterates over function parameters, leveraging the GetElementNameWithType method to get their names and types, and adding the directions: In, Out, or InOut. C# private void WriteFunctionParameters(TreeNode parentNode, ReadOnlyMetadataCollection parameters, DataSpace space) { foreach (var param in parameters) parentNode.Nodes.Add( GetElementNameWithType(param.Name, Name, type, and direction creation param.TypeUsage, space) + ": " + param.Mode); } VB Private Sub WriteFunctionParameters(ByVal parentNode As TreeNode, ByVal parameters As ReadOnlyMetadataCollection(Of FunctionParameter), ByVal space As DataSpace) For Each param In parameters parentNode.Nodes.Add( (GetElementNameWithType(param.Name, Name, type, and direction creation param.TypeUsage, space) & ": ") + param.Mode) Next End Sub The code is self-explanatory. We can move on and talk about the last part of the con- ceptual schema: the containers. 12.3.3 Populating containers The containers node contains a child node for each container found. Each container has three children: entity sets, association sets, and function imports. Association sets and entity sets are very similar and, in terms of metadata, share the base class. Func- tion imports are identical to functions, so this listing reuses the code from the previ- ous section. C# var containers = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems (DataSpace.CSpace); foreach (var item in containers) { Function imports nodes var currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes[0].Nodes[3].Nodes.Add(item.Name); WriteFunctionImports(currentTreeNode, item); Listing 12.11 Creating parameter nodes for each function Listing 12.12 Creating the containers nodes 314 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata WriteEntitySets(currentTreeNode, item); Entity sets nodes WriteEntitySets Association sets nodes (currentTreeNode, item); } VB Dim containers = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(Of EntityContainer) (DataSpace.CSpace) For Each item In containers Function imports nodes Dim currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes(0).Nodes(3).Nodes.Add(item.Name) WriteFunctionImports(currentTreeNode, item) WriteEntitySets(Of EntitySet)(currentTreeNode, item) Entity sets nodes WriteEntitySets(Of AssociationSet)( Association sets nodes currentTreeNode, item) Next Here you retrieve all the containers, using GetItems, and then invoke the methods that build the inner nodes. Those methods are the interesting part, as you can see in the next in listing. C# private void WriteEntitySets(TreeNode currentTreeNode, EntityContainer item) where T: EntitySetBase { var entitySetsNode = currentTreeNode.Nodes.Add( typeof(T) == typeof(EntitySet) ? "Entity sets" : "Association sets"); foreach (var bes in item.BaseEntitySets.OfType()) { var node = entitySetsNode.Nodes.Add(bes.Name + ": " + bes.ElementType); } } private void WriteFunctionImports(TreeNode currentTreeNode, EntityContainer item) { var funcsNode = currentTreeNode.Nodes.Add("FunctionImports"); foreach (var func in item.FunctionImports) { var funcNode = funcsNode.Nodes.Add(func.Name); WriteFunctionParameters(funcNode, func.Parameters, DataSpace.CSpace); } } VB Private Sub WriteEntitySets(Of T As EntitySetBase)( ByVal currentTreeNode As TreeNode, ByVal item As EntityContainer) Dim entitySetsNode = currentTreeNode.Nodes.Add( IIf(GetType(T) = GetType(EntitySet), "Entity sets","Association sets")) For Each bes In item.BaseEntitySets.OfType(Of T)() Dim node = entitySetsNode.Nodes.Add((bes.Name & ": ") & bes.ElementType) Next End Sub Listing 12.13 Creating the entity sets and function imports nodes 315Building a metadata explorer Private Sub WriteFunctionImports(ByVal currentTreeNode As TreeNode, ByVal item As EntityContainer) Dim funcsNode = currentTreeNode.Nodes.Add("FunctionImports") For Each func In item.FunctionImports Dim funcNode = funcsNode.Nodes.Add(func.Name) WriteFunctionParameters(funcNode, func.Parameters, DataSpace.CSpace) Next End Sub The WriteEntitySets method is the most interesting. The classes representing entity sets and association sets are EntitySet and AssociationSet, both of which inherit from the EntitySetBase class. The EntityContainer class has a BaseEntitySets property that exposes both sets via their base class. To show them in different nodes, you pass the type as a generic parameter and then use the OfType LINQ method to extract only the sets for that type. Then for each set, a node with the name and base type is created. The WriteFunctionImports method is less complex. It creates a node for each function and then describes it using the WriteFunctionParameters method you’ve seen before. The conceptual node is now populated. It contains all the conceptual schema items, so it’s time to move on to the storage-schema representation. Fortunately, because CSDL and SSDL share the same schema, all the functions can be reused. 12.3.4 Populating storage nodes Populating the storage-side nodes is slightly easier than populating the conceptual- side modes. In a database, you don’t have complex types; there’s only one container because you can’t describe more databases, and there’s no function-import concept. These differences lead to simpler code, as you can see in the following listing. C# foreach (var item in ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(DataSpace.SSpace)) { var currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes[1].Nodes[0].Nodes.Add(item.ToString()); WriteProperties(currentTreeNode, item, ctx, DataSpace.SSpace); } foreach (var item in ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(DataSpace.SSpace) .Where(i => i.NamespaceName != "SqlServer")) { var currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes[1].Nodes[1].Nodes.Add(item.ToString()); WriteFunctionParameters(currentTreeNode, item.Parameters, DataSpace.SSpace); } var container = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems (DataSpace.SSpace).First(); var currentNode = tree.Nodes[1].Nodes[2].Nodes.Add(container.ToString()); Listing 12.14 Creating the containers nodes 316 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata WriteEntitySets(currentNode, container); WriteEntitySets(currentNode, container); VB For Each item In ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(Of EntityType) (DataSpace.SSpace) Dim currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes(1).Nodes(0).Nodes.Add(item.ToString()) WriteProperties(currentTreeNode, item, ctx, DataSpace.SSpace) Next For Each item In ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(Of EdmFunction) (DataSpace.SSpace).Where(Function(i) i.NamespaceName <> "SqlServer") Dim currentTreeNode = tree.Nodes(1).Nodes(1).Nodes.Add(item.ToString()) WriteFunctionParameters(currentTreeNode, item.Parameters, DataSpace.SSpace) Next Dim container = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItems(Of EntityContainer) (DataSpace.SSpace).First() Dim currentNode = tree.Nodes(1).Nodes(2).Nodes.Add(container.ToString()) WriteEntitySets(Of EntitySet)(currentNode, container) WriteEntitySets(Of AssociationSet)(currentNode, container) As you can see, the differences are small:  The SSpace value, instead of CSpace, is used to extract items from the storage side.  The namespace for removing primitive functions is SqlServer, not Edm. The rest of the code makes extensive reuse of the existing methods, making every- thing easier than you may have thought. We’ve covered a lot, but now you’ve mastered metadata. This academic exercise was a good way to learn a new feature, but you may find a bite of the real world more interesting. In the next section, we’ll show you how metadata can positively affect your real code. Why there’s no mapping representation You surely have noticed that there’s no MSL metadata in the tree. That’s because there are no methods to access the mapping schema. Although there’s the CSSpace value in the DataSpace enum, it’s of absolutely no use. The classes representing the mapping metadata aren’t exposed by Entity Framework, so you can’t access them. If you think there’s some esoteric reason for this lack, you’re wrong. There has just been no developer interest in having such APIs. The Entity Framework team decided to keep the APIs internal, suggesting that you use LINQ to XML to search for the nec- essary information. It’s not nice, but it’s not difficult to do once you get used to the mapping structure. 12.4 Writing generic code with metadata In chapter 6, we introduced a smart method that adds or attaches an entity to the con- text depending on the value of the primary key. That method works with a fixed 317Writing generic code with metadata entity, meaning that if you have 100 entities, you have to duplicate it 100 times. That’s unbearable. Fortunately, thanks to metadata, you can write a single method that can handle any class. Another interesting method is the one that allows you to retrieve any type of entity using just its keys. Every project has a GetById method for almost every entity. This requires some coding for the types of the properties and the returning types. Using metadata, you can write a generic method and save some lines of code. We’ll look at these examples in the next sections so you can understand how to use metadata in such real-world scenarios. 12.4.1 Adding or attaching an object based on custom annotations Let’s assume you’re adding a new customer. Its CompanyId property is 0 because the real value is calculated on the database. If you need to update a customer, the CompanyId property is already set to a value that matches the value in the database (a value that is higher than 0). In chapter 6, you created a method that decided whether to attach or add an entity to the context based on the value of the primary key properties. If the value is 0, the entity is added; otherwise, it’s attached. Wouldn’t it be good if such a method could decide whether to add or to attach an entity based on a value configured in the EDM? The steps are pretty simple: 1 Add a custom annotation to the key properties in the EDM, indicating what value causes the AddObject method to be invoked. 2 Create an extension method (say, SmartAttach) that accepts the entity. It then checks the key properties’ values, and if they match the ones expressed in the custom annotation, it invokes the AddObject method; otherwise it invokes the Attach method. The first point needs no explanation. We covered it in depth in chapter 5. You just need to add the efex (or any name you like) namespace, and then use the Insert- When element inside the CompanyId attribute: ... 0 ... ... The fun part is the second point. Look at the following listing. 318 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata C# public static void SmartAttach(this ObjectSet es, T input) where T : class { var objectType = ObjectContext.GetObjectType(input.GetType()); var osItem = es.Context.MetadataWorkspace.GetItem (objectType.FullName, DataSpace.OSpace); var csItem = (EntityType)es.Context Retrieves conceptual entityB .MetadataWorkspace.GetEdmSpaceType(osItem); var value = ((XElement)(csItem.KeyMembers.First() Retrieves insert value annotation C .MetadataProperties.First(p => p.Name == "http://efex:InsertWhen").Value)).Value; var idType = input.GetType().GetProperty(csItem.KeyMembers.First().Name) .PropertyType; var id = input.GetType().GetProperty(csItem.KeyMembers.First().Name) .GetValue(input, null); if (id.Equals(Convert.ChangeType(value, idType))) Adds or attaches object based on entity and metadata value D set.AddObject(input); else set.Attach(input); } VB Public Shared Sub SmartAttach(Of T As Class)( ByVal es As ObjectSet(Of T), ByVal input As T) Dim objectType = ObjectContext.GetObjectType(input.GetType ()) Dim osItem = es.Context.MetadataWorkspace.GetItem(Of EntityType)( objectType.FullName, DataSpace.OSpace) Dim csItem = DirectCast(es.Context. Retrieves conceptual entity B MetadataWorkspace.GetEdmSpaceType(osItem), EntityType) Dim value = DirectCast((csItem.KeyMembers.First() Retrieves insert value annotation C .MetadataProperties.First(Function(p) _ p.Name = "http://efex:InsertWhen").Value), XElement).Value Dim idType = input.[GetType]().GetProperty _ (csItem.KeyMembers.First().Name).PropertyType Dim id = input.GetType().GetProperty(csItem.KeyMembers.First().Name). GetValue(input, Nothing) If id.Equals(Convert.ChangeType(value, idType)) Then Adds or attaches object based on entity and metadata value D es.AddObject(input) Else es.Attach(input) End If End Sub The method signature is simple; it extends the ObjectSet class and accepts the entity to be added or attached. The first two statements retrieve the POCO type of the entity (remember that it could be a proxied instance) and look for the entity in the object space of the meta- data. The object retrieved is then passed to the GetEdmSpaceType method to obtain its conceptual space counterpart B. Listing 12.15 Adding or attaching an entity depending on the value in the EDM 319Writing generic code with metadata Next, the key property is retrieved, and its custom annotation value is extracted, obtaining the value that determines whether the entity should be marked for addition C. The first thing to notice here is that the custom annotation is retrieved using its full name, http://efex:InsertWhen, and not using the namespace alias. The second thing is that the custom annotation is exposed as an XML fragment. It’s first cast to XElement, and then the value is extracted. Finally, the value from the metadata is converted to a key property type and com- pared with the key property value D. If they match, the entity is marked as added; oth- erwise, it’s attached. NOTE In this example, we’ve made the assumption that the entity has only one key property. Naturally, this isn’t always the case, because you may have many key properties. Accommodating this case doesn’t change the code a lot; instead of dealing with a single property, you must deal with an array of properties. Have fun. The next example we’ll look at involves a generic GetById method. If you’ve used NHibernate, you’ll know that this method is already provided by the session. Let’s realize it using Entity Framework. 12.4.2 Building a generic GetById method ObjectContext has a GetObjectByKey method that searches for an object using its key. This method has two drawbacks: it returns an object instance that requires cast- ing to the actual entity type, and it requires an EntityKey instance as input. These drawbacks make the GetObjectByKey method awkward. Let’s see how to create a smarter method. The GetById method you’ll create in this section overcomes the limitations of the GetObjectByKey method. First, the GetById method makes use of generics, eliminating the need for casting the result to the entity type you need. Second, the GetById method accepts only the key properties’ values, so that the method inter- face is extremely simple. GetById internally uses GetObjectByKey, and GetObjectByKey needs an EntityKey instance as parameter. GetById automatically retrieves, through meta- data, the values necessary to create the EntityKey instance that is then passed to GetObjectByKey. The code of the GetById method is shown in the following listing. C# public static T GetById(this ObjectContext ctx, object id) { var container = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetEntityContainer (ctx.DefaultContainerName, DataSpace.CSpace); var osItem = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItem (typeof(T).FullName, DataSpace.OSpace); Listing 12.16 The GetById implementation 320 CHAPTER 12 Exploring EDM metadata var csItem = (EdmType)ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetEdmSpaceType(osItem); while (csItem.BaseType != null) Retrieves first base type B csItem = csItem.BaseType; var esName = container.BaseEntitySets .First(s => s.ElementType.FullName == csItem.FullName).Name; var fullEsName = container.Name + "." + esName; var keyName = ((EntityType)csItem).KeyMembers.First().Name; return (T)ctx.GetObjectByKey(new EntityKey(fullEsName, keyName, id)); } VB Public Shared Function GetById(Of T)( ctx As ObjectContext, id As Object) As T Dim container = ctx.MetadataWorkspace. GetEntityContainer(ctx.DefaultContainerName, DataSpace.CSpace) Dim osItem = ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetItem(Of EntityType)( GetType(T).FullName, DataSpace.OSpace) Dim csItem = DirectCast( ctx.MetadataWorkspace.GetEdmSpaceType(osItem), EdmType) While csItem.BaseType IsNot Nothing Retrieves first base type B csItem = csItem.BaseType End While Dim entitySetName = container.BaseEntitySets.First( Function(s) s.ElementType.FullName = csItem.FullName).Name Dim esName = container.Name + "." & entitySetName Dim keyName = DirectCast(csItem, EntityType).KeyMembers.First().Name Return DirectCast( ctx.GetObjectByKey(New EntityKey(esName, keyName, id)), T) End Function At this point in the chapter, you should have no difficulty understanding this method. The first part retrieves the container and the entity in the metadata. They’re necessary to get the entity set name that is then used to create the EntityKey instance. Because the entity set points to the base entity of an inheritance hierarchy, the base class for the input entity is retrieved through the BaseType property B. The loop is required because the inheritance can be more than one level deep. When BaseType is null, the base class has been reached. The full entity set name is required by GetObjectByKey, so the entity set name is appended to the container name. After that, the key property name is retrieved from the entity. Now every parameter necessary for GetObjectByKey to work has been retrieved. You just invoke it, cast the result to the generic type, and then return it to the caller. Hopefully these examples have given you an idea of what you can do with meta- data. You may still be somewhat uncertain of its usefulness, but if you give metadata a chance, you won’t regret it. 321Summary 12.5 Summary In this chapter, you’ve learned about a powerful, often underestimated, feature of the Entity Framework: metadata retrieval. You’ve learned how to read the conceptual and storage schemas, and you’ve learned what the object space is useful for and why the mapping layer doesn’t have a set of public APIs. All this knowledge makes you a Padawan of metadata. What takes you to the Jedi Master level is the ability to find places where metadata helps you cut down on the code. We presented two examples at the end of the chap- ter, but there are many others, and your duty is to find them. Understanding metadata is also vital to code and database generation, which we’ll discuss in the next chapter. Code generation uses metadata to create CLR classes from the model, and database generation creates mapping schema, storage schema, (and the SQL DDL from this last schema) starting from the conceptual model. 322 Customizing code and the designer You know that by default the Visual Studio designer generates Entity Framework 1.0–style classes. You also know that these classes are generated through a template. What’s great is that you can modify this template, or create new templates, to gener- ate classes to fit your needs. You’ve already seen an example in chapter 2, when we introduced the POCO template provided by Microsoft. Another point where tem- plates help in generating code is during database DDL generation from the storage model (when you use the model-first approach). You’ll learn about that later in this chapter. When you modify templates to change the way CLR code or database DDL is generated, you have to deal with different Entity Framework features and other products in the .NET framework. This chapter covers  Understanding the Visual Studio T4 mechanism  Customizing code generation  Customizing database DDL generation  Customizing the designer 323How Visual Studio generates classes Metadata is an important feature that you must use to be able to modify templates. When you create or modify classes in the designer, only the EDMX file is modified; the template generates the code on demand. It reads the conceptual schema metadata and generates the code based on that data. The same way, when the database DDL is generated, the storage and mapping schema are generated. After that, the storage schema data is used to create the DDL. Everything is metadata-driven. To modify templates, a minimal knowledge of Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) is necessary too, because during database script generation (when using the model- first approach), the MSL, SSDL, and DDL are generated by a custom workflow action. Finally, having good knowledge of the designer helps simplify code generation, because it can be customized to make things easier for you. For instance, it can be extended to write custom annotations in the EDMX file without you having to do it manually. This chapter will cover all of these subjects—templates, metadata, Workflow Foun- dation, and designer extensions—putting them into action to help you customize your development environment. 13.1 How Visual Studio generates classes When Visual Studio 2008 shipped, it introduced a text-generation engine named Text Template Transformation Toolkit (better known as T4). It’s a template-file-based engine that can generate any data you need. We said data, but T4’s generation potential is unlimited. You can create text strings and save them to a file, or you can create images, Word documents, and so on. Despite its enormous potential, the goal here is using it for creating classes, which are just text files. Creating a template file is pretty simple. If you’ve already used code-generation tools (such as CodeSmith), you won’t find it difficult. If you have a Classic ASP back- ground, you’ll see many similarities between a template and an ASP page. A template is a plain-text file with a .tt extension. It has a dedicated icon in the Solution Explorer window, as figure 13.1 illustrates. A template contains code that generates data. This code is executed automatically when you open the template and save it. A simpler way to trigger generation is right- clicking the template and selecting the Run Custom Tool item from the context menu. A template file is divided into two main sections:  Directives (pragmas)—Declares assemblies, namespaces, includes, and other global information  Code—Contains the code that actually generates the code (classes, in our case) Each of these parts is identified by tags that are a key aspect of the template. We’ll first discuss the tags and then look at the two sections of the file. Figure 13.1 A template file shown in the Solution Explorer Template-editing extension When you open a template, the editor doesn’t offer any help. Autocompletion isn’t enabled, and there’s no syntax highlighting. Fortunately, Tangible Engineering has created an extension for Visual Studio that offers features to make editing and com- prehension easier. You can install it directly from Extension Manager inside Visual Studio: 1 Click the Tools menu, and select Extension Manager to open the Extension Manager pop-up window. 2 In that window, click the Online Gallery item at left. 3 Type T4 Editor in the search box at upper right (see the figure). The free version of this extension offers a limited set of features; if you want the full version, you can buy it from the Tangible website (http://mng.bz/WAxC). The Extension Manager window shows the T4 editors. 324 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer 13.1.1 Understanding template tags We already said that a template is a text file that is interpreted by an engine to gener- ate code. To interpret the template file, the engine relies on specific markup in the template itself. We also said that a template file is very similar to a Classic ASP page; the template is a mix of directives, code, and dynamic text, with the code and directives being identi- fied by special tags. One difference is that in Classic ASP pages, the server code is sur- rounded by <% %> tags; but in the template file, both the code and the directives are surrounded by <# #> tags. Everything inside the tags is interpreted by the engine as 325How Visual Studio generates classes code that must be executed (also known as a block); the text that’s not included inside the tags is what is written to the output file. In some cases, you may need to append a special character to the opening tag to perform special tasks. The first special character is @, which specifies that the block is a directive: <#@ template language="C#" debug="false" hostspecific="true" #> Another important character is =. The block inside this tag returns a value, and it’s written in the generated code: public class <#= ClassName #> { } This block is also known as an evaluation block. The last special character is +. It specifies that the code inside the block is class-like. If you have to create properties or methods, you have to use this character. <#+ void WriteClassName() { ... } #> This block is also known as a class block. Understanding tags is only the first step toward understanding templates. We’ll look at the pragma section next. 13.1.2 Understanding directives The first directive of a template is template. It identifies the file as a template, and it must be the first element. It also specifies the language and enables or disables debugging: <#@ template language="C#" debug="false" hostspecific="true"#> Although the template directive is mandatory, all the other directives are optional. The first one is assembly. It imports an assembly, making its classes available to the code. The assembly is specified in the name attribute: <#@ assembly name="System.Core" #> Once the assembly is declared, you can use the import directive to import a namespace so you can use classes inside the namespace in the code without fully refer- encing them. This directive has the same purpose as the Imports and using state- ments in VB and C#: <#@ import namespace="System" #> Another useful directive is output. With it, you can specify the extension of the file generated by the template, through the extension attribute, and the encoding of the file, through encoding: <#@ output extension=".cs" #> 326 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer The last directive is include. It allows you to import a code file whose classes can be used by the template: <#@ include file="EF.Utility.CS.ttinclude"#> NOTE The file to be included must be placed in the %ProgramFiles%\ Microsoft Visual Studio 10.0\Common7\IDE\Extensions\Microsoft\Entity Framework Tools\Templates\Includes folder, or in the same folder as the template. You’re two-thirds of the way through learning about templates. The last third, and the most complex, is the code section. 13.1.3 Writing code Suppose you need to write a template that generates an HTML page that displays all the files in a specific directory. This isn’t an Entity Framework–related example, but don’t worry; you’ll learn about more real-world scenarios later. To accomplish this task, you need to add a new file of Text Template type to the project and write code to retrieve the files in the directory that you need to display; then, you have to create tags that will write files to the output stream. The following listing shows an example of a template that generates HTML. C# <#@ template language="C#" debug="false" hostspecific="true"#> <#@ output extension=".html"#> <#var files = System.IO.Directory.GetFiles("D:\\");#> Retrieves filesB Files Writes static HTML C <#foreach (var file in files){#> Writes dynamic HTML D <#=file#>
<#}#> VB <#@ template language="VB" debug="false" hostspecific="true"#> <#@ output extension=".html"#> <# Dim files = System.IO.Directory.GetFiles("D:\") Retrieves filesB Dim file #> Writes static HTML CFiles <#For Each file In files#> Writes dynamic HTML D <#=file#>
<#Next#> Listing 13.1 Template that creates an HTML file that lists a directory’s files 327How Visual Studio generates classes In the first line of this listing, a code block is opened and the files are retrieved B. The block is then closed to write the beginning part of the HTML C. This part, not included in code tags, is written in the output stream as is. Next, a new code block starts the iteration over the files. For each item, an evaluation block adds the filename to the result stream. Finally, another code block closes the iteration: } for C# and Next for Visual Basic D. The HTML file generated by the preceding template looks like this: Files D:\file1.txt
This example writes the names of the files in a folder. In many cases, you may need a more complex result whose calculation is better encapsulated in a method (for read- ability reason). Doing that is easy. First, you add a class block inside which you put a method that accepts the filename and returns the calculated result. Then, you change the evaluation block to invoke the method. The new method and the code that invokes the method are shown here. C# ... <#=GetFileName(file)#>
... <#+ string GetFileName(string file){ return file; } #> VB ... <#=GetFileName(file)#>
... <#+ Private Function GetFileName(ByVal file As String) As String Return file End Function #> The GetFileName function is trivial because it just returns the filename. We created it only to explain how to create and consume methods in the template. The result is automatically saved in a file that’s named after the template file and whose extension matches the template language. If the template name is test.tt, then the filename is test.cs or test.vb. But wouldn’t it be better to force the extension to be .html? The output pragma does the trick: <#@ output extension=".html"#> Listing 13.2 Creating methods in the template 328 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer It’s that simple. The next step is to modify Entity Framework templates to adapt them to your needs. You’ll learn how to do that next. 13.2 Customizing class generation In chapter 2, we introduced a template released by the Entity Framework team that generates POCO classes. Actually, there are two templates: one that generates object model classes and one that generates the context class. In OrderIT, you placed them in a single assembly; to keep things simple, we decided to use a single assembly with data-access code and object model classes. In the next chapter, you’ll see that in a well-layered architecture, you put object- model classes in one assembly and the context class in another. The Entity Framework team kept this in mind when they decided to deliver two different templates. In sections 13.2.2 and 13.2.3, we’ll show you how to customize those templates; but first, you need to understand how they’re structured so that modifying them will be easier. 13.2.1 Understanding the available POCO template Creating a template that reads the EDMX file and generates classes isn’t difficult. You know that the EDMX file combines the three EDM files in one, so you need metadata APIs to read conceptual and storage-schema metadata. As you learned in chapter 12, accessing metadata using the ObjectContext class or the EntityConnection is easy. Because the template must generate the context class, you can’t use the ObjectContext class, and using the EntityConnection class is too complicated. The only way to access EDMX file metadata is by using the Metadata- Workspace class directly. You learned in chapter 12 that directly creating an instance of MetadataWorkspace class is complicated. Fortunately, the Entity Framework team has created a helper file containing a set of classes that expose metadata. What’s even better, the metadata is exposed as an ItemCollection, so you can reuse the APIs as you learned in chapter 12. The helper file is named EF.Utility.CS.ttinclude for C# and EF.Utility.VB.ttinclude for VB, and it’s in the Visual Studio includes folder. The main class in the helper file is MetadataLoader, and it exposes metadata through the CreateEdmItemCollection method, which returns an EdmItemCollection instance. You know that this class holds conceptual data only. If you want to retrieve the storage data, you have to do it on your own. But don’t worry; we’ll show you how to do that in section 13.2.2. There are other important classes. The first is MetadataTools, which exposes methods that work on EDM types. For instance, its ClrType method accepts the EDM type and returns the CLR equivalent. IsKey accepts a property and returns a Boolean indicating whether it’s part of its entity’s primary key. The CodeGenerationTools class performs the dirty work on strings. Its Escape function has many overloads that accept metadata objects like EdmFunction, Edm- Property, EntityType, and so on, and returns their escaped names so they don’t con- flict with language keywords. The SpaceAfter and SpaceBefore methods ensure that 329Customizing class generation the string they accept as input has a space after or before, respectively, so the string isn’t bound to the next or the preceding text. The last interesting class is Accessibility. It contains static methods that read the visibility of a type or property defined in the EDM and return a string in the chosen language. For instance, if a property is defined as public in the EDM, the For- Property method returns the string "public" for C# and "Public" for VB. Both templates instantiate these classes at the very beginning of the code section so you can use them without any effort. That’s another point for Entity Framework’s productivity, isn’t it? It’s finally time to put all this knowledge to work. The first thing we’ll show you is how to modify the context template to generate user-defined and scalar-valued func- tions, as we hinted in the previous chapter. 13.2.2 Generating user-defined and scalar-valued functions User-defined functions are part of the CSDL; scalar-valued functions are defined in the SSDL because they’re defined in the database. We said previously that MetadataLoader only returns data about the conceptual schema, so to retrieve scalar-valued functions defined in the storage schema, you have to write the code on your own. Retrieving the storage schema isn’t that hard. What you need to do is retrieve the raw XML representing the SSDL and pass it to the MetadataItemCollectionFactory. CreateStoreItemCollection method. It returns a StoreItemCollection instance that can be queried, as you saw in the previous chapter. You can embed the code to retrieve the storage schema in a class-block method inside the template. You could even add the code to the MetadataLoader class, but we don’t recommend that because the file containing the MetadataLoader class isn’t under source control, and you should maintain it manually on each workstation. What’s worse, if the Entity Framework team releases a new version of the file contain- ing the MetadataLoader class, your modifications will be overwritten. This listing shows the code you need in the template to retrieve the storage schema. C# <#+ StoreItemCollection CreateStoreItemCollection(string sourcePath) { var _textTransformation = DynamicTextTransformation.Create(this); sourcePath = Gets EDMX file absolute path _textTransformation.Host.ResolvePath(sourcePath); XNamespace edmx = MetadataConstants.EDMX_NAMESPACE_V2; var model = XDocument.Load(sourcePath) Gets storage node .Element(edmx + "Edmx") .Element(edmx + "Runtime") .Element(edmx + "StorageModels") Listing 13.3 Retrieving the storage schema 330 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer .Elements().First(); using (XmlReader reader = model.CreateReader()) { IList errors = null; return MetadataItemCollectionFactory. Loads storage schema CreateStoreItemCollection( new List { reader }, out errors); } } #> VB <#+ Private Function CreateStoreItemCollection _ (ByVal sourcePath As String) As StoreItemCollection Dim _textTransformation = DynamicTextTransformation.Create(Me) sourcePath = Gets EDMX file absolute path _textTransformation.Host.ResolvePath(sourcePath) Dim edmx As XNamespace = MetadataConstants.EDMX_NAMESPACE_V2 Dim model = XDocument.Load(sourcePath). Element(edmx + "Edmx"). Gets storage node Element(edmx + "Runtime"). Element(edmx + "StorageModels"). Elements().First() Using reader As XmlReader = model.CreateReader() Dim errors As IList(Of EdmSchemaError) = Nothing Return MetadataItemCollectionFactory. Loads storage schema CreateStoreItemCollection( New List(Of XmlReader)(), errors) End Using End Function #> In addition to the schema, you need the namespace. It’s required in order to build the stub methods. Retrieving the namespace requires a new method whose code is quite similar to listing 13.3. The difference is that when you have the Schema element, you return its namespace attribute instead of the whole element: C# string GetStoreNamespace(string sourcePath) { ... return model.Attribute("Namespace").Value; } VB Private Function GetStoreNamespace(ByVal sourcePath As String) As String ... Return model.Attribute("Namespace").Value End Function Now that the plumbing is ready, you can write the code that creates the stubs for the functions. First, you retrieve all the functions from both the conceptual and storage 331Customizing class generation schemas using a LINQ query. Then, you iterate over the elements, and for each one you retrieve the return type and the parameters. When you have them, you can write the stub methods’ code. That’s all shown in the following listing. C# <# var modelNamespace = loader. Retrieves model namespaces B GetModelNamespace(inputFile); var storeNamespace = GetStoreNamespace(inputFile); var functions = CreateStoreItemCollection(inputFile) Retrieves scalar-valued and user-defined functionsC .GetItems() .Where(f => (bool)f.MetadataProperties .First(p => p.Name == "IsComposableAttribute").Value && f.NamespaceName == storeNamespace) .Select(f => new { Namespace = storeNamespace, Function = f }) .Union(ItemCollection.GetItems() .Where(i => i.NamespaceName == modelNamespace) .Select(f => new { Namespace = modelNamespace, Function = f })); foreach(var item in functions){ string returnTypeElement = String.Empty; Generates function return type string D try { returnTypeElement = code.Escape(ef.GetElementType( item.Function.ReturnParameter.TypeUsage)); } catch { returnTypeElement = "DbDataRecord"; } if (item.Function.ReturnParameter .TypeUsage.EdmType is CollectionType) returnTypeElement = "IEnumerable<" + returnTypeElement + ">"; var parameters = FunctionImportParameter.Create (item.Function.Parameters, code, ef); Generates parameter string E string paramList = String.Join(", ", parameters.Select( p => p.FunctionParameterType + " " + p.FunctionParameterName).ToArray()); #> [EdmFunction("<#=item.Namespace#>", Writes functions F "<#=item.Function.Name#>")] public static <#=returnTypeElement#> <#=item.Function.Name#> (<#=paramList#>) { throw new NotImplementedException ("Cannot call this method"); }<# }#> Listing 13.4 Creating the code for stub methods 332 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer VB <# Dim modelNamespace = Retrieves model namespaces B loader.GetModelNamespace(inputFile) Dim storeNamespace = GetStoreNamespace(inputFile) Dim functions = CreateStoreItemCollection(inputFile) Retrieves scalar-valued and user-defined functionsC .GetItems(Of EdmFunction)() .Where(Function(f) CBool(f.MetadataProperties .First(Function(p) p.Name = "IsComposableAttribute").Value) AndAlso f.NamespaceName = storeNamespace) .Select(Function(f) New With { .Namespace = storeNamespace, .Function = f }) .Union(ItemCollection.GetItems(Of EdmFunction)() .Where(Function(i) i.NamespaceName = modelNamespace) .Select(Function(f) New With { .Namespace = modelNamespace, .Function = f })) For Each item In functions Dim returnTypeElement As String = String.Empty Generates function return type string D Try returnTypeElement = code.Escape(ef.GetElementType( item.Function.ReturnParameter.TypeUsage)) Catch returnTypeElement = "DbDataRecord" End Try If TypeOf item.Function.ReturnParameter.TypeUsage.EdmType Is CollectionType Then returnTypeElement = "IEnumerable(Of" & returnTypeElement & ")" End If Dim parameters = FunctionImportParameter.Create(item.Function.Parameters, code, ef) Generates parameter string E Dim paramList As String = String.Join(", ", parameters.Select( Function(p) (p.FunctionParameterType & " ") + p.FunctionParameterName).ToArray()) #> ", Writes functions F "<#=item.Function.Name#>")> _ Public Shared Function <#=item.Function.Name#> (<#=paramList#>) As <#=returnTypeElement#> throw new NotImplementedException( "Cannot call this method"); End Function<# Next#> Lots of interesting things happens in this listing. First, the namespace from both mod- els is retrieved so it can be later used to create the stubs B. The loader variable is an instance of the MetadataLoader class, and it’s used to retrieve the conceptual schema namespace. GetStoreNamespace is the method that returns the storage schema namespace. inputFile is the EDMX file. After that, a LINQ query joins the storage and conceptual functions C. Notice how only the objects in the specified namespace are extracted, and in the case of the stor- age schema how only scalar-valued functions (functions whose IsComposable- Attribute attribute value is true) are retrieved. 333Customizing class generation Next, a loop over the functions is started, and for each one the string representing the return type is retrieved. The key point here is that you get the type as a string by invoking the MetadataTools class’s GetElementType method, and you don’t have to deal with the complexity of converting information from EDM to CLR format D. If the method throws an exception, the function returns a DbDataRecord. If the return value is a list, it’s wrapped by the IEnumerable class. The next step is creating the string for the parameters E. First, the Function- ImportParameter class’s Create method creates an array of parameters where each one exposes the type and the name as a string. Then, a LINQ query joins this informa- tion, separating the individual parameters with commas. Finally, you have the function namespace, name, parameters, and return type. You now can close the block method and create the function using markup text and evalu- ation blocks F. This is the result of the template in listing 13.4: C# [EdmFunction("OrderITModel", "GetUDFTypedAddresses")] public static CustomerProjection GetUDFTypedAddresses (Customer customer) { throw new NotImplementedException("Cannot call this method"); } VB _ Public Shared Function GetUDFTypedAddresses(ByVal customer As Customer) _ As CustomerProjection Throw New NotImplementedException("Cannot call this method") End Function Modifying the template that generates object model classes isn’t any different from modifying the context template. Naturally the type of data to be treated changes, but the technique is the same: you use a mix of code blocks and generated text. 13.2.3 Generating data-annotation attributes In chapters 5 and 12, we showed you how to add custom information to EDM and how to retrieve it in the code. Here we’ll complete the circle and show you how to generate data annotation attributes from those custom EDM annotations. The example we looked at in those chapters added validation information to the Supplier class’s IBAN property. What you’ll do now is generate an attribute for that property, as shown in the following snippet: C# [RegularExpression(@"[a-zA-Z]{2}\d{2}[ ][a-zA-Z]\d{3}[ ]\d{4} ➥[ ]\d{4}[ ]\d{4}[ ]\d{4}[ ]\d{3}|[a-zA-Z]{2}\d{2}[a-zA-Z]\d{22}"] VB _ 334 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer As you can imagine, the template that generates object-model classes retrieves the entities’ metadata from the EDM’s conceptual schema and iterates over them, generat- ing classes, properties, and so on. We’re interested in the property-creation process because you have to add the preceding code to the IBAN property. You need to plug in the code before the scalar properties are written. You can easily find the point where scalar properties are generated by looking for the LINQ query that retrieves them from the entity’s properties. Listing 13.5 adopts another technique. Instead of mixing text and code blocks, it uses a method that takes the property and returns a string containing the attribute. Just before the property is written, the method is invoked in an evaluation block. C# <#+ string WriteAttribute(EdmMember edmProperty) { var meta = edmProperty.MetadataProperties.FirstOrDefault( mp => mp.Name.IndexOf("http://val") > -1); Searches for custom node B if (meta != null) { XElement xe = meta.Value as XElement; return "[RegularExpression(@\"" + xe.Value + "\")]"; Writes attribute C } return String.Empty; }#> VB <#+ Private Function WriteAttribute(ByVal edmProperty As EdmMember) As String Dim meta = edmProperty.MetadataProperties.FirstOrDefault( Function(mp) mp.Name.IndexOf("http://val") > -1) Searches for custom node B If meta IsNot Nothing Then Dim xe As XElement = DirectCast(meta.Value, XElement) Return " _ " Writes attribute C End If Return String.Empty End Function #> This code should look familiar to you. The first noticeable thing is that the method scans the input property’s metadata, looking for an item with the validation namespace (the one specified in the Schema element) B. If the metadata exists, it’s cast to XElement, and its value is used to create the data annotation attribute C. You can then invoke the WriteAttribute method before a property is created, in the following way: <#=WriteAttributes(edmProperty)#> The use of the template increases productivity. If it didn’t generate the scalar-valued and user-defined functions, you would have to write and maintain them, which means Listing 13.5 Creating a data annotation containing a regular expression for a property 335Customizing class generation writing and maintaining a lot of code. Thanks to the template, these functions are generated and maintained by a single Visual Studio command. Class generation greatly benefits from templates. The creation of POCO classes is just one of the possible scenarios. The ability to create attributes, to customize setters, and so on speeds things up to a great extent. We consider templates to be a great new feature in Entity Framework 4.0. Classes don’t consist only of data from the database. They can also contain meth- ods and properties that aren’t persisted in the database. The EDM knows nothing about them, so you have to find a way to create them. 13.2.4 Extending classes through partial classes Suppose you need to create a FullShippingAddress string property in the Customer class. This property will be read-only and flattens the ShippingAddress complex prop- erty into a string. Templates can’t generate such a property for you, and if you add such a property to the class generated by the template, the property will be lost at the next code regen- eration. To add this code to the class manually without losing it when the class is regenerated, you have to create it in a partial class. Partial classes are a feature introduced in .NET Framework 2.0 that allow you to split a class into multiple files in the same assembly. At compile time, the compiler joins the files and generates only one class. The basic requirement for a class to be partial is that all files that define it contain the partial keyword in the definition, as shown in the following code: C# public partial class Customer { ... } VB Public Partial Class Customer ... End Class The template already generates partial classes, so you don’t have to touch it. What you have to do is add a new class to the project, name it Customer, sign it with the partial keyword for C# or Partial keyword for Visual Basic, and then add the property as the following listing shows. C# public partial class Customer { public string FullShippingAddress { get Listing 13.6 Creating a partial class 336 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer { return String.Concat(ShippingAddress.Address, ",", ShippingAddress.ZipCode, ", ", ShippingAddress.City); } } } VB Public Partial Class Customer Public ReadOnly Property FullShippingAddress() As String Get Return String.Concat(ShippingAddress.Address, ",", ShippingAddress.ZipCode, ", ", ShippingAddress.City) End Get End Property End Class With this technique, you can extend your classes and add any code you need. Nevertheless, there are things you can’t do with partial classes. For instance, you can’t add an attribute to a property or method defined in another file, nor can you change the implementation of a method or property defined in another file. You can only add code, and nothing more. NOTE Properties added in partial classes can’t be used in LINQ to Enti- ties or Entity SQL queries because they aren’t mapped in the EDM. We mentioned before that just as you can generate code from the EDM, you can create a script to generate the database from the storage schema. This is what model-first design is all about. You design the conceptual schema, and then the mapping schema, the storage schema, and the database script are generated on that basis. The good part is that the database generation is completely customizable. 13.3 How Visual Studio generates database DDL As we said in chapter 2, the model-first support in the designer is still naive. Its current limitations make it impractical to use. Fortunately, the designer has been built on a great extension mechanism that you can use to modify the designer’s default behav- ior. This extension mechanism isn’t simple. It requires the use of Workflow Founda- tion, templates, metadata, and EDM knowledge. Due to this complexity, we’ll go slowly and explain it all in detail. The Entity Framework team that built the designer’s extensibility mechanism has also published a toolkit that simplifies the process of building designer extensions to generate databases. The extensions are still a bit difficult to create, but it’s a lot sim- pler when you use the toolkit. The toolkit, Entity Designer Database Generation Power Pack, can be downloaded here: http://mng.bz/ssf0; or you can download it via Visual Studio’s Extension Manager window. Before delving into the details, let’s take a quick look at the steps involved when you adopt the model-first approach and generate a database script. In the model-first 337How Visual Studio generates database DDL scenario, you design entities without worrying about how they’re mapped, because you don’t have a database yet. When you’ve finished designing the model, you right- click the designer and select the Generate Model from Database option. The command opens a pop-up window in which you can add the database connec- tion string (required the first time you generate the database). After some internal processing, a new window opens, displaying the database script. How does this happen? It’s all based on a Windows Workflow Foundation workflow launched by the designer. We’ll look at that next. 13.3.1 Choosing the workflow To choose which workflow the designer should use to generate mapping schema, stor- age schema, and database script, you have to open the designer, right-click it, and select properties. Figure 13.2 shows the interesting part of the Properties toolbox. Figure 13.2 The designer properties that manage database script generation The Database Generation Workflow property indicates what workflow is used to generate the database. The only workflow available out of the box is TablePerType- Strategy.xaml. The designer knows about it because it looks for files with an .xaml extension in the %ProgramFiles%\Microsoft Visual Studio 10.0\Common7\IDE\ Extensions\Microsoft\Entity Framework Tools\DBGen directory. As you can see in figure 13.2, the workflow property has a drop-down list, meaning you can choose a different workflow. To do that, you need to create another .xaml workflow file inside the DBGen directory. The Properties Window will automatically list it in the drop-down menu when it’s expanded. Whatever workflow you choose, it has to do three things: 1 Generate the storage schema from the conceptual schema. 2 Generate the mapping schema. 3 Generate the database script from the storage schema. The default workflow separates these steps into two actions. The first action takes care of steps 1 and 2, and the second action performs step 3. The entire workflow can be seen in the following listing. Even if you aren’t a workflow expert, you should be able to understand what this work- flow does. The CsdlToSsdlAndMslActivity activity reads the CSDL and generates SSDL and MSL, whereas SsdlToDdlActivity creates the database script starting from the SSDL. It’s that simple. 13.3.2 Generating SSDL, MSL, and DDL The CsdlToSsdlAndMslActivity activity doesn’t require you to do anything. It already has everything it needs to accomplish its task. That’s not true of the SsdlTo- DdlActivity activity, which needs an input from you. In figure 13.2, you see two important properties: Database Schema Name and DDL Generation Template. The first is the database schema, and by default it’s set to dbo. You’re free to modify it as you like, but keep in mind that all tables will be generated under that schema. The second property is more important because it specifies the template that will be invoked by the second workflow action (SsdlToDdlActivity). The default template is SSDLToSQL10.tt, and it’s situated in the same folder as the workflow file. Like the workflow property, the template property has a drop-down list. The designer looks for *.tt files in the DBGen folder to populate the drop-down list with templates. Let’s quickly recap:  You can customize the way MSL and SSDL are generated (for instance, to apply a TPH strategy instead of TPT, which is the default).  You can customize the way the database script is generated (for instance, to cre- ate an Oracle database or to generate a script that contains only the modifica- tions made to the model since the last time the database script was generated). 339Customizing DDL generation That’s complete control. It’s now time to talk about the Entity Designer Database Generation Power Pack toolkit. 13.4 Customizing DDL generation The Database Generation Power Pack installer copies a set of .xaml and .tt files into the Visual Studio template folder. When you open the drop-down lists for the Data- base Generation Workflow and DDL Generation Template properties, you’ll see many more options, as shown in figure 13.3. Figure 13.3 The workflows and templates installed by the Database Generation Power Pack NOTE The templates installed by this CTP are written in C# only, so we won’t show VB versions. This gives you lots of new toys to play with. As you may imagine based on its name, the Generate T-SQL Via T4 (TPH).xaml file is the workflow that generates tables to persist inheritance hierarchies using the TPH strategy. We’re going to talk about this work- flow and show you how the Database Generation Power Pack works. Here’s the Sequence section from the XAML file: 340 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer The three activities started here create the SSDL, the MSL, and the DDL. What’s really smart about these workflow actions is that instead of consisting of lots of code, they generate SSDL, MSL, and DDL by running the CSDLToSSDL_TPH.tt, CSDLToMSL_ TPH.tt, and SSDLToSQL10.tt templates, respectively. Let’s take a quick look at each of them so you understand how they work. 13.4.1 Understanding the conceptual-to-storage template The first node to be created in the storage model is Schema. It needs the data-store namespace, the database type, and the database version. Database information is retrieved via the connection string, and the namespace name is based on the concep- tual schema name. This information is available in the template because it’s passed in by the workflow action. This is the template code that generates the Schema element: And this is the generated output: NOTE The variables ssdlModelNamespace, providerInvariantName, and so on are populated in the template before this piece of code. If you want to see how the variables are populated, look at the template. After the Schema element, the container and the entity set are created. The code gen- erates a table for each base class and a table for each many-to-many relationship (the famous link table). To easily obtain information about base classes and many-to-many relationships from the EDM, the template uses a set of extension methods that the Entity Framework team has created. For instance, the GetAllEntityTypes method wraps a call to the GetItems method of the EdmItemCollection class. The following listing shows this code. <# Listing 13.8 Container and entity-set creation 341Customizing DDL generation foreach (EntityType entityType in edm.GetAllEntityTypes() .Where(e => !e.IsDerivedType())) {#> <#} foreach (AssociationSet associationSet in edm.GetAllAssociationSets() .Where(set => set.GetAssociation().IsManyToMany())) { #> <#} The association sets are also created at this point, but showing that code here would bore you and take up too much space. You can find the code in the template if you’re interested. The next thing the template does is describe the tables. This involves a lot of code to correctly generate the storage schema:  Complex properties don’t exist in the database, so their inner properties must be correctly named to avoid conflicts (think about BillingAddress and ShippingAddress in OrderIT’s Customer entity). The pattern used to avoid col- lisions is ComplexPropertyName_SubPropertyName.  In tables containing an inheritance hierarchy, a discriminator column must be added.  Foreign-key columns must be added even if they aren’t specified in the entity, because they’re required in the database to maintain relationships. The following listing shows an excerpt of what the template code looks like. The table, key, and discriminator definitions are shown here—the property definition requires a lot more code. Table definition <#foreach (EdmMember key in csdlEntityType.GetRootOrSelf() .GetKeyProperties()) {#> Primary key columns <#}#> ... <#if (csdlEntityType.GetEntitySet(edm).ContainsInheritanceHierarchy(edm)){ #> Discriminator column <#}#> Listing 13.9 Table, primary key, and discriminator definitions 342 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer We didn’t cover associations here because they would involve a lot of code. If you want to learn more, look at the template. That’s pretty much all there is to know about the storage-schema generation. Let’s move on to the mapping schema, which is relatively simpler. 13.4.2 Understanding the conceptual-to-mapping template The concept that drives the generation of the mapping schema is the same as for the storage schema. Entities are retrieved using metadata, and each standalone entity has a one-to-one mapping with the corresponding table. Entities that are part of an inher- itance hierarchy have all their properties grouped into a single table. Following these principles, writing a template is straightforward, as the following listing demonstrates. <#foreach (EntitySet set in edm.GetAllEntitySets()) {#> <# IEnumerable containingTypes = set.GetContainingTypes(edm); bool containsInheritanceHierarchy = containingTypes.Count() > 1; foreach (EntityType type in containingTypes) {#> <#foreach (EdmProperty property in Retrieves key properties B set.ElementType.GetKeyProperties()) { #> <#} foreach (EdmProperty property in (type.GetPropertiesInAllBaseTypes(). Retrieves all other properties C Except(set.ElementType.GetKeyProperties() .Distinct()) { if (property.IsComplexProperty()) { ConstructComplexProperty(property, property.Name, csdlModelNamespace); } else {#> <#} } if (containsInheritanceHierarchy) Maps discriminator for hierarchies D {#> Maps discriminator for hierarchiesD <#}#> <#}#> <#}#> The method names are so self-explanatory that the code is easy to follow. It first retrieves all the entity sets, and for each one retrieves the table mapping, first for the key properties B, and then for all other properties of the entity that are part of the entity set C. At the end, the discriminator column is mapped if the entity is part of an inheritance hierarchy D. You’ve now seen how the workflow activities generate the EDM (more precisely, how the templates generate text that is saved and encapsulated in the EDMX). The step for us to look at is how the database script is generated from the storage schema. 13.4.3 Understanding the storage-to-database script template The database-script-generation process is very similar to the process we looked at in the previous section. The template reads metadata from the storage schema and gen- erates DDL script like what you see in the following listing. <# foreach (EntitySet entitySet in Store.GetAllEntitySets()) { string schemaName = Id(entitySet.GetSchemaName()); string tableName = Id(entitySet.GetTableName()); #> CREATE TABLE [<#=schemaName#>].[<#=tableName#>] ( <# for (int p = 0; p < entitySet.ElementType.Properties.Count; p++) { EdmProperty prop = entitySet.ElementType.Properties[p]; #> [<#=Id(prop.Name)#>] <#=prop.ToStoreType()#> <#=WriteIdentity(prop, targetVersion)#> <#=WriteNullable(prop.Nullable)#> <#=(p < entitySet.ElementType.Properties.Count - 1) ? "," : ""#> <#}#> ); <#}#> This code retrieves all the storage entity sets (the database tables) and then builds the CREATE TABLE statements by iterating over all the properties. Congratulations. You’ve just learned how the Database Generation Power Pack cre- ates the code that builds a database script based on the entities created in the designer. Listing 13.11 Generating database tables 344 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer What you have seen so far is an external extension to the designer; the designer always remains the same. Prepare yourself, because in the next section we’ll show you how to add new behavior to the designer. 13.5 Creating designer extensions The Entity Framework team has added a lot of extensibility points into the designer. You can plug in custom behaviors via these four interfaces:  IEntityDesignerExtendedProperty—Allows you to add custom properties to any item on the designer surface: entities, properties, associations, and so on.  IModelTransformExtension—Lets you customize the EDMX file in two phases: after it’s loaded (but before it’s shown by the designer) and before it’s saved.  IModelConversationExtension—Lets you transform a mapping file in a cus- tom format to the EDMX format, which is then passed to the designer for visual- ization. There’s also a reverse method that takes the EDMX and allows you to save it in your format.  IModelGenerationExtension—Exposes methods that let you customize behav- ior when the EDMX file is generated by the initial wizard and when it’s updated by the Update Model wizard. Unless you need very particular customizations, the last three interfaces are of little interest; the first one may save you from having to make some manual EDMX modifications. Let’s take a step back and look at the SmartAttach extension method created in chapter 12. That method takes an entity as input and decides whether to add or attach it to the context based on the value of the primary key specified in a custom EDM annotation: if the primary-key property value is 0, the method adds the entity to the context; otherwise, the method attaches the entity to the context. You know that you have to manually modify the EDMX file to add the custom anno- tation that specifies the value that determines whether the input entity must be added or attached to the context. Wouldn’t it be absolutely fantastic if you could set this value by using the designer, without manually touching EDMX? It would look some- thing like what’s shown in figure 13.4. We bet you’re whispering, “wow.” In the rest of this section, we’ll show you how to build this designer extension. 13.5.1 How the property-extension mechanism works Customizing a designer is generally thought to be tough work, and often that’s true. Lots of base classes and interfaces to implement, plus a lack of documentation, make thing really difficult sometimes. Fortunately, the Entity Framework designer is an exception. Its extensibility model is built on the Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF), which already takes care of all the plumbing. Figure 13.4 The custom annotation value is shown in the Property Editor when the entity property is selected. 345Creating designer extensions The result is that you only have to create two classes to extend the designer. The first (which we’ll call the property class) reads and writes values from and to the EDMX, and the second (often known as the factory) acts as the bridge between the designer and the first class. When you select an item in the designer and then go to the Properties window, the designer goes to the factory and asks for an object containing the property to be added to the Properties window. The factory instantiates the property class and returns it to the designer. The designer sends the object to the Properties window, which retrieves the exposed property and shows it in the designer. From that moment on, when you mod- ify the property, the getter and setter work directly with the EDMX. Figure 13.5 illus- trates this workflow. Returns the property class Returns the property class property class Instanates the Checks addional Asks for addional properesproperes Shows property class properes Property window Designer Factory Property class Figure 13.5 The Property window asks the designer for additional properties to display. The designer delegates the factory, which instantiates the property class that is then displayed by the Properties window. The first step in extending the designer is creating the extension project. 13.5.2 Setting up the project containing the extension A designer-customization project requires two classes: the manifest file that installs the generated extension, and a couple of references. To create these, follow these steps: 1 Create a new Class Library project inside the OrderIT solution, and name it OrderIT.DesignerExtensions. 2 Delete the Class1.* file. 3 Add a reference to the System.ComponentModel.Composition assembly that’s situated in the .NET Framework 4.0 folder (%ProgramFiles%\Reference Assemblies\Microsoft\Framework\.NETFramework\v4.0). 346 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer 4 Add a reference to the Microsoft.Data.Entity.Design.Extensibility assembly located in the Visual Studio assemblies folder (%ProgramFiles% \Microsoft Visual Studio 10.0\Common7\IDE\PublicAssemblies). 5 Add a new class, and name it InsertWhenValue. It’s the property class that manipulates the EDMX file. 6 Add a new class, and name it InsertWhenFactory. It’s the bridge class, or factory. 7 Add a new XML file, and name it extension.vsixmanifest. It’s needed to install the extension in Visual Studio. 8 Right-click the XML file, and select Properties. In the Properties window, set the Build Action property to VsixContent. The project is now set up. What you need to do next is put some code inside the classes. We’ll start with the property class that handles the EDMX file; it’s the most important. 13.5.3 Creating the property class The property class has two purposes: exposing the properties that must be added to the Properties window, and reflecting their values in the EDMX. In this example, when you set the value in the Properties window, the property setter has to create, or update, the custom annotation in the EDMX. Similarly, when the property is read, the getter must retrieve the custom annotation and return its value, which is then shown in the Properties window. Here’s the code for the property class. C# class InsertWhenValue { internal static XName ELEMENTNAME = XName.Get("InsertWhen", "http://EFEX"); private XElement _property; private PropertyExtensionContext _context; public InsertWhenValue(XElement parent, Accepts designer context and EDM element B PropertyExtensionContext context) { _context = context; _property = parent; } [DisplayName("Add to context value")] [Description("Gets or sets the value that adds an entity the context")] [Category("Extensions")] [DefaultValue(false)] public string Value Listing 13.12 Creating the designer property class 347Creating designer extensions { get { XElement child = _property.Element(ELEMENTNAME); Returns EDM element value C return (child == null) ? String.Empty : child.Value; } set { if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(value)) return; using (EntityDesignerChangeScope scope = Creates scope for designer undo command D _context.CreateChangeScope("Set InsertWhen")) { var element = _property.Element(ELEMENTNAME); Sets EDM element value E if (element == null) _property.Add( new XElement(ELEMENTNAME, value)); else element.SetValue(value); scope.Complete(); } } } } VB Class InsertWhenValue Friend Shared ELEMENTNAME As XName = XName.Get("InsertWhen", _ "http://EFEX") Private _parent As XElement Private _context As PropertyExtensionContext Public Sub New(ByVal property As XElement, _ Accepts designer context and EDM element B ByVal context As PropertyExtensionContext) _context = context _parent = property End Sub _ _ _ _ Public Property Value() As String Get Dim child As XElement = Returns EDM element value C _property.Element(ELEMENTNAME) Return If((child Is Nothing), String.Empty, child.Value) End Get Set(ByVal value As String) If String.IsNullOrEmpty(value) Then Return End If Using scope As EntityDesignerChangeScope = _context.CreateChangeScope("Set InsertWhen") Creates scope for designer undo command D 348 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer Dim element = _property.Element(ELEMENTNAME) Sets EDM element value E If element Is Nothing Then _property.Add( New XElement(ELEMENTNAME, value)) Else element.SetValue(value) End If scope.Complete() End Using End Set End Property End Class Notice how the class is POCO. You don’t have to implement any interfaces or inherit from any class! Another important thing to notice is the constructor. It accepts an XElement object, representing the XML element inside the EDMX, and a PropertyExtension- Context object, which carries context information about the designer environment B. As you may imagine, the XElement object is the Property node of the EDMX. Mod- ifying and reading it means modifying and reading the EDMX. When the Properties window needs to show a label for the Value property, it takes the string contained in the DisplayName attribute of that property (it’s the Add to Context Value property in this case, as you can see in figure 13.4). When the Proper- ties window needs the property value, the getter is triggered, and the custom annota- tion element is searched for. If found, its value is returned; otherwise, an empty string is returned C. The setter is slightly more complex then the getter. The first thing to notice is its use of the context received by the constructor. The setter invokes the context’s CreateChangeScope method, which creates a scope that’s needed for Visual Studio to create the undo list, so that any modification can be undone D. NOTE Creating the scope is mandatory. Any attempt to modify the XElement outside of a scope throws an exception. Once inside the scope, the custom annotation is searched for. If it’s not found, it’s added to the property; otherwise, it’s updated E. The simplicity of this feature may be a surprise to you. You’ll be glad to know that creating the factory class is even easier. 13.5.4 Creating the factory class The factory class is a very simple class that, in many cases, contains only one line of code! It must implement the IEntityDesignerExtendedProperty interface, and it must be decorated with two attributes, as you can see in this listing. 349Creating designer extensions C# [Export(typeof(IEntityDesignerExtendedProperty))] Integrates class with designer B [EntityDesignerExtendedProperty( Specifies which EDM element is extended C EntityDesignerSelection.ConceptualModelProperty)] class InsertWhenFactory : Declares required interface/D IEntityDesignerExtendedProperty { public object CreateProperty(XElement element, PropertyExtensionContext context) { var edmXName = XName.Get("Key", "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ado/2008/09/edm"); var keys = element.Parent.Element(edmXName) Retrieves key properties E .Elements().Select(e => e.Attribute("Name").Value); if (keys.Contains(element.Attribute("Name").Value)) return new InsertWhenValue(element, context); Returns property class if current property is a key F return null; } } VB _ Integrates class with designer B _ Class InsertWhenFactory Declares required interfaceD Implements IEntityDesignerExtendedProperty Public Function CreateProperty(ByVal element As XElement, _ ByVal context As PropertyExtensionContext) As Object Dim edmXName = XName.[Get]("Key", _ "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ado/2008/09/edm") Dim keys = element.Parent.Element(edmXName) Retrieves key properties E .Elements().Select(Function(e) e.Attribute("Name").Value) If keys.Contains( Returns property class if current property is a key F element.Attribute("Name").Value) Then Return New InsertWhenValue(element, context) End If Return Nothing End Function End Class There’s a lot to say about this little listing. First, notice the Export attribute B. It’s defined in the System.ComponentModel.Composition namespace and accepts the implemented interface type. The EntityDesignerExtendedProperty attribute tells the designer which EDM ele- ment the factory class applies to. When the designer invokes the factory class, the designer also specifies what object is currently selected (an entity, a property, the designer itself, and so on) C. If the selected object doesn’t match the attribute defini- tion, the factory class is ignored. Listing 13.13 Creating the bridge class 350 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer The object to which the factory class applies to is expressed by an enum of type EntityDesignerSelection. It has lots of values, but these are the most important:  DesignerSurface—The factory class is invoked if the selected object is the designer surface.  ConceptualModelEntityType—The factory class is invoked if the selected object is an entity.  ConceptualModelProperty—The factory class is invoked if the selected object is an entity’s property.  ConceptualModelNavigationProperty—The factory class is invoked if the selected object is an entity’s navigation property.  ConceptualModelAssociation—The factory class is invoked if the selected object is an association between two entities.  ConceptualModelComplexType—The factory class is invoked if the selected object is a complex type.  ConceptualModelComplexProperty—The factory class is invoked if the selected object is an entity’s complex property.  ConceptualModelFunctionImport—The factory class is invoked if the selected object is a function in the conceptual schema.  ConceptualModelFunctionImportParameter—The factory class is invoked if the selected object is a parameter of a function in the conceptual schema. In this example, you’re working on entity properties only. The factory class has to implement the IEntityDesignerExtendedProperty inter- face—that’s required by the extensibility mechanism D. This interface has only the CreateProperty method, which is invoked by the designer to obtain the property class. It accepts both the element that represents the property in the EDMX and a con- text. These parameters are then passed to the property class constructor when the property class is instantiated. By default, the factory class applies to all properties of an entity. That means the designer enables you to put the custom annotation on all of an entity’s properties, and this isn’t what you need; only key properties should have these annotations. That’s why the code navigates from the property to the parent element (the EntityType ele- ment), taking the Key node and retrieving its children, which contain the key proper- ties’ names E. If the current property is in the key properties list, the property class is instantiated and returned. Otherwise, null is returned so that the Properties window doesn’t show any additional properties F. There are about 30–40 lines of real code in this example. That’s all there is to the code—isn’t it great? What still remains is the manifest file. 351Creating designer extensions 13.5.5 Creating the manifest extension file The manifest file is required by Visual Studio to install any extension. It contains basic information, like the author, description, and version, and important information such as the Visual Studio supported version, the range of .NET Framework versions supported, and the assembly containing the extension. Here’s an example of a mani- fest file. OrderIT.DesignerExtensions Stefano Mostarda 1.0 Add InsertWhen to key properties 1033 false VST_All Express_All OrderIT.DesignerExtensions.dll The XML contains the name of the package, along with the author, the version, a long description, the list of supported Visual Studio and .NET Framework versions, and much more. If you’re accustomed to XML (and we know you are, or the EDM would have scared you to death), this listing will be a piece of cake. NOTE The Entity Framework team has published an ADO.NET Entity Data Model Designer Extension Starter Kit that adds a project template to Visual Studio for creating designer extensions. It’s available here: http://code.msdn.microsoft.com/DesignerExtStartKit. You’ve now finished from the code point of view, but there are still a few subjects that are worth a look: installing, debugging, and uninstalling. Listing 13.14 The manifest file 352 CHAPTER 13 Customizing code and the designer 13.5.6 Installing, debugging, and uninstalling the extension After you’ve built the assembly, Visual Studio creates the extension as a VSIX file in the bin\debug|release folder. The extension is a zip file containing the manifest and the compiled assembly. To install the extension, you simply need to run it; the next time you open Visual Studio, the extension will be there. When you open the Entity Framework designer and select a key property of an entity in the designer, you’ll see the additional prop- erty in the Property window. To uninstall the extension, open the Extension Manager window, select the OrderIT.DesignerExtensions item, and click the Uninstall button in the box. That’s it. When it comes to debugging, the procedures are a bit more involved. Because the host of the extension is Visual Studio, you have to debug Visual Studio, which means you need to start a second instance of Visual Studio to debug the first one. By properly configuring the project properties, you can make things go smoothly. To configure the project properties, follow these steps: 1 Open the project properties by right-clicking the project in the Solution Explorer window and choosing the Properties item. 2 In the project properties form, choose the Debug tab, and select the Start External Program radio button. 3 In the text box next to the radio button, insert the path to the Visual Studio executable file: %ProgramFiles%\Microsoft Visual Studio 10.0\Common7\ IDE\\devenv.exe. The forms looks like figure 13.6. The effect of this configuration is that when you run the extension project, a second instance of Visual Studio will be started, and the debugger will automatically be attached. When the extension code is hit, the first instance enables debugging. The tricky part comes in when you make modifications and need to debug them. Each time you have to rebuild the extension, you need to uninstall it, close all your Visual Studio instances, reinstall the extension, restart Visual Studio, and rerun the extension project. This is annoying, but it’s the only way to go. The example you’ve built in this section is very simple, but it should give you an understanding of how extending the designer could simplify your life. With a mix of template customization, database-generation customization, and designer extensions, you can create powerful frameworks that simplify your use of the designer and gener- ate a lot of code for you. This can make the difference between an easily maintainable project and a real nightmare. 353Summary 13.6 Summary In this chapter, you learned about features that greatly increase productivity. Code generation isn’t only about POCO classes. You can also write tests, mocks, repositories, and anything else that can be automatically generated. That’s a big step forward. Customizing database generation isn’t a step toward productivity but a step toward a different way of designing models. By using a powerful template, you could perform a match between an existing database and the SSDL and create a script for the differ- ences. It could make model-first design much more usable than it is now. Finally, customizing the designer makes its usage simpler. By creating ad hoc extensions, you can avoid getting your hands in the EDMX, making everything simpler and less error prone. Now it’s time to talk about how to design a real-world application that uses Entity Framework to access data. Figure 13.6 Configuring the extension project to debug the extension Part 4 Applied Entity Framework You’ve learned how Entity Framework can simplify application development and make code more readable and usable. In part 4, you’ll discover how Entity Framework behaves in the real world. Web and Windows applications have dif- ferent needs and different architectures, and by making Entity Framework enti- ties aware of these needs, you can easily integrate them into any application. The context lifecycles of these applications differ too; web applications and web ser- vices are disconnected by nature, whereas Windows applications are connected, so different approaches are required. In the real world, an application’s architecture must be aware of Entity Framework for both data access and testing. The domain-driven design philoso- phy is growing in popularity, and you’ll learn how Entity Framework can be inte- grated with it. Performance is also critical in any data-access application. Even if applica- tions do what they’ve been created for, if they do it too slowly, it’s like having a nonfunctional application. In chapter 14, we’ll tour the different types of architectures. We’ll start with a classic three-layer application and move on to a domain-model-driven one. Finally, we’ll look at how Entity Framework fits into a domain-model-driven application. Chapters 15, 16, and 17 talk about Entity Framework inside the different applica- tion types. ASP.NET applications, web services, Windows Forms applications, and WPF applications are covered in these chapters. Chapter 18 covers the subject of testing. Here you’ll learn how to make applica- tions testable even when Entity Framework and LINQ to Entities are in place. Chapter 19 discusses performance. By the end of this chapter, you’ll be a master of Entity Framework. 357 Designing the application around Entity Framework This chapter moves slightly away from what you may expect from a book about ADO.NET Entity Framework. We’ve faced the matter of persistence from a technical point of view, trying to understand how to use this O/RM tool to store a graph of objects in a relational database. In this chapter, we’re going to discuss the same topic but from an architectural point of view. First, we’ll look at how to integrate Entity Framework in a typical three-layer architecture, which represents a good and widely used strategy for designing mod- ern applications. But layering itself may not be helpful in handling the complex business logic typical of enterprise applications; in these cases, your design must move toward a more suitable domain-driven design modeling style. Finally, we’ll look at how you can shape your object model to handle this kind of architecture and how Entity Framework fits in. This chapter covers  Basic concepts of layered architectures  Principles of domain-driven design  Repository pattern implementation with Entity Framework 358 CHAPTER 14 Designing the application around Entity Framework 14.1 The application design process As software architects, we tend to work on two kinds of applications: those that will never see a second release, because they’re built for a specific need of the moment; and meaningful products that are des- tined to last through time, perhaps evolving as the years go by. In the lat- ter case, despite the complexity of the problems to be handled, we don’t need something that just works. We must try to achieve a result that meets the following requirements:  Robust—This guarantees that the code does its job in every situation.  Maintainable—This makes future bug fixes as easy as possible.  Expandable—This means you can implement new functionality or improve- ments with little effort, and without greatly affecting the overall architecture. Meeting these requirements isn’t easy. A common technique to improve your chances is to split the application into simpler parts, called layers, with each one having its own specific functional responsibilities. Three-layer applications, whose conceptual schema is shown in figure 14.1, are the most common example of such a layered architecture. Starting from the bottom, a three-layer application consists of these layers:  Data access layer—Interacts with the database and shields the rest of the applica- tion from its specific logic. Concepts like connections, commands, and tables only make sense within this layer and should never be exposed to the upper lay- ers. This is also where Entity Framework fits in; in most cases, it can be consid- ered the entire data access layer on its own.  Business layer—Holds all the business logic and provides services that imple- ment the real-world processes that the application is built to take care of. Although it doesn’t care where its inputs come from, it knows whether a fund transfer can take place between two bank accounts and how to handle it cor- rectly, invoking the data access layer when it needs to query the database or store something there.  Presentation layer—Contains all the logic for interacting with the user, correctly rendering windows or web pages, and interpreting user commands, translating them to business method invokes. Sql Server Presentaon layer Business layer Data access layer Object model ASP .NET WPF Silverlight Services WCF Workflow Foundaon ADO .NET Enty Framework Oracle Other DBMS Figure 14.1 A diagram of the three-layer architecture 359A typical three-layer architecture Each layer can interact only with the one immediately lower, sending and receiving messages in the form of classes that belong to the application’s object model, which is a sort of common language shared among them all. Although it’s designed to bring simplicity to our software, this layered architecture requires more effort on the part of the developer compared to applications that have a monolithic structure. Layered applications have more class libraries, references, classes, and so on—in other words, more code! But the layered architecture offers the tremendous advantage of splitting this complexity across simpler elements that are easier to implement, test, and maintain, with obvious benefits on the overall result. 14.2 A typical three-layer architecture To better understand how concerns should be separated into the three layers, let’s consider a practical example. Let’s go back to the OrderIT application to reconsider some of its requirements and rethink its architecture. We’ll implement the feature that allows customers to place orders. Imagine you’re building an ASP.NET web appli- cation with a Place a New Order page like the one shown in figure 14.2. Figure 14.2 An interface for an order-placing web page This page features some nice rich client interaction, like allowing drag and drop from the list box on the left to the grid on the right to compose an order, and it has a couple of buttons to calculate the total amount and to eventually place the order. 14.2.1 Filling the product list The first task the web page has to accomplish, once loaded, is filling the list on the left with all the products currently available, as in the following listing. C# protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e) { if (!IsPostBack) Listing 14.1 Filling the productsList list box 360 CHAPTER 14 Designing the application around Entity Framework { var availableProducts = ProductsService.GetAvailableProducts(); this.productsList.DataSource = availableProducts; this.productsList.DataBind(); } } VB Protected Sub Page_Load(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) If Not IsPostBack Then Dim availableProducts = ProductsService.GetAvailableProducts() Me.productsList.DataSource = availableProducts Me.productsList.DataBind() End If End Sub In this listing, a lot of presentation logic, like triggering the Load event or the ListBox data binding, is provided under the hood by the ASP.NET Framework. But you should notice that page code has absolutely no knowledge of where the list of available prod- ucts comes from, nor does it know when a product is available according to the busi- ness logic. A static ProductsService class holds the code that retrieves the available products; its code can be seen in the next listing. C# public static class ProductsService { public static List GetAvailableProducts() { using (OrderITEntities ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { return ctx.Products .Where(p => p.QuantityInStock > 0) .ToList(); } } } VB Public Module ProductsService Public Function GetAvailableProducts() As List(Of Product) Using ctx As New OrderITEntities() Return ctx.Products.Where(Function(p) p.QuantityInStock > 0) _ .ToList() End Using End Function End Module The ProductsService class is part of the business layer, and it has a single responsibil- ity: it models the business rule that makes a product available. That rule could be something like, “we still have stock for that item,” or “this item can be sold in the Listing 14.2 Retrieving available products 361A typical three-layer architecture current period of the year.” Its logic is implemented within the GetAvailableProd- ucts method, which knows how to query the data access layer to retrieve a list based on the rule. In any case, ProductsService can’t see what its caller is going to do with that list of products, nor does it know how the context is actually retrieving them. As we said in the previous section, Entity Framework can be considered the appli- cation’s data access layer, because it shields the business layer from concepts like con- necting to a relational database and executing a query. To establish communication among the layers, you need them to share a common vocabulary in terms of an object model (for the Product class in the previous example) and to use it to exchange infor- mation with each other. This example showed a case where a requirement can be fulfilled with the cooper- ation of all the three application layers. Despite this being the most common situa- tion, there are also cases in which functionalities don’t traverse a layer boundary: the form’s drag-and-drop logic, for example, belongs entirely to the presentation layer and is totally unknown to the layers below. 14.2.2 Calculating order totals and saving them to the database The user can recalculate the order total by clicking the Recalculate button. When the button is clicked, the application has to evaluate whether discount lines have to be created, according to the business requirements: If the customer buys more than five items of the same product, there is a discount of 10 percent for each subsequent item. Should the discount be applicable, the order must contain two details: the first contains data about the first five items with no discount, and the other contains data about the additional items and the related discount. When the user clicks the Recalculate button, the web page executes code similar to the following. C# private void btnCalculateTotal_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) { Order order = getCurrentOrder(); OrdersService.PreProcess(order); this.bindOrderData(order); } VB Private Sub btnCalculateTotal_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Dim order As Order = getCurrentOrder() OrdersService.PreProcess(order) Me.bindOrderData(order) End Sub Even though you’re triggering this logic from the presentation layer, the rule belongs to the business layer. Thus it would be incorrect to pollute the click event handler Listing 14.3 Calculating the order total 362 CHAPTER 14 Designing the application around Entity Framework with code that explores the order details and decides whether it should benefit from a discount; it makes much more sense to encapsulate that logic within a specific class, called OrdersService, which has the responsibility and the knowledge to rearrange order details according to the discount logic. We won’t dive into the actual implementation of the PreProcess method, but you should appreciate how a layered architecture offers an undeniable advantage in terms of code simplicity, logic, and reusability (which often leads to easier maintainability). The code that implements the discount logic is always the same, regardless of the cli- ent. If you were to change from using a web page to a WPF application, you could eas- ily reuse it. At the same time, any bug fixes or changes to the business rules have no impact on the user interface code and remain confined in the OrderService class. When it comes time to save an order, things tend to become tricky, because you have to pursue several steps: 1 Verify whether user inputs are correct. 2 Verify whether there’s enough stock of the item being ordered. 3 Update the item stock. 4 Save the order and its details to the database. 5 Notify the user that the order was correctly placed, perhaps sending an email. While dealing with such a workflow, the presentation, business, and data access layers interact according to logic that can become rather complex. In such cases, a UML sequence diagram like the one in figure 14.3 can help to represent all the interactions. Presentaon layer Business layer Data access layer place(order) startTransacon isValid(order) checkStocksAvailability updateStocks checkCustomerCredit storeOrder sendNofyEmailorderPlaced commitTransacon Figure 14.3 A sequence UML diagram of the order-placing process This diagram illustrates how messages flow across the various application layers, and shows the actors involved with the exchange and their lifecycle. 363Principles of domain-driven design 14.2.3 Dealing with higher levels of complexity Earlier in this chapter, we mentioned the concept of an application’s object model, which represents a common library that all the application layers can use to communi- cate with each other and to store information. The Order class is part of OrderIT’s object model, so it holds all the order data, such as the details, the customer that placed the order, and the order time. There aren’t any rules carved in stone about how an object model has to be made. For example, nothing prevents you from building it upon the well-established Data- Set/DataTable infrastructure we’ve been using since .NET Framework 1.0. But when dealing with a layered architecture, it’s common to see object models made of various classes, whose shapes come directly from the tables of the underlying data source. Each instance maps to a specific row of the database and stores the row’s primary key value to keep track of this relationship. Often, those classes are somehow intercon- nected, sometimes by holding a reference to another object, or sometimes only by storing its key. Unfortunately, as complexity arises, this kind of architecture begins to show its lim- its. There’s nothing wrong with layering itself, but the model we just presented has two main issues that need to be addressed:  All the logic resides outside the object model and tends to concentrate within a series of business methods, giving the application a potentially dangerous pro- cedural flavor.  There’s no guidance on how the object model itself should be built, which is the main reason for it to mime the database schema, regardless of whether you implement it using plain classes or DataTables. Although the data is ultimately stored in a relational database, you still have a full object-oriented program- ming language at your disposal, and this model leaves a lot of its peculiarities unused; there may be a way to use them to achieve a better design. In conclusion, we need a different starting point: something that isn’t strictly related to how data is shaped in our database, but that helps us model the real-world domain the application is supposed to manage. The result of this process is called the domain model, and it’s the central concept behind domain-driven design. 14.3 Principles of domain-driven design The first thing we should point out when talking about domain-driven design (DDD) is that it isn’t a brand-new kind of architecture, different from layering. It’s a bunch of rules and formalizations to effectively design the application’s business layer or, better said, the domain model. As we’ve discussed, every class in a layered architecture has a specific functionality, and that means easier coding and improved maintainability. But everything is designed by keeping in mind the precise role that the object will have in the applica- tion ecosystem. 364 CHAPTER 14 Designing the application around Entity Framework In contrast, with DDD you start from a different and innovative point of view: the aim of the designer is to let the domain model be the object-oriented alter ego of the real-world concepts the appli- cation is supposed to handle, keeping track of their attributes and relationships and implementing the same behaviors. It interacts with three other application layers, defining an architectural parti- tioning much like what you’re used to, as shown in figure 14.4. Once again, starting from the bottom, the first layer is the infrastructure layer, which carries a slightly broader responsibility than its data access layer counterpart. The infrastructure layer encompasses all the technical functionality that the upper layers may need, such as sending email, interacting with a database, or opening TCP/IP channels. Entity Framework as part of the infrastructure layer When layering according to DDD, the infrastructure layer doesn’t just manage data access, although this feature represents a big part of it. You’ll see shortly that you can use Entity Framework’s designer in Visual Studio to build an Entity Data Model, which can be thought as a raw domain layer. Thanks to that, when it comes time to fetch or store data to the database, Entity Framework completely shields you from what’s needed under the hood to communicate with it: you won’t have to open con- nections or use commands to execute stored procedures anymore, because you won’t code over tables but over a fully object-oriented model. That’s why, when dealing with a three-layer architecture, we pointed out that Entity Framework fits inside the data access layer or, in some cases, can be considered the entire data access layer on its own; this is still valid in DDD, when talking about the infrastructure layer. Should other services (emails, third-party web services, and so on) be needed, they’re implemented in other assemblies. These assemblies, along with the Entity Framework ones, together form the application’s infrastructure layer. We already talked about the domain layer. The application layer coordinates the inter- actions between the various layers and objects of the application. Usually this layer is kept thin; it shouldn’t hold any business concepts, because those belong to the domain layer. On the side, the presentation layer is much the same as before, taking care of any- thing that concerns displaying data and reacting to user input. DDD introduces a few new concepts related to how a domain model should be cre- ated. Let’s explore them in the context of OrderIT. 14.3.1 Entities Let’s start building the OrderIT domain model following the application requirements, as you did in chapter 2, looking particularly at the first feature you need to fulfill:  OrderIT must store data about customers.  Each customer has a name, billing address, and shipping address. Presentaon layer Domain layer Applicaon layer Infrastructure layer Figure 14.4 Application layering according to DDD 365Principles of domain-driven design The customer is the first business concept that finds a place in the application, and you also have a small subset of data you need to track for it: name, billing address, and shipping address. Let’s imagine that you did such a great job that the application will be a commercial success in the near future, having hundreds of registered customers. Probably among them you’ll find many with the same names, such as John Smith (or Mario Rossi, if you lived in Italy); moreover, some of them could move over the years, so the users would need to update their addresses. OrderIT will need to keep on correctly placing orders and dispatching items, no matter how many matching names are in the database and how many times they change locations. If OrderIT wasn’t able to do so, users would probably end up send- ing goods to the wrong people and wouldn’t receive payments for their bills. In other words, some business concepts (like a customer) own a well-defined, sometimes implicit, identity that isn’t related to their attributes and that remains the same for their entire lifecycle within the application. Objects with such features are called entities. Order, too, is an entity for this application: an order has its own lifecycle, and while it lasts, it should always be unambiguously identifiable; that’s why after it’s created, every order is given a unique and immutable number that represents its identity field. Every entity should have one, and that’s the first aspect deserving attention when a brand-new entity appears in your domain. Different scenarios require different identities The entity concept is strictly related to the application’s purpose, and not to the real- world object that’s being modeled. If you were working on an inventory-management application that used the concept of incoming and outgoing orders to increase and decrease the stock of a given item, you probably wouldn’t care about an order’s life- cycle and identity: you’d just want to know whether it contains a certain item or not. In other words, two orders for the same amount of the same item would be identical for that business process. In this example, Order wouldn’t be an entity for your domain model. We’ll get back to this distinction shortly. In OrderIT, Order and Customer have a rela- tionship with each other that’s called an associa- tion. Figure 14.5 shows an early version of the domain model you’re building. Another concept that the domain-model philosophy has is the value object. 14.3.2 Value objects Let’s go back for a moment to the requirement of storing customer data:  OrderIT must store data about customers. Each customer has a name, billing address, and shipping address. The address isn’t plain text, but consists of four separate pieces of data: street, city, ZIP code, and country. -Id Customer 1 -Number Order * Figure 14.5 An Order and Customer UML diagram 366 CHAPTER 14 Designing the application around Entity Framework We can easily identify another business concept in that statement: the address. But the nature of this object is considerably different from Order or Customer. Does OrderIT really need an addresses catalog? Does an address have its own lifecycle? Are two addresses different even though they’re pointing to the exactly the same location? The answer is no. You only need a customer’s address to correctly deliver bills and goods, so two addresses with the same attributes can be considered absolutely the same address. That means there are objects whose equality is solely determined by their attributes. These objects are called value objects. Typically value objects are small classes that group one or more attributes used in many points of the domain model, maybe encapsulating some sort of behavior. They’re not independent, which means a value object can’t exist on its own: in OrderIT, for example, an address has no business meaning unless it’s related to an order, to store its delivery address. Relationships that involve value types are called compositions. Figure 14.6 shows how Address fits into the domain model to represent one customer’s billing and shipping addresses. -Number Order -Id Customer * 1 -Street -City -State Address -ShippingAddress 1 1 -BillingAddress1 1 Figure 14.6 UML diagram with the Address value object Considering their nature, value objects can be freely exchanged. Given two cus- tomers, the following statement can be used to copy the first customer’s billing address data to the other: C# customer2.BillingAddress = customer1.BillingAddress; VB customer2.BillingAddress = customer1.BillingAddress You may argue that a statement like this isn’t completely free of side effects: we’re talk- ing about .NET classes, and modifying customer1’s billing address would result in a harmful bug, because customer2 would inherit the change as well. A possible solution for that (and absolutely a best practice) is always designing value objects as immutable, which means giving them read-only properties and fields. This rule has also has a more philosophical reason behind it: because a value object’s identity is completely defined by its attributes, modifying one of them should result in a brand-new object. That’s why it’s more correct to create a new instance when its val- ues need to be changed. 367Principles of domain-driven design 14.3.3 Handling associations correctly: domain roots and aggregates Each order must keep track of the products and quantities it involves. Hence, it’s pretty clear that you need to add a collection of OrderDetail objects. Is OrderDetail an entity or a value object? Based on what we said in the previous pages, you may wonder whether OrderDetail should be considered an entity or a value object. Two order details that relate to the same item and have the same quantity could be considered exactly the same thing, so at first sight, you may consider OrderDetail a value object. When it comes to dealing with domain-model persistence, though, you must be aware of how the domain design impacts the infrastructure layer. Saving a detail table of value objects isn’t easy, because they don’t have their own identity field that maps the instance to a specific and well-identified database row. That’s why it’s sometimes worth sacrificing the model’s pureness to achieve an easier implementation when writing the code. This chapter’s concepts work whether OrderDetail is modeled as an entity or as a value object. Order and OrderDetail provide a typical example of a master-detail relationship. To make the relationship navigable in both directions, you need an Order property in the OrderDetail class that references the order to which it belongs, and you need a col- lection of details (OrderDetails property) in the Order object. Does it make sense to blindly apply this pattern to every association in the domain model? Earlier in this chapter, for example, you saw that Customer and Order have a similar association, but you designed it as navigable only from the Order. Should you add an Orders property to the Customer entity? There’s a subtle difference between these two examples: an order detail is useless if taken away from its root; the Order entity along with all its details encompasses the business concept of a real-world order. Using a term specific to DDD, they form an aggregate of entities, whose root is the order itself. When you’re dealing with aggre- gates, you’re never supposed to directly reference an entity that isn’t the aggregate’s root: following this rule results in a more polished domain, in which external objects only refer to the order as a whole and never deal with its internal composition. That said, implementing a master-detail relationship between the two makes a lot of sense, because you’re always going to access order details from the main Order entity. Figure 14.7 shows how to represent an aggregate in a UML diagram. Notice that the Customer entity, along with its addresses, also forms an aggregate. Note also that you’re allowed to reference other entities from within an aggregate, as it happens between OrderDetail and Product. The relationship between a customer and its orders now appears clearly different from the relationship between an order and its details, because they aren’t part of the same aggregate! In fact, there’s nothing wrong with directly referencing an order -Number Order -Id Customer * 1 -Street -City -State Address -ShippingAddress 1 1 -BillingAddress1 1 -Quantity -Discount -Price OrderDetail 1 * -Number Product* 1 Figure 14.7 An updated UML diagram with Order and Customer aggregates 368 CHAPTER 14 Designing the application around Entity Framework without coming from the customer that placed it. An order makes a lot of sense (and has a huge business meaning) even if you don’t consider which customer it belongs to. In DDD terms, a customer and its orders aren’t an aggregate. Why should you a avoid master-detail relationship between customers and orders? Because associations are easy to navigate, but they don’t come for free: they have a sig- nificant cost in terms of complexity and performance. Moreover, getting all the orders for a given customer doesn’t have a great business meaning; more often, you’ll need to recover orders placed within a certain period of time, or orders that are still waiting to be delivered. Repositories are better candidates for accomplishing these tasks, because they provide full object-oriented querying features. We’ll cover repositories later in this chapter; now we need to work a bit more on the order entity. 14.3.4 Refining the model Now that the Order and Customer parts of your domain model are well defined, it’s time to think about how the discount calculation fits in: The policy for discounts states that if the customer buys more than five of the same product, there is a discount of 10 percent for each subsequent item. Should the discount be applicable, the order must contain two details: the first contains data about the first five items with no discount, and the other contains data about the additional items and the related discount. You implemented this feature earlier as a method in the OrderService class. Now you’re starting from a different perspective, because you’re trying to model an object- oriented representation of the order business concept. In this context, it’s natural to include a ComputeDiscount method in the Order class. This method should explore the details collection and eventually add discount rows where needed. Listing 14.4 shows a sample implementation of this method. Notice that it often refers to this when the Order entity is involved, because it’s an instance method. 369Principles of domain-driven design C# public void ComputeDiscount() { compactOrderDetails(); var detailsToDiscount = this.Details.FindAll(d => d.Quantity > 5); foreach(var orderDetail in detailsToDiscount) { int exceedingQuantity = orderDetail.Quantity - 5; orderDetail.Quantity = 5; OrderDetail discountDetail = new OrderDetail { Order = this, Item = orderDetail.Item, Quantity = exceedingQuantity, Discount = 0.1 } this.Details.Add(discountDetail); } } VB Public Sub ComputeDiscount() compactOrderDetails() Dim detailsToDiscount = Me.Details.FindAll( _ Function(d) d.Quantity > 5) For Each orderDetail In detailsToDiscount Dim exceedingQuantity As Integer = orderDetail.Quantity - 5 orderDetail.Quantity = 5 Dim discountDetail As New OrderDetail() With _ { _ .Order = me, _ .Item = orderDetail.Item, _ .Quantity = exceedingQuantity, _ .Discount = 0.1 _ } Me.Details.Add(discountDetail) Next End Sub The domain model isn’t anemic anymore! A domain model is called anemic when it only contains data, and no code. Many peo- ple think that a domain should be modeled that way, because usually processes change, but data doesn’t, and modifying a domain class after the application has shipped could require great effort, given its centrality in the overall architecture. But remember that your ultimate goal is to take a real-world order and describe it as a class. As a general rule, there’s nothing bad about adding logic to a domain class if you’re sure it belongs to the class. In any case, you’ll shortly see that there are better options in this case, and the model can be further improved. Listing 14.4 Computing an order’s discount 370 CHAPTER 14 Designing the application around Entity Framework Now let’s imagine that, after some months of OrderIT running in production, this promotion discount expires, perhaps to be replaced with another one with different logic. This would force you to roll up your sleeves and modify the domain code; but besides that, isn’t there something conceptually wrong with a changing promotion requiring maintenance on the order class? Should an order discount really belong to the order itself? When you added the discount logic to the order, you hid a concept that you must make explicit to improve the overall design: the logic that determines whether an order is suitable for a discount or not. This logic is a new element of the OrderIT domain model, which we’ll call Discount- Policy. Figure 14.8 shows the updated UML diagram. The CalculateDiscount method can now be refactored, as shown in the follow- ing listing. C# public void ComputeDiscount() { compactOrderDetails(); this.DiscountPolicy.EvaluateDiscount(this); } VB Public Sub ComputeDiscount() compactOrderDetails() Me.DiscountPolicy.EvaluateDiscount(Me) End Sub Notice how the DiscountPolicy class encapsulates the whole discount calculation logic. Why making DiscountPolicy explicit results in a better design The step you just made brings great benefits to our design. The domain model is for- mally more correct, because you introduced a new business concept that avoids pol- luting the Order entity with responsibilities that don’t belong to it. Moreover, it gives you the chance to use the object-oriented paradigm, using the Strategy pattern to easily support new discount policies to come. This design isn’t applicable to every situation. Sometimes the business process is too complex and involves too many objects, and you don’t want to include all that logic in a single entity; sometimes there isn’t a specific entity to which the processes belong. In such cases, you can introduce specific objects in your domain, called domain services, to handle those tasks. In OrderIT, you can use a domain service to Listing 14.5 Computing an order’s discount with DiscountPolicy -Number Order +EvaluateDiscount() DiscountPolicy -Quantity -Discount -Price OrderDetail 1 * Figure 14.8 The refined model of the discount policy 371Retrieving references to a domain’s entities implement the order-placing logic, which involves saving the new order, updating the stock, notifying the customer by email, and so on. But beware of abusing domain services, or you’ll soon be dealing again with proce- dural code. A process must be implemented as a service only when it meets all of these criteria:  The service represents flows that don’t directly belong to an entity or a value object, but that interact with various domain model elements.  The service interface is solely composed of domain model objects.  The service logic is stateless, which means an invocation result doesn’t depend on previous results. So far, we’ve focused on how the domain model must be shaped, without caring whether its building blocks are already in memory or need to be fetched from a data- base or created as new. In the next section, you’ll discover which tools you can use to retrieve references to entities and value objects so you can use and manipulate them in the code. 14.4 Retrieving references to a domain’s entities If domain objects spend their whole lifecycle in memory, they should always be reach- able from your code; otherwise, the garbage collector will wipe them out. Thanks to the persistence layer, objects are also stored in other ways, such as in databases, so they can be kept alive even if the application quits, the server restarts, or the code doesn’t keep references to them. Sooner or later, you’ll want to recover that reference. You could do it by navigating object references within an object graph, but you’d still need an aggregate root to start from. This is where repositories fit in. 14.4.1 Repositories at a glance In DDD, you model the application’s business concepts in the form of classes, and the most intuitive way for the object-oriented programmer to group a set of instances of the same class is using collections. In fact, if you put aside for a moment the need to store entities in a relational database, it would probably be most convenient to hold all the customer references in a globally reachable AllCustomers collection somewhere in the application design. For OrderIT, a customer would exist only if it was in that collection, and removing a customer from the collection would mean deleting it. Unfortunately, in the real world, durable data needs to be stored in a durable plat- form, but it would still be great to abstract the storage as if it were made of collec- tions. That would offer the best of both worlds. A repository is an object that acts like a collection of aggregate roots, giving the client the illusion that every entity it contains is already in memory. Entities can be added or removed from a repository to carry out inserts and deletes, and a repository can be queried to get references to the enti- ties it holds. Let’s try to find a way to implement a generic repository that uses Entity Frame- work to interact with the relational database. 372 CHAPTER 14 Designing the application around Entity Framework 14.4.2 Implementing a repository Implementing a repository is an almost trivial task, because Entity Framework already uses a repository-like pattern internally: each entity belongs to a well-defined entity set, and you only need to wrap them. Why you should build your own repositories If Entity Framework already provides entity sets, why would you need to build your own repositories? To answer this question, we must go back for a moment to the applica- tion layering we introduced in section 14.3. If you look at figure 14.4, you can see that repository implementations belong to the infrastructure layer, because they can interact with the underlying database to fetch customer data and rebuild a customer entity. This requires a reference from the infrastructure layer to the domain layer. This works perfectly when the interactions between the domain and infrastructure lay- ers are orchestrated by the application layer: for example, when a web page must query the database to get a customer list. But it’s not uncommon for domain entities to require the repository’s services too. For example, a DiscountPolicy may need to check a customer’s order history to determine whether a discount should be applied. For this reason, you must separate repository implementations from their interfaces (thus building your own repository library). The repository implementations belong to the infrastructure layer, and the interfaces are part of the domain layer. A domain class would only reference the interface, but an Inversion of Control (IoC) container would then inject the actual implementation. Another important reason to build your own repositories is for testing purposes. We’ll explore this topic later in the book. Because repositories must act as if they were in-memory collections, it’s logical to inherit the generic interface from ICollection, which provides Add, Remove, and other typical collection methods and properties. You can then add some specific func- tionalities. You’ll start by defining the repository interface as shown in this listing. C# public interface IRepository : ICollection where T : class { IEnumerable Query(Func predicate); T GetSingle(Func predicate); void Update(T entity); } VB Public Interface IRepository(Of T As Class) Inherits ICollection(Of T) Function Query(ByVal predicate As Func(Of T, Boolean)) As _ IEnumerable(Of T) Function GetSingle(ByVal predicate As Func(Of T, Boolean)) As T Listing 14.6 A generic IRepository interface 373Retrieving references to a domain’s entities Sub Update(ByVal entity As T) End Interface The IRepository interface adds three methods. Query and GetSingle can be used to query the repository’s content and retrieve an enumerable or a single entity, respec- tively. Both methods accept a predicate as an argument (that’s a delegate that accept an instance of a T and returns true or false) and can be easily invoked using a lambda expression, as you’re used to doing with LINQ’s Where extension method. Last but not least, you can use Update to attach an existing entity to the repository. The concrete Repository class has some prerequisites to work properly: first, it must be instantiated within a persistence context, which means it must operate on a valid and alive Entity Framework context. This is why, in order to initialize a reposi- tory, you need a context whose reference will be held for further use. This isn’t enough, though, because you can’t query or add entities directly to the context. You also need a reference to the entity’s entity set. The following listing shows the Repository constructor. C# public class Repository : IRepository where T : class { private ObjectContext context; private ObjectSet entitySet; public Repository(ObjectContext context) { if (context == null) throw new ArgumentNullException("context"); this.context = context; this.entitySet = context.CreateObjectSet(); } } VB Public Class Repository(Of T As Class) Implements IRepository(Of T) Private context As ObjectContext Private entitySet As ObjectSet(Of T) Public Sub New(ByVal context As ObjectContext) If context Is Nothing Then Throw New ArgumentNullException("context") End If Me.context = context Me.entitySet = context.CreateObjectSet(Of T)() End Sub End Class Now you can get back to the interface and look at the Query method. As you can see in listing 14.8, when you have a reference to the object set, its implementation is Listing 14.7 Repository constructor 374 CHAPTER 14 Designing the application around Entity Framework straightforward. All you need to do is query the object set, forwarding the predicate to LINQ’s Where extension method. GetSingle uses the same code, but it returns a single instance of the T entity. C# public IEnumerable Query(Func predicate) { return this.entitySet.Where(predicate); } public T GetSingle(Func predicate) { return this.Query(predicate).Single(); } VB Public Function Query(ByVal predicate As Func(Of T, Boolean)) As _ IEnumerable(Of T) Return Me.entitySet.Where(predicate) End Function Public Function GetSingle(ByVal predicate As Func(Of T, Boolean)) As T Return Me.Query(predicate).[Single]() End Function IRepository provides two methods to connect an entity to the underlying ObjectSet: Add comes from the base ICollection interface you’re inheriting from, whereas the Update method was explicitly defined in listing 14.6. You have to implement them for the context to be able to track every change you make to the entity and generate proper persistence queries. A third method, Remove, also belongs to the base ICollection interface, and it can be used to flag the given entity for deletion. The following listing shows what we just described. C# public void Add(T entity) { if (!this.Contains(entity)) this.entitySet.AddObject(entity); } public void Update(T entity) { if (!this.Contains(entity)) this.entitySet.Attach(entity); } public bool Remove(T entity) { if (!this.Contains(entity)) return false; Listing 14.8 Query and GetSingle implementations Listing 14.9 Add, Remove, and Update implementations 375Retrieving references to a domain’s entities this.entitySet.DeleteObject(entity); return true; } VB Public Sub Add(ByVal entity As T) If Not Me.Contains(entity) Then Me.entitySet.AddObject(entity) End If End Sub Public Sub Update(ByVal entity As T) If Not Me.Contains(entity) Then Me.entitySet.Attach(entity) End If End Sub Public Function Remove(ByVal entity As T) As Boolean If Not Me.Contains(entity) Then Return False End If Me.entitySet.DeleteObject(entity) Return True End Function All these methods internally use Contains (which you can see in listing 14.10) to determine whether the entity already belongs to the object context. Contains, in turns, asks the state manager for the entity’s state and evaluates it. C# public bool Contains(T item) { ObjectStateEntry state; if (!this.context.ObjectStateManager .TryGetObjectStateEntry(item, out state)) return false; return (state.State != EntityState.Detached); } VB Public Function Contains(ByVal item As T) As Boolean Dim state As ObjectStateEntry If Not Me.context.ObjectStateManager.TryGetObjectStateEntry _ (item, state) Then Return False End If Return (state.State <> EntityState.Detached) End Function Listing 14.10 ICollection.Contains implementation 376 CHAPTER 14 Designing the application around Entity Framework In order to successfully implement ICollection, the compiler requires you to also write members like Clear or GetEnumerator that aren’t useful in this scenario. We won’t cover their implementation here. Let’s move on to the client’s point of view, and imagine how you would typically use a repository in your code. For example, if a discount should be applied to a cus- tomer’s first order, the discount rule could be defined as follows. C# public bool ApplyDiscount(Customer customer) { IRepository orderRepository = container.Get>(); return orderRepository.Query(o => o.Customer == customer).Count() == 0; } VB Public Function ApplyDiscount(ByVal customer As Customer) As Boolean Dim orderRepository As IRepository(Of Order) = _ container.[Get](Of IRepository(Of Order))() Return orderRepository.Query(Function(o) o.Customer = customer) _ .Count() = 0 End Function Notice how the FirstOrderDiscountRule doesn’t directly reference the concrete repository class but uses it via its interface. You can achieve this by using an Inversion of Control container to keep the interface separated from the actual implementation; this is the meaning of the container variable the code refers to. Inversion of Control is a well-known and widely used pattern for loosely coupling various application dependencies; if you’re interested in this topic, an internet search will turn up hundreds of related articles and libraries. 14.4.3 Getting a reference to a brand new entity When you’re dealing with complex domains, building new entities can be challenging and require interactions between various aggregates in your domain model. Consider the Order entity and its relationship with DiscountPolicy, as discussed in section 14.3.4: what has the responsibility to associate an order to the proper discount policy? It can’t be the order itself, which hasn’t any knowledge of the various policies the application supports; at the same time, you don’t want the developer, who will use the domain model, to have the deep knowledge required to select the correct discount policy—that would reveal too many details of the Order class’s internal structure. In such cases, factories are what you need: they’re domain objects that are responsible for creating instances of aggregates. Factories can also be useful when you need to invoke infrastructure services (like a logging service) and you don’t want to expose this logic to the end user. Listing 14.11 Typical repository usage Factories that use Entity Framework’s foreign keys Although in your entity data model you have navigation properties to traverse relations, Entity Framework 4.0 introduces the concept of foreign-key properties, which are plain scalar properties containing the associated entity’s ID. You can set them to modify this association if you want to. When you fetch an entity from the database, the foreign-key properties and their corresponding navigation properties are bound together, and changing the former results in an automatic update of the latter. To achieve the same behavior with new entities, you can use the ObjectContext. CreateObject method. In DDD, you shouldn’t use foreign keys, because they’re a technical and infrastruc- tural concept that you shouldn’t pollute your domain model with. For the same rea- son, you shouldn’t explicitly invoke ObjectContext.CreateObject within the domain model. But it’s also true that foreign-key features can be very useful in your infrastructure layer. To keep the best of both worlds, you can use a factory to encapsulate this logic and use it when the time comes to create new entities. 377Summary 14.5 Summary In this chapter, we explored the basics of an application’s structure. We introduced a layered architecture, showing how the overall application design can benefit from bet- ter code organization and separation of concerns. Then we moved on to domain-driven design (DDD), which aims to encapsulate the pure business logic in an object-oriented model, referred to as the application’s domain. We introduced some key building blocks, like entities, value objects, reposito- ries, and factories, giving examples of how you could use them to rethink the OrderIT application you’ve been working on in this book. If you want to explore all these con- cepts more deeply, we recommend reading Domain-Driven Design, by Eric Evans (Addison-Wesley, 2003), which is considered the “bible” of DDD. Although these DDD concepts are abstract and don’t necessarily require a persistence framework such as Entity Framework, we showed how you can integrate Entity Framework with DDD. Application architecture is a great place to start to achieve robustness and maintain- ability, but it covers only half of the journey. In the next chapters, you’ll apply these concepts to some typical real-world applications, and then we’ll focus on another tech- nique that dramatically improves software quality: automatic code testing. 378 Entity Framework and ASP.NET ASP.NET is the technology used in the .NET Framework to build web applications. In this chapter, we’ll analyze the ASP.NET and Entity Framework integration, so a basic knowledge of data-binding techniques in ASP.NET is required. You can find more information on this topic on MSDN, in the “ASP.NET Data-Bound Web Server Controls Overview” article at http://mng.bz/c3k4. You can use Entity Framework’s features in two different ways: you can use ASP.NET RAD support to directly tie them together; or you can manually manage the ObjectContext lifecycle by writing more code. The first approach has the main advantage of not requiring code, whereas the latter gives you maximum control This chapter covers  Binding data with the EntityDataSource control  Using Dynamic Data controls and Entity Framework  Understanding the ObjectContext lifecycle  Common scenarios related to integrating ASP.NET and Entity Framework 379EntityDataSource, a new approach to data binding over what is performed under the hood. Which is the best approach for your applica- tion is up to you: typically, the former is indicated in small (or quick-and-dirty) appli- cations, because you can be very productive, whereas the latter is for enterprise applications. We’ll start with the simpler approach and then look at how to directly manage the ObjectContext lifecycle in a typical ASP.NET application. Before we can move on, it’s useful to note that Entity Framework’s ObjectContext can be instantiated only once per page. If you want to build some kind of layer over Entity Framework (as you did in chapter 14), you’ll have to handle this task manually. If you prefer to let ASP.NET do the magic for you, just sit down and relax: there is a special control, called EntityDataSource that will perform most of the tasks for you. Let’s start by looking at what EntityDataSource can do. 15.1 EntityDataSource, a new approach to data binding Starting with version 2.0, ASP.NET offered a new approach to data binding, using a new set of web controls named data source controls. Data source controls are, in fact, used to enable a development approach based on Rapid Application Development (RAD) in Visual Studio, providing a drag-and-drop-based development environment. 15.1.1 A practical guide to data source controls You can build an entire application based on data source controls with the wizards and RAD tools integrated in Visual Studio. The result is markup code that includes the configuration for extracting data and for binding to the associated data control, such as the GridView or Repeater. Several data source controls are available for different scenarios. These are the most used:  SqlDataSource—Makes a direct connection to a database structure  ObjectDataSource—Enables the business logic to access business objects in common three-tier applications  LinqDataSource—Adds support to LINQ to SQL’s DataContext  EntityDataSource—Implements support for Entity Framework’s data model and ObjectContext Every data source has a different set of pros and cons, depending on the approach you want to use in your application architecture. THE SQLDATASOURCE CONTROL SqlDataSource is used when you want to couple your database to your web interface. This situation isn’t ideal in common applications, but it may be useful in quick-and- dirty scenarios, when all you want is a GUI to manipulate your data. When you use SqlDataSource, the connection string and SQL query are saved directly in the markup, so this isn’t the best choice in terms of flexibility. 380 CHAPTER 15 Entity Framework and ASP.NET THE OBJECTDATASOURCE CONTROL ObjectDataSource provides an alternative method of access in three-tier applications, where you have a separation between the data layer and business logic, and you manipulate data using object representations. This approach is suitable when you want a better architecture and the ability to build the graphical interface using a RAD approach. ObjectDataSource can use an EDM, but you’ll have no benefits: you’re using objects in a simple form. THE LINQDATASOURCE AND ENTITYDATASOURCE CONTROLS LinqDataSource and EntityDataSource offer the same functionality against different data sources: LINQ to SQL’s DataContext and Entity Framework’s ObjectContext, respectively. They both use the same approach; they don’t use a tier to separate the data access from the interface, but use the O/RM capabilities directly. You can add your own validation and loading logic to both DataContext and ObjectContext by using partial classes. Using the LinqDataSource and EntityDataSource controls prevents you from sep- arating your data access strategy from your business rules. It may not be a good idea to directly expose the data access in the page. Putting the data access in the business logic tier is a better choice in terms of modularity and maintenance, resulting in a bet- ter application architecture. But if keeping the data access separate from the business rules isn’t a problem for you and your application, the EntityDataSource control is a very practical and productive way to go. Using a data source control has the advantage of avoiding code in your pages, because the DataBind method is performed automatically, during the PreRender event, by the data control itself. If you have a Repeater control on your page, you sim- ply have to set the DataSourceID property to the ID of your data source control. The magic behind the scenes is done by ASP.NET: the resulting page will print data out of your data source. 15.1.2 The EntityDataSource control in depth From a technical perspective, the EntityDataSource control is very similar to Linq- DataSource, because they’re both based on the System.Web.Extensions.IDynamic- DataSource interface. This interface is primarily used to ensure compatibility in applications based on Dynamic Data controls (which will be discussed in section 15.2). EntityDataSource in ASP.NET 3.5 In order to use EntityDataSource with ASP.NET 3.5, you need to reference the System.Web.Entity assembly, located in the Global Assembly Cache (GAC) and installed by .NET Framework 3.5 Service Pack 1. Entity Framework was added with Service Pack 1 and isn’t directly available with ASP.NET 3.5. ASP.NET 4.0 directly supports this control. 381EntityDataSource, a new approach to data binding To explore EntityDataSource’s capabili- ties, let’s build a simple application to show its features. You’ll build a simple web page that will show the products avail- able from OrderIT. You’ll use this data- base in all the examples presented in this chapter. To begin this little project, you need to locate the EntityDataSource control. You can find the EntityDataSource control in your toolbox, as shown in figure 15.1. You can start by adding a data con- trol, like a Repeater or ListView. Select the New Data Source option from the Choose Data Source smart task, as shown in figure 15.2. This smart task will appear when the editor is in design view. The Data Source Configuration Wiz- ard will guide you through a series of options. The most important step is the selection of your EDM and the entity that you want to display. Figure 15.2 It’s possible to directly define a new EntityDataSource using the associated Visual Studio smart task. Choose the New Data Source option to open a specific wizard. Figure 15.1 You can insert an EntityDataSource control via the Visual Studio toolbar. It can be found under the Data category. 382 CHAPTER 15 Entity Framework and ASP.NET The first wizard step is shown in figure 15.3. Figure 15.3 By selecting Entity in the Data Source Configuration Wizard, you can later define all the details associated with the to-be-created EntityDataSource. In this example, you’re using the OrderIT database hosted in the local SQL Server instance: choose Products as the EntitySetName in order to display all the products in the database. This step is shown in figure 15.4. If you want to automatically let EntityDataSource handle inserts, updates, and deletes, all you have to do is select the corresponding check boxes in the wizard screen shown in figure 15.4. Given the common nature of ObjectContext, Entity- DataSource knows how to manipulate entities: the control uses the ObjectContext to persist your actions in the corresponding database, using the previously defined model. When you click the Finish button, the wizard exits, and the corresponding markup is generated in the page. If you look at the resulting ASP.NET page markup, you’ll see what the EntityData- Source control needs to make things work. The markup is shown in this listing, with the key properties in bold. ... Listing 15.1 EntityDataSource markup code that displays a list of products Figure 15.4 Choose the entity from the EntitySetName drop-down list. If you don’t need to create a partial view of your entity, Select All is the preferred option in the Select box. 383EntityDataSource, a new approach to data binding As you can see, ListView’s DataSourceID property is used to configure the correspond- ing data source control, so it can get the data from the source and display the value. Speaking of EntityDataSource, the ConnectionString property is used to refer to the EDM previously defined, whereas DefaultContainerName is used to identify the ObjectContext. Finally, EntitySetName contains the entity set from which to get objects (and data). In listing 15.1, you’re taking all the data from a table named Products, located in the OrderIT database, mapped on an EntitySet named Products, using the Object- Context named OrderITEntities. All you need to do to display the value is run the page shown in figure 15.5. You don’t need to write any code to get this result: all the magic is done by the EntityDataSource and the associated data control, which in this example is a ListView. Your mileage with this approach may vary. As already mentioned, if you want more control over what happens under the hood, don’t worry. We’ll soon look at a more powerful approach to integrating ASP.NET and Entity Framework. First, though, we need to look at Dynamic Data controls, because their features are interesting if you simply need to manipulate data using a nice looking interface. Figure 15.5 The rows are materialized into entities and displayed in the web page using the EntityDataSource control’s capabilities. This is performed without writing code. 384 CHAPTER 15 Entity Framework and ASP.NET 15.2 Using Dynamic Data controls with Entity Framework ASP.NET Dynamic Data is a feature initially introduced in ASP.NET 3.5 Service Pack 1 and further enhanced in version 4. The idea behind this technology is to simplify the typical actions related to working with data: displaying, filtering, and altering data. Dynamic Data controls ship with ASP.NET, and they support both Entity Framework and LINQ to SQL, using the LinqDataSource and EntityDataSource controls dis- cussed previously. Dynamic Data is based on a simple assumption: because the ObjectContext has a fixed set of features that won’t change, even for different map- pings, its calls can be generically created. Using generics and reflection, the typical operations performed by the ObjectContext can be standardized. The same princi- ples are valid for LINQ to SQL. Dynamic Data controls work with a special kind of project—the Dynamic Data Entities Web Application, which can be found with the other ASP.NET projects. You can see it highlighted in figure 15.6. Dynamic Data controls are composed of a set of templates and pages, located in the DynamicData directory. In this directory, you can find the templates used to repre- sent different types, such as strings, integers, Booleans, and so on. 15.2.1 Registering the model To start with Dynamic Data, you define the model you’re going to work against, and the rest of the work will be performed by using the information already present in it. The model contains the list of entities, and each entity describes itself, so each set of entities can be represented and edited automatically. The model and routes are registered in listing 15.2. The necessary code is partially generated by the wizard, but you need to add your context in order to use it with Dynamic Data. Figure 15.6 Dynamic Data Entities Web Application is the template project you need to select to start using Dynamic Data controls with Entity Framework. The other templates won’t work for this purpose. 385Using Dynamic Data controls with Entity Framework C# public class Global : System.Web.HttpApplication { private static MetaModel s_defaultModel = new MetaModel(); public static MetaModel DefaultModel { get { return s_defaultModel; } } void Application_Start(object sender, EventArgs e) { // model registration DefaultModel.RegisterContext(typeof(OrderITEntities), Uses ObjectContext as model new ContextConfiguration() { ScaffoldAllTables = true }); Enables scaffoldingB // routes RouteTable.Routes.Add(new DynamicDataRoute("{table}/{action}.aspx") Listing 15.2 The model and routes registration 386 CHAPTER 15 Entity Framework and ASP.NET { Constraints = new RouteValueDictionary(new { action = "List|Details|Edit|Insert" }), Model = DefaultModel }); } } VB Public Class Global_asax Inherits System.Web.HttpApplication Private Shared s_defaultModel As New MetaModel() Public Shared ReadOnly Property DefaultModel() As MetaModel Get Return s_defaultModel End Get End Property Public Sub Application_Start(ByVal sender as Object, ByVal e as EventArgs) ' model registration Dim config As New ContextConfiguration() config.ScaffoldAllTables = True Enables scaffolding B DefaultModel.RegisterContext(GetType(OrderITEntities), config) Uses ObjectContext as model ' routes RouteTable.Routes.Add(New DynamicDataRoute("{table}/{action}.aspx") ➥With { .Constraints = New RouteValueDictionary(New With { .Action = "List|Details|Edit|Insert"}), .Model = DefaultModel}) End Sub End Class This code explicitly sets the scaffold feature B, so every entity is automatically dis- played in the start page. If you prefer to control this list, you must turn it off. If you use the routing features from ASP.NET 4.0, the resulting URL will be similar to /Custom- ers/List.aspx, where Customers is the entity set to be managed, and List is the action. As you can see in listing 15.2, the Details, Edit, and Insert actions can be used to manage the respective statuses. 15.2.2 Working with data annotations In figure 15.7, you can see the default results you’ll get when you display the Customer list from the model. By default, the display template is inferred from the column’s type, but it can be specified too. Generally, you specify templates by creating a new class, specifically for this scenario, that extends the entity using the MetadataTypeAttribute attribute. Dynamic Data controls work with data annotations, a feature introduced in .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 and further enhanced in version 4. In this example, we’re using POCO entities, so the annotations are directly generated using the T4 engine (which was introduced in chapter 13). If you’re using the default entity-generation engine, Figure 15.7 Dynamic Data controls are capable of displaying any mapped entity. As shown here, the display can be customized. 387Using Dynamic Data controls with Entity Framework you can use a partial class and the aforementioned MetadataTypeAttribute. More information on this topic is available from MSDN in the “MetadataTypeAttribute Class” article: http://mng.bz/q9hA. In this example, we added some custom logic to the default generation engine by altering the CDSL inside the EDMX file to generate the exact code used to represent the additional properties required by data annotations. Data annotations work with attributes, as you can see in the following listing, which contains an entity generated with these annotations. C# public abstract partial class Company : INotifyPropertyChanged, IEditableObject { ... [DisplayName("Company name")] Attributes for data annotations [Required(ErrorMessage = "Company name is required")] [DataType("MultilineText")] [RegularExpression("[\\w]{2,}", ➥ErrorMessage = "At least 2 chars.")] public virtual string Name { get { return _name; } Listing 15.3 POCO entities generated by a template with data annotations 388 CHAPTER 15 Entity Framework and ASP.NET set { _name = value; NotifyPropertyChanged("Name"); } } } VB Public MustInherit Partial Class Company Implements INotifyPropertyChanged Implements IEditableObject ... Attributes for data annotations Public Overridable Property Name() As String Get Return _name End Get Set(ByVal value As String) _name = value NotifyPropertyChanged("Name") End Set End Property End Class The annotations influence the way the property is displayed and how its value is validated:  DisplayNameAttribute—Sets a more friendly name to be displayed  RequiredAttribute—Lets you define the property as required, associating an error message to be displayed  DataTypeAttribute—Specifies a new template  RegularExpressionAttribute—Specifies a regular expression for validation You can see how Dynamic Data controls handles these attributes in figure 15.8. Data annotations are a very important way of using Entity Framework in ASP.NET. Their use isn’t limited to working with Dynamic Data controls but can be expanded to ASP.NET MVC model validation. You can find more information on the available attri- butes in the “System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations Namespace” article on MSDN: http://mng.bz/2cWi. We’re now finished with Dynamic Data controls. It’s time to learn how to directly manage the ObjectContext’s lifecycle in a typical ASP.NET application, how to handle it properly, and what the main aspects to consider are. 15.3 The ObjectContext lifecycle in ASP.NET EntityDataSource and Dynamic Data controls are interesting if you want to be very productive, or if you just need a simple interface to display and manipulate your data. In real-world applications, though, where enterprise techniques are needed, this approach won’t work. Figure 15.8 The data-annotation attributes modify the way the properties are displayed and how their values are handled. By using them, you can influence what Dynamic Data does. 389The ObjectContext lifecycle in ASP.NET As you learned in chapter 14, it’s possible to isolate Entity Framework’s dependency from the application, using a different approach from the one already introduced in this chapter. By using repositories, you can avoid coupling and maintain better control over what is performed under the hood. The examples provided in chapter 14 intro- duced you to the basics of this subject. The purpose of using a repository is to simplify testability, and, at the same time, to provide flexibility. By using a clean approach, pri- marily based on interfaces, the use of repositories also avoids coupling, generally thanks to an Inversion of Control (IoC) container that wraps the complexity. NOTE The example provided in this section is based on Unity, an IoC container that’s part of the Enterprise Library, created by the Microsoft Pattern & Practice team. The configuration is performed in the web.con- fig file. By using an IoC container, you can reuse part of the code already presented in chap- ter 14, which didn’t incorporate ASP.NET. We can reuse it here because we designed the application with great flexibility in mind. 15.3.1 The Context-per-Request pattern To make sure your strategy-based repositories can be implemented, you need to build a set of classes that will encapsulate the logic, as illustrated in figure 15.9. There are different ways to handle the ObjectContext’s lifecycle, but the best in web applications, in terms of flexibility and functionality, is to handle it per-request (as e t x ) y eEFModule tOBjectContext xPage.aspx )GetData() ApplicaonContext Resolve yMyRepository Figure 15.9 By using the IoC container, both the ObjectContext and repositories are resolved at runtime. This helps to avoid coupling and lets you manage the ObjectContext’s lifecycle correctly. 390 CHAPTER 15 Entity Framework and ASP.NET in the Context-per-Request pattern). Every request will have its own ObjectContext instance, shared by different repositories, with there generally being one instance of the ObjectContext per entity set. This simplifies the problem in many ways, because different parts of the page can access the same context, and multiple actions can be completed at the same time. Thanks to the IQueryable interface, the real query to the database will be performed only when the entity set is effectively enumerated, so no tangible overhead is associ- ated with this approach. 15.3.2 Wrapping the context In order to support this scenario, you first need to create a basic implementation that gets the ObjectContext. We previously prepared an interface called IObjectContext that can support more scenarios, like unit testing, or Windows applications. The implementation is shown in the following listing. C# public class WebContextWrapper : IObjectContext { public WebContextWrapper() { if (HttpContext.Current.Items[ConfigurationKeys.ConnectionString] == null) throw new InvalidProgramException("You must register the HttpModule first."); this.Context = ((OrderITEntities) HttpContext.Current Populates item from module .Items[ConfigurationKeys.ConnectionString]); this.objectStateManager = new ObjectStateManagerWrapper(Context.ObjectStateManager); } public IObjectSet CreateObjectSet() where T : class { return this.Context.CreateObjectSet(); Creates object Listing 15.4 Context wrapper creating an instance of the ObjectContext 391The ObjectContext lifecycle in ASP.NET } public IObjectStateManager ObjectStateManager { get { return this.objectStateManager; } } public OrderITEntities Context { get; set; } private IObjectStateManager objectStateManager; } VB Public Class WebContextWrapper Implements IObjectContext Public Sub New() If HttpContext.Current.Items(ConfigurationKeys.ConnectionString) Is Nothing Then Throw New ➥InvalidProgramException("You must register the HttpModule first.") End If Me.Context = DirectCast( HttpContext.Current Populates item from module➥ .Items(ConfigurationKeys.ConnectionString), OrderITEntities) Me.m_objectStateManager = New ➥ ObjectStateManagerWrapper(Context.ObjectStateManager) End Sub Public Function CreateObjectSet(Of T As Class)() As IObjectSet(Of T) Return Me.Context.CreateObjectSet(Of T)() Creates object End Function Public ReadOnly Property ObjectStateManager() As IObjectStateManager Get Return Me.m_objectStateManager End Get End Property Private _Context As OrderITEntities Public Property Context() As OrderITEntities Get Return _Context End Get Set(ByVal value As OrderITEntities) _Context = value End Set End Property Private m_objectStateManager As IObjectStateManager End Class The repositories were created in chapter 14, so we won’t address that topic here. The next step is to create the module to handle the per-request instance. This can easily be accomplished by writing an HttpModule. 392 CHAPTER 15 Entity Framework and ASP.NET 15.3.3 A module to handle the lifecycle You’ve handled the context, so now you need to build the module to manage the ObjectContext instance using the Context-per-Request pattern. The code is very sim- ple, as you can see here. C# public class WebContextModule : IHttpModule { public void Dispose() {} public void Init(HttpApplication context) { context.BeginRequest += new EventHandler(context_BeginRequest); context.EndRequest += new EventHandler(context_EndRequest); } void context_BeginRequest(object sender, EventArgs e) { HttpContext.Current.Items[ConfigurationKeys.ConnectionString] = new OrderITEntities(Configuration.ConnectionString); Creates instanceB } void context_EndRequest(object sender, EventArgs e) { var ctx = ((ObjectContext) HttpContext.Current.Items[ConfigurationKeys.ConnectionString]); if (ctx != null) ctx.Dispose(); Disposes of instanceC } } VB Public Class WebContextModule Implements IHttpModule Public Sub Dispose()Implements IHttpModule.Dispose End Sub Public Sub Init(ByVal context As HttpApplication) ➥ Implements IHttpModule.Init AddHandler context.BeginRequest, AddressOf context_BeginRequest AddHandler context.EndRequest, AddressOf context_EndRequest End Sub Private Sub context_BeginRequest(ByVal sender As Object, ➥ ByVal e As EventArgs) HttpContext.Current.Items(ConfigurationKeys.ConnectionString) = New OrderITEntities(Configuration.ConnectionString) Creates instanceB End Sub Private Sub context_EndRequest(ByVal sender As Object, ➥ ByVal e As EventArgs) Dim ctx = DirectCast( HttpContext.Current.Items(ConfigurationKeys.ConnectionString), ObjectContext) Listing 15.5 HttpModule that instantiates the ObjectContext per request 393Common scenarios involving ASP.NET and Entity Framework If ctx IsNot Nothing Then ctx.Dispose() Disposes of instanceC End If End Sub End Class The code speaks for itself: at the beginning of every request, the context is created B, and then it’s destroyed at the end C. Note that you must dispose of the Object- Context, or memory leaks may occur. Remember also to register the module, which is an ASP.NET HttpModule, under the appropriate section in the web.config file; other- wise, you’ll receive an error informing you that the module isn’t configured. 15.3.4 Using the repository in a page In order to use the repository to display customers in the page, you need to use this code in a Web Form page: C# Products.DataSource = ApplicationContext.Current.Companies.OfType(); Products.DataBind(); VB Products.DataSource = ApplicationContext.Current.Companies.OfType(Of Customer); Products.DataBind() As you can see, the access to repositories is wrapped in a singleton class, named ApplicationContext, which holds the reference to the repositories. The rest of the code you have already seen. This approach, with POCO entities, gives you the freedom to change the imple- mentation at any given time, because there’s no deep coupling between ASP.NET and Entity Framework. The approach based on repositories and the Context-per-Request patterns gives you good control over the ObjectContext lifecycle, too. The resulting web page is shown in figure 15.10, where an ASP.NET MVC view is used. If you need more advanced features in your repositories, you can easily add more complexity to them using this design. Each piece is interchangeable, thanks to the IoC container. Now we need to look at some common ASP.NET and Entity Framework scenarios and see what needs to be addressed when they’re used together. 15.4 Common scenarios involving ASP.NET and Entity Framework You have to know a few things when working with Entity Framework in an ASP.NET application:  Serializing objects in ViewState —By default, POCO entities aren’t serializable when they’re proxied. If you need to save an entity in ASP.NET’s ViewState, for exam- ple, this may be an issue. If a proxy isn’t in place, the entities must be decorated Figure 15.10 The customers in the database are displayed using the new design. 394 CHAPTER 15 Entity Framework and ASP.NET with SerializableAttribute. You can manually disable the proxy created or use a DTO (if that’s suitable for your needs). This is discussed in chapter 16, in the context of analyzing Entity Framework in n-tier applications. Non-POCO entities (the ones generated by default) are serializable by default because they’re generated with SerializableAttribute.  Using transactions and concurrency —ASP.NET applications are disconnected by nature. Between different requests there isn’t a real state bag, so entities are created and destroyed frequently. If you need to handle transactions or con- currency, you have to keep this in mind. You can find more on this topic in chapter 8.  Attaching entities —Attaching previously detached entities is a common scenario in web applications, because this atomic action is composed of two different steps: first, you get and display the data from the entity; then, you alter its prop- erties, getting the value from the previous form. This problem is very similar to the previous point, and is specifically addressed in chapters 6 and 7. Now you know how to create web sites using ASP.NET WebForm technology. 395Summary 15.5 Summary In this chapter, we discussed the two main options offered by ASP.NET for handling Entity Framework’s ObjectContext. You can easily integrate them either automatically or manually. Both EntityDataSource and Dynamic Data controls can make you very produc- tive. In particular, Dynamic Data controls can work with the custom T4 template to generate rich data-editing interfaces, using data annotations to further enhance the generated interface. This approach has some limits in terms of controlling the ObjectContext creation, and it can’t be used to wrap the ObjectContext behind a domain model. If you prefer to isolate Entity Framework, you can manually manage the Object- Context. Doing so gives you great flexibility; but ObjectContext’s lifecycle needs to be carefully managed in web applications, where multiple instance of the same object may occur per request—this situation must be resolved. You can address this scenario by writing a specific set of classes that automatically instantiate the ObjectContext at the beginning of every request and destroy it when the request is completed. In this scenario, using an IoC container gives you the flexibility to control what happens when common tasks related to your entities are performed. ASP.NET is the most common way to use Entity Framework; but as a part of the .NET Framework, Entity Framework isn’t limited to web pages: you can use Entity Framework in virtually any kind of application. The following chapters will look at using Entity Framework in n-tier and Windows-based applications. 396 Entity Framework and n-tier development You can solve many problems with a service-oriented application. Sometimes these types of applications are used by client applications (clients from now on) within a larger system. Other times, clients are developed by third-party organizations, and your duty is to build services. This means that you have no GUI to develop—just services. Whatever the client is, the application must be separated into different physical tiers that are completely disconnected from each other and that communicate through a specific interface: the contract. In the context of Entity Framework, work- ing in a disconnected way is the obvious pattern for these types of applications because the context can’t be propagated from the server to the client tier, which means modifications made on the client side can’t be tracked, and a new context for each request is required on the server side. This chapter covers  Solving n-tier development problems  Developing Windows Communication Foundation services  Developing with self-tracking entities 397n-Tier problems and solutions In chapter 6, you learned that a degree of discipline is required to work in a dis- connected scenario. Although the code on the client side is simple (the client code isn’t even aware that Entity Framework is used by the server), persisting modifications on the service side requires a certain amount of code. In this chapter, you’ll learn what problems services have to face and what tech- niques you can use to solve them. You’ll also learn that under some circumstances, Entity Framework can simplify n-tier applications so that you can stay more focused on the business code and not spend as much time on persistence problems. 16.1 n-Tier problems and solutions Distributed applications introduce challenges that don’t exist for applications that are always connected (such as Windows applications), including client change-tracking and entity serialization. We’ll look at these n-tier problems and solutions in the next few sections, so we can spend the rest of the chapter looking at how to implement n- tier applications. 16.1.1 Tracking changes made on the client The biggest challenge you face when developing n-tier applications is that the con- text exists only on the server side, so changes made to entities on the client aren’t tracked (this is a typical example of a disconnected scenario). Suppose you have a web service with one method that reads the customer and another that updates it (an example we’ve looked at previously). Figure 16.1 shows how such a web service han- dles the context. Client Server Context Instanates Gets customer Disposes Returns customer Invokes Context Instanates Context No tracking informaon Read method Update method Invokes Figure 16.1 The path of an update in a n-tier application. The context that’s used to read a customer is different from the one used to update it. Furthermore, client change-tracking isn’t available. In the method that retrieves the customer, you create a context, retrieve the cus- tomer, return it to the caller, and then destroy the context. In the method that saves the customer, you create a context, but it has no knowledge of what has been modi- fied on the client side. The result is that you have two ways to update the customer:  Retrieve the customer from the database, compare it with the input version, update the database with the differences, and destroy the context.  Attach the input customer to the context, mark it as Modified, persist all its data, and destroy the context. 398 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development Both solutions are simple because Customer is a single entity; but what happens with orders? Creating and deleting an order is pretty easy, but how do things change if you have to update one? You have to handle its relationships with the customer and with the details, which must in turn keep their relationships with the products. You have to know which details have been updated, added, or deleted. A possible solution is to compare details from the database with the ones in the input order. Another option is adopting a convention where details with ID 0 are added, those with ID greater than 0 are updated, and those with ID greater than 0 and with all properties set to their default values are deleted. Whatever your choice is, you have to arrange a sort of logic contract between the client and the server, and the cli- ent must know how to let the service understand what happened. This logic contract requires lots of code on both the client and the server. Another alternative is to use self-tracking entities (STEs). These are POCO entities that contain data plus logic that internally stores the modifications made to the prop- erties. Thanks to this feature, the client can send the entities back to the server, which can read the internal state and save the modifications to the database. STEs aren’t bul- letproof. They’re perfect in some scenarios, but in others they’re unusable. Later in this chapter, we’ll discuss when and why you can use them. In addition to the change-tracking problem, another problem that arises when working in n-tier scenarios is the contract between the client and server. Usually you won’t want to send full entities to the client because they could contain sensitive information. 16.1.2 Choosing data to be exchanged between server and client In OrderIT, each customer has a username/password combination that grants access to the web service they can use to modify personal data and to create and modify orders. You should never let the password flow through the web service. You can let the customer reset the password, send it to the customer via mail, or let the system admin- istrator change it, but you shouldn’t let the password flow to the customer through the service (especially if the channel isn’t secured by HTTPS). What’s more, it’s the system administrator who decides whether a customer can access the web service and what username is assigned, so the customer can’t change web service–related information through the web service. Now, suppose that you’re realizing the web service methods that let customers read and modify their personal data. The first thing you have to decide is how to exchange data with the client. Because the Customer entity has the WSPassword, WSUsername, and WSEnabled properties (which we’ll refer to collectively as the WS* properties), and you don’t want to send them to the web service client, you have two choices:  Send the Customer entity to the client, emptying the WS* properties. This approach works. You just need to pay attention to not filling the WS* properties when sending data to the client and to not using the WS* properties’ values to update the database when data comes back from the client. The obvious drawback is 399n-Tier problems and solutions that because you’re ignoring the WS* properties, there’s not much point in sending them back and forth. The next option is better than this one.  Create a CustomerDTO class, a data transfer object (DTO) class, containing only the data needed for communication, and expose it to the client. This approach works really well. You just need to create an ad hoc class (a DTO), pour data into it when reading the Customer entity, and pour data from it to the Customer entity when updating the database (not updating the WS* properties). This way, you have a much cleaner design, with the only drawback being that you need to maintain one more class. But remember that T4 templates can help you generate such classes. Just cre- ate a custom property (as you did in the Add/Attach example in chapter 13) that states whether the entity property must be included in the DTO, and then create a template that generates the DTO for you. If this doesn’t make you fall in love with T4, nothing will. The class you expose to the client is known as the contract. Choosing what type of con- tract to expose to the client isn’t strictly related to Entity Framework; it’s more related to application design. Nonetheless, choosing whether to send the full entity or a DTO to the client has an impact on how you work with Entity Framework. Let’s now look at another common problem. Generally speaking, to let data flow over the wire, the data must be serialized. You know that when an entity is returned by a query, the real type is a proxy (unless you disable proxy generation). This creates a problem, because Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), which is the frame- work we’ll use to create the web service, isn’t able to serialize a proxy instance. 16.1.3 The serialization problem By default, when you query for a customer, you get an instance of an object that inher- its from Customer (such as CustomerProxy). WCF can serialize only types it knows about (referred to as known types), and CustomerProxy, although it inherits from Customer, isn’t a known type. The consequence is that serializing it throws an excep- tion, as illustrated in figure 16.2. The problem isn’t only on the server side, but on the client side also. The client can be an appli- cation that uses Entity Framework for its own pur- poses. Suppose the client reads customer data from its own database and then calls the service to synchronize local database data with server data. In this case, the client could have a proxy instance that would need to be serialized by WCF: different layers, but the same problem. Often you don’t need a proxy. If you only need to read an entity from the database and send this Customer WCF Knows CustomerProxy Serializes and throws excepon Figure 16.2 WCF knows Customer but not CustomerProxy, so it throws an exception when serializing CustomerProxy. 400 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development entity over the wire, you don’t need either change-tracking or lazy-loading behavior. In such cases, you can disable proxy generation. NOTE If you have a proxy instance, remember to disable lazy loading before serializing, or you’ll end up sending unwanted data to the client. This happens because the WCF serializer extracts all properties, including navigation properties, and this causes them to be lazily loaded. In some cases, though, you may need to have a proxy instance and to serialize it. The Entity Framework team considered this possibility and used a new WCF 4.0 feature to serialize proxies: the contract resolver. WCF’s DataContractResolver class allows you to dynamically map one type to another type. The Entity Framework team created the ProxyDataContractResolver class, which inherits from DataContractResolver, to map the proxy type to the POCO type that the proxy wraps (for example, from CustomerProxy to Customer). To resolve the map- ping, ProxyDataContractResolver invokes the ObjectContext class’s static Get- ObjectType method, which returns the base type of the proxy, which is the POCO entity (for example, Customer is the base type of CustomerProxy). Because WCF knows the POCO entity, WCF treats the proxy as if it were the POCO entity, so WCF serializes the entity without any problem. It’s that easy. ProxyDataContractResolver is great, but it does nothing on its own. You must plug it into the WCF pipeline. We’ll look at how to do this in the next section, where you’ll start to develop a service. You now have a clear idea of what intricacies you face when developing a service application. In the next sections, you’ll develop services that use plain entities, DTOs, and STEs so that the full spectrum of options will be covered. By the end of the chap- ter, you’ll have a solution for each situation. 16.2 Developing a service using entities as contracts In many projects, entities are fully exposed through a web service (so DTOs aren’t used). If the client can access all of an entity’s properties, using the entity to exchange data between client and server isn’t an issue. If the client shouldn’t access some entity’s properties, using the entity to exchange data between client and server isn’t the best solution. For instance, as we mentioned in the previous section, exposing the Customer entity in OrderIT poses a problem because you don’t want to send WS* prop- erties back and forth. However, as long as you don’t set them when you send the entity to the client, and you don’t update them when the entity comes back, you can let the properties flow across the tiers. Let’s look at how you can create a service that uses the Customer entity to let the customer read and update its personal data. The first thing to do is to create a service interface like the one in this listing. 401Developing a service using entities as contracts C# [ServiceContract] public interface IOrderITService { [OperationContract] Customer Read(); [OperationContract] void Update(Customer customer); } VB _ Public Interface IOrderITService _ Function Read() As Customer _ Sub Update(ByVal customer As Customer) End Interface The Read method returns the current customer. There’s no CustomerId parameter because the web service is secured, and the security check returns the id of the logged-in customer. This way, you’re sure that a call to Read returns data about the current customer. The Update method takes the customer back and updates it. NOTE Update accepts a Customer entity, but it could have accepted sin- gle properties (shipping address, city, name, and so on). There are pros and cons in both techniques, so choosing one approach or the other is a matter of personal taste. The implementation of Read queries for the customer by the ID, blanks out the WS* properties, and returns the entity to the caller. The code is shown in the following listing. C# public Customer Read() { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { var result = ctx.Companies .OfType() .FirstOrDefault( c => c.CompanyId == _customerId); result.WSPassword = String.Empty; result.WSUsername = String.Empty; result.WSEnabled = false; Listing 16.1 The interface exposed by the service Listing 16.2 The implementation of the Read method 402 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development return result; } } VB Public Function Read() As Customer Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() Dim result = ctx.Companies. OfType(Of Customer)(). FirstOrDefault( Function(c) c.CompanyId = _customerId) result.WSPassword = String.Empty result.WSUsername = String.Empty result.WSEnabled = False Return result End Using End Function The query to retrieve the customer is simple, and you’ve seen it several times before. Blanking out the WS* properties is pretty simple too. The entire method is definitely trivial. At runtime, the code performs correctly; but when WCF serializes the entity, a seri- alization exception is thrown because result is a proxied instance of the Customer entity. In the next section, you’ll see how to overcome this problem, but for the moment we’ll let it stand and examine how to handle the Update method. Update takes the modified customer and persists it. The problem here is that it should only update the address-related properties and the name, and ignore the others. If you mark the entity as Modified using the ChangeObjectState method, all the properties will be modified even if they’re blank or null. If you retrieve the customer from the database and then use ApplyCurrentValues to update it with the values from the input entity, you’ll have the same problem. The password is blank in the input entity, and it has a value in the one coming from the database. Because Apply- CurrentValues overrides database entity values with ones from the input entity, the blank value would be persisted. The ideal solution should allow you to set the entity as Modified but for only some of the properties to be updated. This result can be achieved using the Object- StateEntry class’s SetModifiedProperty method, which marks a property (and the entry) as Modified. You see it in action in this listing. C# public void Update(Customer customer) { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { ctx.Companies.Attach(customer); var entry = ctx.ObjectStateManager. Listing 16.3 The implementation of the Update method 403Developing a service using entities as contracts GetObjectStateEntry(customer); entry.SetModifiedProperty("ShippingAddress"); entry.SetModifiedProperty("BillingAddress"); entry.SetModifiedProperty("Name"); ctx.SaveChanges(); } } VB Public Sub Update(ByVal customer As Customer) Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() ctx.Companies.Attach(customer) Dim entry = ctx.ObjectStateManager. GetObjectStateEntry(customer) entry.SetModifiedProperty("ShippingAddress") entry.SetModifiedProperty("BillingAddress") entry.SetModifiedProperty("Name") ctx.SaveChanges() End Using End Sub First the entity is attached to the context. After that, the related entry is retrieved and the properties that were updatable by the user are marked as Modified. Finally, the entity is persisted. This way, only marked properties are persisted. Updating a single entity is fairly simple. But as we said before, when it comes to orders and details, the situation becomes more complex. 16.2.1 Persisting a complex graph Updating just the order or a detail is pretty simple, because you can reuse the same technique used for the customer. What’s difficult is understanding what details have been added or removed. In section 7.3.3, you learned how to detect what’s been changed. The drawback in that code is that it requires a comparison between details in the database and the details you’ve been passed by the client. To avoid this, you can establish a logic con- tract with the client: deleted details are always sent to the server with only the ID set (and with all other properties at their default values), added details are assigned an ID of 0, and other details are considered to be modified. This way, you can retrieve deleted, added, and modified details in a snap using simple LINQ queries. The disadvantage of this technique is that you move some business logic to the cli- ent, and that’s not good from a design point of view. That’s why we disregard this pat- tern and opt for the comparison with the database, despite its additional querying. Naturally, customers can’t change an order’s estimated or actual shipping dates, nor can they change an order detail’s discount. To prevent customers from updating this data, you can use the same technique discussed in the preceding section. So far, you’ve sent full entities over the wire, taking care to blank out properties that shouldn’t be seen by the client. But wouldn’t it be better if the properties that shouldn’t be shown to the client weren’t exposed by the service at all, so you could avoid writing the code that blanks these properties out? Let’s look at how to do that. 404 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development 16.2.2 Optimizing data exchanges between client and server If you want to fully customize the way you send data back and forth, using DTOs is the best way. You can use plain entities and have them behave sort of like DTOs, but this solution has some disadvantages that we’ll analyze in this section. By default, WCF exposes all entities’ public properties to the client. You can change this behavior and selectively decide what properties to expose by applying WCF- specific attributes on classes and properties. For example, you can apply attributes on the CompanyId, Name, ShippingAddress, and BillingAddress properties so that only they are available to the client. The following listing shows how to apply such attri- butes to classes. C# [DataContract(IsSerializable=true)] Marks classB public partial abstract class Company { [DataMember] Marks properties C public virtual int CompanyId { ... } [DataMember] public virtual string Name { ... } [DataMember] public virtual byte[] Version { ... } } [DataContract(IsSerializable=true)] Marks classB public partial class Customer : Company { ... [DataMember] Marks properties C public virtual AddressInfo BillingAddress { ... } [DataMember] public virtual AddressInfo ShippingAddress { ... } } VB _ Marks classB Public MustInherit Partial Class Company _ Marks properties C Public Overridable Property CompanyId() As Int32 _ Public Overridable Property Name() As String _ Public Overridable Property Version() As Byte() End Class _ Marks classB Public Partial Class Customer Inherits Company ... _ Marks properties C Public Overridable Property BillingAddress() As AddressInfo _ Listing 16.4 Marking entities for WCF custom serialization 405Developing a service using entities as contracts Public Overridable Property ShippingAddress() As AddressInfo End Class The attributes to use are DataContract B and DataMember C. DataContract must be applied on the class to specify that only properties decorated with DataMember should be exposed by the service. The result of listing 16.4 is that in the WSDL exposed by the service, Company contains the CompanyId, Name, and Version (required for concurrency checks) properties, and Customer contains only the Shipping- Address and BillingAddress properties. When the client generates its classes from the WSDL, it will create them with only those properties and will never know that on the server, the classes contain more properties. NOTE Manually modifying entities isn’t the best practice because the modifications are lost at each code generation. It’s better to create a cus- tom annotation in the EDM and then modify the template that generates the code (as we discussed in chapter 13). Exposing only the correct properties is optimal not only from a design point of view but for performance too. When you send full entities with blanked-out properties, the empty properties are still sent to the client. Not sending the WS* properties over the wire means that less data is sent and more requests can be served. In the code for reading the customer, the only difference is that you don’t need to blank out the WS* properties because they’re not sent to the client. In the update phase, nothing changes because only the addresses and name properties must be updated. NOTE Even if the Customer entity that goes over the wire is different from the actual one (it has fewer properties), WCF is able to map it to the original one by using the DataContract and DataMember attributes. We’ve already talked about the serialization problem, but we haven’t talked much about its solution. Let’s look at that now. 16.2.3 Dealing with serialization in WCF The easiest way to make an entity that’s returned by a query serializable by WCF is to set the ContextOptions.ProxyCreationEnabled property of the context to false (by default, it’s true) before performing the query. This way, you obtain the plain entity instead of a proxied one, eliminating any serialization problem. Disabling proxy generation isn’t always possible because you may need lazy loading or change tracking. In such cases, you need to serialize a proxied instance. In section 16.1.3, you’ve learned that ProxyDataContractResolver is the key to proxy serialization. The contract resolution is a WCF feature that enables you to map the actual type (the proxy) to a WCF known type (the entity exposed) using the work- flow illustrated in figure 16.3. Customer WCFKnows CustomerProxy Serializes Resolver Asks for real type Customer Maps enty to Figure 16.3 WCF knows Customer, and when it receives CustomerProxy, it uses the resolver to map CustomerProxy to Customer. 406 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development ProxyDataContractResolver performs such mappings but it isn’t able to interfere with the WCF pipeline. That’s something you have to do manually. Fortunately, this pro- cess is pretty simple; you just have to create an attribute and decorate the service inter- face methods with it. You can see the code for the attribute in the following listing. C# public class ProxyResolverAttribute : Attribute, IOperationBehavior { public void AddBindingParameters(OperationDescription description, BindingParameterCollection parameters) { } public void ApplyClientBehavior(OperationDescription description, ClientOperation proxy) { SetResolver(description); Sets client-side resolver B } public void ApplyDispatchBehavior(OperationDescription description, DispatchOperation dispatch) { SetResolver(description); Sets service-side resolverC } public void Validate(OperationDescription operationDescription) { } private void SetResolver(OperationDescription description) { var dataContractSerializerOperationBehavior = Retrieves serializer behavior D description.Behaviors.Find (); dataContractSerializerOperationBehavior. Sets resolver on serializer behavior E DataContractResolver = new ProxyDataContractResolver(); } } VB Public Class ProxyResolverAttribute Inherits Attribute Implements IOperationBehavior Public Sub AddBindingParameters( Listing 16.5 Class that plugs the contract resolver into WCF 407Developing a service using entities as contracts ByVal description As OperationDescription, ByVal parameters As BindingParameterCollection) End Sub Public Sub ApplyClientBehavior(ByVal description As OperationDescription, ByVal proxy As ClientOperation) SetResolver(description) Sets client-side resolverB End Sub Public Sub ApplyDispatchBehavior( ByVal description As OperationDescription, ByVal dispatch As DispatchOperation) SetResolver(description) Sets service-side resolverC End Sub Public Sub Validate(ByVal operationDescription As OperationDescription) End Sub Private Sub SetResolver(ByVal description As OperationDescription) Dim dataContractSerializerOperationBehavior = Retrieves serializer behavior D description.Behaviors.Find( Of DataContractSerializerOperationBehavior)() dataContractSerializerOperationBehavior. Sets resolver on serializer behavior E DataContractResolver = New ProxyDataContractResolver() End Sub End Class The ProxyResolverAttribute class intercepts both the client B and service C serial- ization processes, setting the actual resolver to a ProxyDataContractResolver instance. The SetResolver method is the most important, because it’s here that you retrieve the serialization behavior D and set its resolver to ProxyDataContract- Resolver E. After the attribute class is created, you decorate the Read interface method with the attribute, as shown in the next snippet: C# [OperationContract] [ProxyResolverAttribute] Customer Read(); VB _ _ Function Read() As Customer From now on, each time WCF tries to serialize entities in the Read method, it will use the Entity Framework resolver. By applying the attribute to all service methods, you can work with both plain and proxied entities everywhere, without worrying about their serialization. This is a huge step forward for productivity and simplicity. Working with proxies introduces the problem of lazy loading during serialization. This problem deserves a brief discussion. 408 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development BEWARE LAZY LOADING WHEN SERIALIZING The Customer entity doesn’t have any navigation properties. Order is the opposite, because it references the customer and the details. Suppose you want to write a method that returns just the order without details and customer. When WCF serializes the order, it uses all public properties, or those marked with the DataMember attribute. If the Order instance is a proxy, the access to its naviga- tion properties causes them to be lazy-loaded and then serialized to be sent to the cli- ent. Depending on how you write the code, two things can happen. One option is to instantiate the context in a using statement. When the WCF serial- izer accesses the properties, the context is gone. This causes the access to navigation properties by the serializer to throw an exception, because the lazy-loading code needs the context. Figure 16.4 shows this flow. WCFMethod code Retrieves order Destroys context Creates context Serializes order Tries to retrieve details and throws excepon because context is disposed of Figure 16.4 The flow when the context is disposed of and a proxied entity is later serialized. Accessing the navigation properties (OrderDetail) causes the navigation properties to be lazy loaded and a serialization exception to be thrown because the context is disposed of. The second option is to not use the using statement. When the WCF serializer accesses the properties, the context is still there because it’s referenced by the proxied entity, and the properties are lazy-loaded. For instance, when the OrderDetails prop- erty is accessed, details are dynamically loaded and added to the message sent to the client. Because the details are proxy instances, the access to the Product property causes it to be, once again, lazy loaded and added to the message. Finally, because Product has a reference to the suppliers, they’re loaded too. The result in this case is that a method that should return an order returns an enormous quantity of useless and unwanted data. Depending on how many associa- tions are in the model, the entire database could be sent to the client (or you’ll receive a WCF exception due to message size). What’s even worse than sending a huge and useless message to the client is for the database to be flooded by lots of queries generated by the lazy-loading feature. Figure 16.5 shows this nightmare! There are two ways to solve these problems:  Disable proxy creation (and use Include if you need to eager load some properties).  Disable lazy loading before sending data to the client. Both options work, so which you choose must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. 409Developing a service using DTOs You’ve learned in this section that there are some tricks to developing a service using Entity Framework–generated entities. Let’s see how to overcome these potential problems using the DTO approach. 16.3 Developing a service using DTOs A DTO is a standalone class used only for communication purposes. By creating a DTO, you can easily control what data is sent to the client. In fact, customizing enti- ties to add serialization attributes can be a real pain due to the complexity of modify- ing the EDM and template (unless you gen- erate the model once, modify it manually, and never regenerate it ... but that’s an extremely improbable scenario). Creating a DTO for the Customer class is just a matter of creating a class containing the properties you need to expose to the client. You can create and maintain such a class manually, but nothing prevents you from using custom annotations in the EDM and a template to generate the class. The DTO class is simple, as you see in this listing. C# public class CustomerDTO { public int CompanyId { get; set; } public string Name { get; set; } public AddressInfo ShippingAddress { get; set; } public AddressInfo BillingAddress { get; set; } public Byte[] Version { get; set; } } VB Public Class CustomerDTO Public Property CompanyId() As Integer Public Property Name() As String Public Property ShippingAddress() As AddressInfo Public Property BillingAddress() As AddressInfo Public Property Version() As Byte() End Class Let’s leave the Read and Update methods working with the full entities and create two new methods: ReadDTO and UpdateDTO. These methods won’t work with Customer but with CustomerDTO. Adding methods to the service interface is trivial, so we’ll move directly to their implementation. Here’s the ReadDTO method. Listing 16.6 The DTO class for the customer Order Detail1 Detail2 Detail3 Customer Product 1 Product 2 Product 3 Supplier C Supplier A Supplier B Supplier A Supplier B Supplier C Query Query Query Query QueryQuery Query QueryQuery Figure 16.5 When lazy loading is active, serialization can generate lots of unwanted queries to the database, which may lead to an entire graph being loaded. 410 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development C# public CustomerDTO ReadDTO() { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { return ctx.Companies .OfType() .Select(c => new CustomerDTO Creates returned DTO B { BillingAddress = c.BillingAddress, CompanyId = c.CompanyId, Name = c.Name, ShippingAddress = c.ShippingAddress, Version = c.Version }) .FirstOrDefault(c => c.CompanyId == _customerId); } } VB Public Function ReadDTO() As CustomerDTO Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() Return ctx.Companies. OfType(Of Customer)(). Select(Function(c) New CustomerDTO With Creates returned DTO B { .BillingAddress = c.BillingAddress, .CompanyId = c.CompanyId, .Name = c.Name, .ShippingAddress = c.ShippingAddress, .Version = c.Version }). FirstOrDefault(Function(c) c.CompanyId = _customerId) End Using End Function The ReadDTO implementation is trivial because you can create a CustomerDTO instance directly in the LINQ to Entities query B and return it. The UpdateDTO implementation consists of more code, but it’s still pretty simple. C# public void UpdateDTO(CustomerDTO customer) { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { var newCustomer = new Customer Creates stubB { CompanyId = customer.CompanyId Version = customer. Version }; Listing 16.7 The ReadDTO method using DTO Listing 16.8 The UpdateDTO method using DTO 411Developing a service using DTOs ctx.Companies.Attach(newCustomer); Attaches stubC newCustomer.ShippingAddress = Sets stub properties D customer.ShippingAddress; newCustomer.BillingAddress = customer.BillingAddress; newCustomer.Name = customer.Name; ctx.SaveChanges(); } } VB Public Sub UpdateDTO(ByVal customer As CustomerDTO) Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() Dim newCustomer As New Customer() With { Creates stubB .CompanyId = custmer.CompanyId, .Version = customer.Version } ctx.Companies.Attach(newCustomer) Attaches stubC newCustomer.ShippingAddress = Sets stub properties D customer.ShippingAddress newCustomer.BillingAddress = customer.BillingAddress newCustomer.Name = customer.Name ctx.SaveChanges() End Using End Sub You don’t have a Customer entity, so you need to create one using DTO properties. Because you don’t have all of the Customer entity’s properties, the best solution is cre- ating a Customer stub (an entity where only key properties are set), setting its CompanyId and Version properties B, attaching it to the context C, and then setting other properties using DTO properties D. This way, the context will persist only prop- erties modified after the entity was attached to the context and won’t care if other properties (such as username and password) are empty or null; it won’t persist them. NOTE Unlike CompanyId, the Version property isn’t necessary for the attaching process. The reason it’s set before attaching in listing 16.8 is that we care about concurrency. To perform the concurrency check, Entity Framework uses the value in the OriginalValues property of the entry. If you didn’t set the Version property before attaching the entity, the entry’s original value would be null because the original values are set with the value of the properties when the entity is attached to the con- text. In that case, the persistence would fail, raising an Optimistic- ConcurrencyException. Even with DTOs, updating a single entity isn’t complex. Let’s look at what it takes to use DTOs to maintain the order graph. 16.3.1 Persisting a complex graph Assume that you’ve created the DTOs for both order and details. After the client updates the data and sends it back, you can use the code from the previous section to modify the order. 412 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development To determine which details have been added, deleted, and modified, you can go to the database (arguably a best practice) and perform a comparison, or use the logic contract (arguably a worst practice). If you choose the first option, there’s a caveat you have to know about. Because the OrderDetailDTO and the OrderDetail classes are different, you can’t use the Inter- sect and Except LINQ methods, as we discussed in chapter 7, because they work on classes of the same type. The workaround is to compare only the IDs of the objects, instead of comparing the objects, as you did in chapter 7. This is shown in the following listing (where order is the DTO instance and dbOrder is the order from the database). C# var added = order.OrderDetails.Where(d => !dbOrder.OrderDetails.Any(od => od.OrderDetailId == o.OrderDetailId)); var deleted = dbOrder.OrderDetails.Where(d => !order.OrderDetails.Any(od => od.OrderDetailId == o.OrderDetailId)); var modified = order.OrderDetails.Where(d => dbOrder.OrderDetails.Any(od => od.OrderDetailId == o.OrderDetailId)); VB Dim added = order.OrderDetails.Where(Function(d) _ Not dbOrder.OrderDetails.Any(Function(od) _ od.OrderDetailId = o.OrderDetailId)) Dim deleted = dbOrder.OrderDetails.Where(Function(d) _ Not order.OrderDetails.Any(Function(od) _ od.OrderDetailId = o.OrderDetailId)) Dim modified = order.OrderDetails.Where(Function(d) _ dbOrder.OrderDetails.Any(Function(od) _ od.OrderDetailId = o.OrderDetailId)) When you know what’s changed, the hardest part is done and you can persist entities easily. Added details are added to the details collection of the dbOrder variable, deleted ones are removed through a call to the DeleteObject method of the details entity set, and updated ones are modified by setting their properties to the DTO set- tings. Easy, isn’t it? If you compare development using DTOs with development using Entity Frame- work–generated entities, you’ll find that DTOs don’t increase complexity, they guaran- tee optimal performance, and they decouple your entities from the service interface. These are all great reasons to adopt DTOs. So far, the client has received an object (the client doesn’t know whether it’s an entity or a DTO), modified it, and sent it back to the service. Let’s now investigate another scenario where the client and server exchange both information about the entity and information about what entity’s properties have been modified on the cli- ent, so the service can update the database easily. Objects that contain both data and information about what’s changed on the client are called STEs. Listing 16.9 Detecting added, deleted, and modified details in an order 413Developing a service using STEs 16.4 Developing a service using STEs So far, we’ve followed a pattern where the client invokes a method on the service to obtain entities. The client modifies these entities and sends them back to the service. These entities contain data and nothing else. If they contained information about what’s changed on the client (change- tracking information), it would be much easier for the service to update the database. It would even be better if these entities themselves contained the behavior to detect and store changes made on the client. Self-tracking entities (STEs) contain all these features: entity data and internal change-tracking behavior. By having an inner change-tracking manager, the entity can set its actual state as Modified when a property is modified, so the server doesn’t need to discover what’s been changed. The same way, when a linked entity is removed or added (think about details in an order), the entity keeps track of the change. When the entity is sent back to the service, the context reads the tracking information in the entity’s change- tracker component and immediately knows what to do without your having to write code to detect changes on your own. Figure 16.6 shows the entire workflow of an entity sent from the server to the cli- ent, which modifies it and then sends it back to the server. Service Client Changes customer ID Edits detail1 Removes detail2 Adds detail3 READSTE method Reads Customer from database Creates Customer STE Returns Customer STE to client Invokes Customer STE All properes State: Unchanged Detail1 state: Unchanged Detail2 state: Unchanged CustomerId: 1 UPDATEDSTE method Inspects Customer STE Saves modificaon to database Invokes Customer STE All properes State: Modified : Detail1 state Modified : Detail2 state Deleted Detail3 state: Added CustomerId: 2 Figure 16.6 The client reads the STE, modifies it, and then sends it back. During the process, the STE keeps track of the changes. As you may expect, STEs are generated through template. The template that gen- erates STEs, in addition to creating the entities and their properties adds the inner change-tracking code to the entities. The template that generates the context code creates an ObjectContext extension method that accepts an STE, reads change- tracking information from it, and then sets the state manager so that it reflects the entity changes. 414 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development Naturally, tracking information must be part of the entity, and this entity structure is described in the WSDL. But the WSDL doesn’t describe behavior. How does the cli- ent know how to populate the change-tracking information? The answer is the logic contract. An STE exposes a structure containing entity data and change-tracking data. It’s up to the client to correctly populate the latter. As we’ve said, exposing such business logic to the client isn’t optimal, but STEs introduce so many benefits that in some cases we can make exceptions. We say “some cases” because STEs aren’t always the best option. We’ll discuss this more at the end of this section. First, let’s create a service using STEs. 16.4.1 Enabling STEs The first step in adding STEs to a project is creating them. Entity Framework ships with a template for generate this type of entity: 1 In OrderIT.Model, add a STE folder named STE. 2 Inside the folder, add a new template of type ADO.NET Self-Tracking Entities Generator and name it STE, as shown in figure 16.7. Two templates are added to the solution: one for the context (STE.Context.tt) and one for the entities (STE.tt). 3 Open the context template, and set the inputFile variable to the path of the EDMX file (../model.edmx). 4 Create a new assembly, name it OrderIT.Model.STE, cut the entities template file, and paste it inside this new assembly. Figure 16.7 Adding STEs to the project 415Developing a service using STEs 5 Open the entities template, and set the inputFile variable to the relative path of the EDMX (../OrderIT.Model/model.edmx). 6 In the OrderIT.Model assembly, add a reference to the OrderIT.Model.STE assembly. Now you have an assembly with all the entities and the context in OrderIT.Model. This is the best configuration, as you’ll discover later. Next, let’s investigate how the STE template generates the entities and the context. 16.4.2 Inside an STE An STE is a POCO entity that has properties plus some infrastructure code that man- ages serialization and adds change-tracking capabilities to the entity itself. The infra- structure code that manages serialization is made of the DataContract, DataCollection, and DataMember attributes, which decorate the entity and its proper- ties to be serialized. The change-tracking infrastructure code in the entity consists of the IObjectChangeTracker interface and its implementation in the entity. This inter- face is vital for change tracking. UNDERSTANDING THE ENTITY CHANGE TRACKER The IObjectChangeTracker interface declares the ChangeTracker property, which is of type ObjectChangeTracker. As you may guess from the name, the ObjectChange- Tracker class is responsible for entity’s change-tracking behavior. You can consider the ObjectChangeTracker to be equivalent to the ObjectStateManager class, but lim- ited to one entity. The ObjectChangeTracker (change tracker from now on) is particularly complex. It has the following properties:  ChangeTrackingEnabled—Specifies whether the change tracking is enabled or not, with a Boolean value  ObjectState—Specifies the state of the entity  ObjectsRemovedFromCollectionProperties—Contains objects removed from a collection navigation property (for instance, details removed from an order)  OriginalValues—Contains the original values for properties that were changed  ExtendedProperties—Contains extended properties needed for Entity Frame- work internals (for instance, if you use independent associations, it contains the keys of the referenced entities) Each of these properties is related to a key feature of the change tracker. Change- TrackingEnabled is true by default, and it’s mostly there because the change tracker needs to set it appropriately during the entity’s serialization and deserialization phase. You’ll probably never need to turn it off, but doing so will pose no problem other than the fact that modifications won’t be tracked. 416 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development ObjectState is important because when the entity is sent back to the server, it’s attached to the context, which analyzes the entity and sets its state to the value speci- fied by the ObjectState property. By default, an STE is in Added state, not Unchanged. ObjectsRemovedFromCollectionProperties is one of the most important proper- ties. When you use DTOs or entities to exchange data between the server and the cli- ent, and an object from a collection navigation property is removed (for instance, a detail is removed from an order) that object is removed from the collection and it isn’t sent to the service. The consequence is that on the service you have to perform a comparison between the database’s and the entity’s data to determine which details have been removed. When you use STEs, if an object is removed from a collection navigation property, it’s moved into the ObjectsRemovedFromCollectionProperties property. When the entity is sent back to the server, you don’t need to perform a comparison with the data- base to discover which objects have been removed from the collection navigation prop- erty because these objects are in the ObjectsRemovedFromCollectionProperties property of the STE’s change tracker. The context on the server sets all objects in the ObjectsRemovedFromCollectionProperties property to Deleted state. OriginalValues maintains the original values of properties that are required for concurrency management. In the case of the Customer entity, it contains the original value of the Version property. This way, concurrency management is handled without you having to do anything. ExtendedProperties is a repository for properties needed by Entity Framework, and you never have to deal with it. HOW THE CHANGE TRACKER DETECTS ENTITY MODIFICATION In addition to IObjectChangeTracker, an STE implements INotifyPropertyChanged. The change tracker subscribes to the PropertyChanged event that’s raised by the set- ter of entity properties. In the handler of the event, the change tracker sets the entity state to Modified (if it’s not already in Added or Deleted state) and registers the origi- nal value of the property if it’s used for concurrency or is part of the key. Collection properties are of type TrackableCollection, which inherits from ObservableCollection. This collection exposes the CollectionChanged event, which is raised when an item is added or removed. The change tracker subscribes to this event so it knows when an object is removed from the collection and can store the object in the ObjectsRemovedFromCollectionProperties internal property. MANAGING ENTITY STATE STEs also offer some interesting methods. The most important methods are the MarkAs* methods (where the asterisk stands for a state), which allow you to manually modify the internal state of an entity.  MarkAsAdded —Marks an entity as Added  MarkAsUnchanged —Marks an entity as Unchanged  MarkAsModified —Marks an entity as Modified  MarkAsDeleted —Marks an entity as Deleted 417Developing a service using STEs The StartTracking and StopTracking methods allow you to enable and disable change tracking, respectively. They do this by setting the ChangeTrackingEnabled property of the change tracker. Finally, the AcceptChanges method accepts all modifications and sets the state of the entity to Unchanged. You can think of it as a sort of commit for modifications. That covers how an STE tracks its modifications, keeps its internal state, and lets you manually modify it. The next thing you need to know is how the context is gener- ated and how it reads the STEs internal state. 16.4.3 Inside the context The context generated by the STE template isn’t any different from the one generated by the POCO template, except for one thing: in the constructor, the proxy creation is disabled so that plain entities are returned. The STE template also generates another class that contains an extension method to the ObjectContext class. The extension method is ApplyChanges, and it’s responsible for accepting an STE, attaching it to the context, analyzing its properties, and reflecting the changes stored in the entity change tracker to the context state manager. After the Apply- Changes invocation, the state of the entry in the context-state manager will be the same as that of the entity in its change tracker. What’s more, if the entity attached has navigation properties that contain other entities, those entities are attached to the context too, and their state is poured into the state manager. This way, in a single method call, you’ve prepared a whole graph for persistence. Sounds cool, doesn’t it? Now let’s write some code. 16.4.4 Using STEs When the client generates classes from the WSDL, it knows it has to populate data in the change-tracking properties, but it doesn’t know how to do that. You could write this code manually, but that’s a pain. Fortunately, because the STE template generates classes with both data and behav- ior, you can reference the assembly with STE from both server and client. This is why you created a separated assembly for the STE earlier. This way, when Visual Studio gen- erates the classes from the WSDL, it doesn’t create entities but just WCF classes for communicating with the service, because the entities are already referenced. NOTE As you can imagine, there are several problems arising from this configuration. We’ll talk about the problems and solutions shortly. On the service, let’s add two new methods that use the Customer STE: ReadSTE and UpdateSTE. Implementing the interface to add these methods is extremely simple. You don’t even need to apply the serialization behavior required to serialize a proxy, because the STE context disables proxied-class generation. Let’s skip the interface code and move on to the method implementation. 418 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development The ReadSTE method is pretty simple. You instantiate the context and return data for the logged-in customer. C# public Customer ReadSTE() { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { return ctx.Companies .OfType() .FirstOrDefault(c => c.CompanyId == _customerId); } } VB Public Function ReadSTE() As Customer Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() Return ctx.Companies. OfType(Of Customer)(). FirstOrDefault(Function(c) c.CompanyId = _customerId) End Using End Function This code is straightforward, but ... wait: the Customer entity contains web service– related data that you don’t want sent over the wire. Because the Customer STE is shared between the client and the service, you can modify the entity, removing the DataMember attribute from the properties (as discussed in section 16.2.2) or blanking them before returning the entity (see section 16.2). So far, there’s nothing new. What’s different is the UpdateSTE method. In this method, you can create the con- text, call the ApplyChanges method to copy the entity’s change tracker informa- tion to the context state manager, and call the SaveChanges method. C# public void UpdateSTE(Customer customer) { using (var ctx = new OrderITEntities()) { ctx.Companies.ApplyChanges(customer); ctx.SaveChanges(); } } VB Public Sub UpdateSTE(ByVal customer As Customer) Using ctx = New OrderITEntities() ctx.Companies.ApplyChanges(customer) ctx.SaveChanges() End Using End Sub Listing 16.10 The ReadSTE method implementation Listing 16.11 The UpdateSTE method implementation 419Developing a service using STEs The internal state of the Customer STE is Modified. The ApplyChanges method attaches the entity to the context, reads the state, and invokes the ChangeState method to synchronize the state in the state manager. You learned in chapter 6 that when you use the ChangeState or ChangeObjectState method, all properties are marked as Modified, so the UPDATE statement will update all the properties. This is what you have to avoid, because you don’t want the customer to be able to change the web service information. The solution is awkward because after Apply- Changes, you should mark the entity as Unchanged and then mark the single prop- erties as Modified, as in listing 16.3. In this case, STE fails to be useful. Let’s now look at a case where STEs show their full power: persisting complex graphs. UPDATING A COMPLEX GRAPH WITH STES So far, you’ve used a single entity. You may think that updating an order may be differ- ent, but it’s not, because the ApplyChanges method scans navigation properties too. Thanks to the properties of the ObjectTracker class, having a single entity or an object graph makes no difference. An UpdateOrderSTE method would look like this: C# ctx.Orders.ApplyChanges(order); ctx.SaveChanges(); VB ctx.Orders.ApplyChanges(order) ctx.SaveChanges() If the order contains details, they’re attached to the context too. Added, removed, and modified details are stored in the Order entity change-tracker. When Apply- Changes is invoked, the state of each detail is poured into the context state man- ager so you don’t have to do anything. The logic contract between the client and the server is handled by STE change tracker and the ApplyChanges method. Having the logic contract handled automatically, and having a single API to man- age everything, is a strong point for STEs. Unfortunately, they’re useful only in scenar- ios where the client can change all the entity’s properties. In scenarios where only some properties can be updated, STEs are more likely to complicate your life than ease it. ADDING OR DELETING AN ENTITY USING STES STEs show their enormous power when updating an entity or a complex graph. In other scenarios they’re valid, but not that powerful. When you need to add an entity, you don’t have either concurrency problems or need to compare with data in the database. There’s not even any need to resort to ApplyChanges, although it works perfectly well, because you can directly invoke AddObject. Deleting an entity is even simpler, because only the ID and the concurrency token (if used) are required. You can pass these properties to the service method, create a 420 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development stub inside it with just these properties, attach the stub to the context, and invoke DeleteObject. MANY-TO-MANY RELATIONSHIPS AND STES Suppose you have to develop a method that updates a product and its associated sup- pliers. This method will accept the Product STE, which contains the Suppliers prop- erty listing the suppliers. Suppose that on the client side, you have to associate a new supplier to a product. If you create a Supplier instance, add it to the Suppliers property of the Product instance, and send the product back to the service, you’d expect the association to be created. But it doesn’t work like that. Previously we mentioned that an STE is, by default, in Added state. On the service, after the call to ApplyChanges, the Supplier entry is marked as Added, so when SaveChanges is invoked, Entity Framework tries to create a new row for the supplier in the Company table of the database. This causes an exception to be raised, because the properties required to persist the supplier aren’t set. This problem can be solved both on the client and on the service. On the client side, you can invoke the Supplier entity’s MarkAsUnchanged method. This way, the entity state becomes Unchanged, and when ApplyChanges is invoked, the entry in the context will become Unchanged as well. The problem with this approach is that it requires some code on the client, mean- ing that if a client doesn’t follow this path, exceptions are raised on the server. It’s much better to solve the problem in the service to cut down on the possibility of errors. On the service, there are two ways of solving the problem. The first one, shown in the next snippet, is to invoke the MarkAsUnchanged method on all entities in the Suppliers property before calling ApplyChanges: C# product.Suppliers.ForEach(s => s.MarkAsUnchanged); ctx.ApplyChanges(product); VB product.Suppliers.ForEach(s => s.MarkAsUnchanged) ctx.ApplyChanges(product) The second approach is to call ApplyChanges, retrieve all Added entities of type Supplier in the state manager, and invoke ChangeObjectState to set their states to Unchanged. The following code demonstrates this technique: C# ctx.ApplyChanges(product); ctx.ObjectStateManager .GetObjectStateEntries(EntityState.Added) .Where(e => e.Entity is Supplier) .ForEach(s => s.ChangeState(EntityState.Unchanged); VB ctx.ApplyChanges(product) ctx.ObjectStateManager. 421Developing a service using STEs GetObjectStateEntries(EntityState.Added). Where(Function(e) TypeOf e.Entity Is Supplier). ForEach(Function(s) s.ChangeState(EntityState.Unchanged)) That’s all you need to do. We have demonstrated this process on many-to-many rela- tionships because it fits in perfectly with OrderIT, but the same technique can be applied to other types of relationships. INTERNAL STATE AND CONTEXT STATE There’s a caveat that’s worth mentioning. If you have an STE attached to the context, modifying it (by changing a property or invoking a MarkAs* method) will cause the STE change tracker to change the entity state, but it won’t have any effect on the con- text state manager until the DetectChanges method is invoked. This happens because the context generated by the STE template disables proxy creation, so the instances created queries are plain entities, which, as you learned in chapter 6, aren’t connected to the context. Now that you know how to use STEs, it’s time to talk a bit about their pros and cons. 16.4.5 STE pros and cons The code that tracks changes within STEs isn’t simple. That’s why the Entity Frame- work team added the STE template, which reads data from the EDMX file and gener- ates the STE. If you’re the client developer, you can freely use the STE assembly. If the clients can be developed by any consumer, you can distribute the STE assembly to those who develop on .NET 4.0 and beyond. If the clients can be heterogeneous (such as Java or PHP), client developers are responsible for creating their entities and for creating the change-tracking behavior to ensure that the contract with the service is honored (guaranteeing that the state is correct, that entities removed from collection proper- ties are stored in the change tracker, and so on). As we’ve said before, creating change-tracking behavior in entities isn’t easy, so non-.NET clients are pretty hard to create; that’s a big obstacle. Another con of STEs is that they expose the full entity to the clients. As we’ve men- tioned in this chapter, that’s bad because often you don’t want to send all of an entity’s properties to the client. We already hinted that when an STE is in Modified state, the ApplyChanges method uses the ObjectStateManager class’s ChangeObjectState method to set the entity state to Modified in the context state manager. You know that when the ChangeObjectState method is used to set an entity’s state to Modified, all the entity’s properties are marked as Modified, so all of them will be persisted on the database. In cases where only some properties must be updated, this is an inconvenience because allowing only some properties to be updated requires manually reworking the entry in the state manager. 422 CHAPTER 16 Entity Framework and n-tier development It’s clear that STEs are the answer only in cases where full entities can be sent over the wire without any problems. In such cases, STEs greatly simplify development, and you should always use them. In all other cases, we strongly recommend using DTOs. 16.5 Summary Developing a service is challenging. The disconnected nature of services makes it impossible to track changes made to entities on the client side. This requires you to write code on the service side to detect what’s been changed on the client. To further complicate the scenario, not all entities’ properties should be sent to the clients. Using the entities generated by the POCO template is a viable solution, but it results in full entities going back and forth. That’s good in some cases but not optimal in others. If some properties shouldn’t be sent over the wire, using WCF attributes may optimize things, but you have a better solution. In such cases, the best way to go is to use a DTO so you achieve full control over the data that’s sent over the wire, and you ensure complete decoupling between the ser- vice and the entities used for persistence. Eventually, in scenarios where you have full control over the clients, you can use STEs so that changes made on the client side are stored inside the entities and made available to the service when they’re sent back. Now you’re ready for the next subject: integrating Entity Framework in Windows Forms and WPF applications. 423 Entity Framework and Windows applications In a web application, the browser receives HTML and then renders it. When the rendering is finished, the browser relies on JavaScript to add behavior to the page. There are many JavaScript libraries (jQuery, Ext JS, Scriptaculous, and so on) that can help with this, but whatever your choice is, you work on client-side objects. Applications that use web services to manage data take the same approach. In the application, you use classes that are generated by the WSDL inspector. These classes contain the same data as the service classes (which can be Entity Framework entities), but they’re just local copies. This means that you always work with objects that aren’t generated by Entity Framework. But loads of Windows applications don’t have a tiered architecture and directly access the database through Entity Framework. In such situations, you can model your classes to let them interact with the binding capabilities of both Windows Forms and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) applications. This chapter covers  Customizing entities for binding  Data binding with Windows Forms  Data binding with WPF 424 CHAPTER 17 Entity Framework and Windows applications These applications have rich binding systems that rely on specific aspects of classes. For instance, if you create a form for manipulating orders, you’ll surely have a grid dis- playing some orders and a set of components that show the selected order properties. The synchronization between the components, the data grid, and the orders can be completely handled by the binding system. In this chapter, you’ll learn how to adapt classes to make them binding-aware and what pattern to follow to get the best out of Windows applications. We’ll look at both Windows Forms and WPF technologies. Although Windows Forms is less powerful, it’s still widespread, and tons of applications are based on it, so it’s worth looking at. WPF is the future. Nowadays, creating a new Windows application using Windows Forms is a nuisance; WPF is far more powerful and rich. Before we look at the technologies, though, let’s look at the example we’ll use in this chapter. 17.1 An example application We’re going teo create a form that allows the user to create, modify, and delete orders and their details. Figure 17.1 shows the final result. Figure 17.1 The Windows form shows orders and their data in the Orders box and the details related to the current order in the Order Details box. We’ll make extensive use of both Windows Forms and WPF binding capabilities. You’ll see that with some binding-related interfaces, a binding engine, and Entity Framework, you can create such a form in a snap and with few lines of code. 425Designing model classes for binding Before you create the form, though, let’s look at what interfaces the model classes must implement to interact with the binding. 17.2 Designing model classes for binding To fully support the binding capabilities in both Windows Forms and WPF applica- tions, classes must implement a few specific interfaces:  INotifyPropertyChanged —Notifies a client that the value of a property has been modified  IEditableObject—Allows an entity to roll back modifications made to a property  IDataErrorInfo —Lets entity errors flow to the binding system Mastering these interfaces isn’t difficult. Don’t believe it? Let's look at the first inter- face right now. 17.2.1 Implementing INotifyPropertyChanged When you modify a property, you must notify the binding system so that every related component (data grids, text boxes, and another components) can update their val- ues. For instance, in figure 17.1, when the user modifies the estimated shipping date in the text box, the grid above the text boxes should display the value modified. Simi- larly, if the user edits a value in the grid showing the orders, the text boxes must be updated as well. NOTE From now on, we’ll discuss the Order class, but the same rules apply to all other classes. By implementing INotifyPropertyChanged, you can raise an event that sends a change notification to subscribers, which can then react to the modification. In the example, the subscriber is the binding system, and its reaction is to update the compo- nents bound to the modified property. The implementation of INotifyProperty- Changed is shown in the following listing. C# public partial class Order : INotifyPropertyChanged { public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged; protected void NotifyPropertyChanged(String info) { if (PropertyChanged != null) PropertyChanged(this, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(info)); } } VB Public Partial Class Order Implements INotifyPropertyChanged Public Event PropertyChanged As PropertyChangedEventHandler Listing 17.1 Implementing the INotifyPropertyChanged interface 426 CHAPTER 17 Entity Framework and Windows applications Protected Sub NotifyPropertyChanged(ByVal info As String) RaiseEvent PropertyChanged(Me, New PropertyChangedEventArgs(info)) End Sub End Class Implementing INotifyPropertyChanged is just a matter of declaring the Property- Changed event. The NotifyPropertyChanged method is a convenient way to inform the subscribers of the event (the input parameter represents the name of the modi- fied property). On its own, this interface is useless. You have to call NotifyPropertyChanged, pass- ing the modified property name to make the binding aware of the modification. This call must be made in the setters of the entity’s properties, which means that you no longer use automatic properties in entities. This listing clearly shows that. C# public virtual Nullable EstimatedShippingDate { get { return _estimatedShippingDate; } set { _estimatedShippingDate = value; NotifyPropertyChanged("EstimatedShippingDate"); Change notification } } private Nullable _estimatedShippingDate; VB Public Overridable Property EstimatedShippingDate() _ As Nullable(Of DateTime) Get Return _estimatedShippingDate End Get Set(ByVal value As Nullable(Of DateTime)) _estimatedShippingDate = value Change notification NotifyPropertyChanged("EstimatedShippingDate") End Set End Property Private _estimatedShippingDate As Nullable(Of DateTime) What’s great about this technique is that you don’t have to do anything on the form to update values; you simply configure the connections between the Order properties and the form components at design time, and at runtime the binding system takes care of everything. INotifyPropertyChanged is trivial to implement. Let’s move on to the next interface. 17.2.2 Implementing IEditableObject Like everyone else, you’ve probably modified a value in a text box and then wanted to roll back your modifications. This feature is useful, and you can enable it in your Listing 17.2 Raising the data-changed event 427Designing model classes for binding application by implementing the IEditableObject interface, which allows transac- tional modifications of an entity. Implementing IEditableObject is pretty simple, as you can see in this listing. C# public partial class Order : IEditableObject { void IEditableObject.BeginEdit() Starts transactionB { BeginEditProtected(); } void IEditableObject.EndEdit() Commits changesC { EndEditProtected(); } void IEditableObject.CancelEdit() Rolls back changesD { CancelEditProtected(); } private bool isEditing = false; protected virtual void BeginEditProtected() { if (!isEditing) Stores initial values E { OrderIdEdit = OrderId; OrderDateEdit = OrderDate; EstimatedShippingDateEdit = EstimatedShippingDate; ActualShippingDateEdit = ActualShippingDate; CustomerIdEdit = CustomerId; VersionEdit = Version; isEditing = true; } } protected virtual void EndEditProtected() { isEditing = false; Stops editingF } protected virtual void CancelEditProtected() { OrderId = OrderIdEdit; Restores initial values G OrderDate = OrderDateEdit; EstimatedShippingDate = EstimatedShippingDateEdit; ActualShippingDate = ActualShippingDateEdit; CustomerId = CustomerIdEdit; Version = VersionEdit; isEditing = false; } } Listing 17.3 Implementing the IEditableObject interface 428 CHAPTER 17 Entity Framework and Windows applications VB Public Partial Class Order Implements IEditableObject Private Sub BeginEdit() _ Starts transaction B Implements IEditableObject.BeginEdit BeginEditProtected() End Sub Private Sub EndEdit() _ Commits changes C Implements IEditableObject.EndEdit EndEditProtected() End Sub Private Sub CancelEdit() _ Rolls back changes D Implements IEditableObject.CancelEdit CancelEditProtected() End Sub Private isEditing As Boolean = False Protected Overridable Sub BeginEditProtected() If Not isEditing Then Stores initial values E OrderIdEdit = OrderId OrderDateEdit = OrderDate EstimatedShippingDateEdit = EstimatedShippingDate ActualShippingDateEdit = ActualShippingDate CustomerIdEdit = CustomerId VersionEdit = Version isEditing = True End If End Sub Protected Overridable Sub EndEditProtected() isEditing = False Stops editingF End Sub Protected Overridable Sub CancelEditProtected() OrderId = OrderIdEdit Restores initial values G OrderDate = OrderDateEdit EstimatedShippingDate = EstimatedShippingDateEdit ActualShippingDate = ActualShippingDateEdit CustomerId = CustomerIdEdit Version = VersionEdit isEditing = False End Sub End Class Even though the code is long, it’s pretty simple. There are three interface methods:  BeginEdit—Invoked when an entity is selected in the grid B  EndEdit—Invoked when the selected entity modifications are committed C  CancelEdit—Invoked when the selected entity modifications are rolled back D Each method internally invokes another method, but that’s not a requirement. The BeginEditProtected method checks whether the selected entity is already in transac- tion mode. If not, it saves the properties of the entity in the backup properties E. 429Designing model classes for binding NOTE The *Edit properties are simple duplicates of the original proper- ties. They don’t contain any logic and are used only for transaction pur- poses. In fact, they’re implemented using automatic property syntax. The EndEditProtected method puts the entity in committed mode F. The CancelEditProtected method resets the properties using the backup ones, returning the entity to its initial state when the BeginEdit method was invoked. After that, the entity is put in the committed state G. NOTE You’re probably wondering why we created different methods and made them overridable, instead of putting the code in the interface methods. The reason is that if, in the future, you have to create a class that inherits from Order, you can override these methods and add trans- action support for additional properties. Easy, isn’t it? Now let’s move on to the last interface, which is responsible for notifying the binding system of errors in the entity’s properties. 17.2.3 Implementing IDataErrorInfo When the user sets the actual shipping date of an order, it can’t be earlier than the estimated one. This rule can be enforced in the setter of the ActualShippingDate property. The real question is how to notify the user when an invalid date is entered. The IDataErrorInfo interface is the solution. The IDataErrorInfo interface is another piece of binding magic. The binding sys- tem invokes the interface’s methods to determine whether there are any errors in the entity, and then it dispatches any errors received to the error providers. Here’s the implementation of this interface. C# Dictionary errors = new Dictionary(); string IDataErrorInfo.Error { get { return errors.Any() ? "There are errors" : String.Empty; } } string IDataErrorInfo.this[string columnName] { get { if (errors.ContainsKey(columnName)) return errors[columnName]; else return String.Empty; } } Listing 17.4 Implementing the IDataErrorInfo interface 430 CHAPTER 17 Entity Framework and Windows applications VB Private errors As New Dictionary(Of String, String)() Private ReadOnly Property [Error]() As String Implements IDataErrorInfo.Error Get Return If(errors.Any(), "There are errors", String.Empty) End Get End Property Default ReadOnly Property Item(ByVal columnName As String) As String Implements IDataErrorInfo.this Get If errors.ContainsKey(columnName) Then Return errors(columnName) Else Return [String].Empty End If End Get End Property The interface comprises the Error property and the default property. The Error property returns a string representing an error message related to the entire entity. The default property accepts a property name, and if there’s an error for that prop- erty then the default property returns the error message; otherwise, it returns an empty string. Listing 17.4 shows the interface implementation where the errors are extracted from a dictionary (the errors variable) whose key is the property name and whose value is the error message. But where is the dictionary filled with errors? The answer is obvious: the properties setter. The following listing shows that. C# public virtual Nullable ActualShippingDate { get { return _actualShippingDate; } set { _actualShippingDate = value; NotifyPropertyChanged("ActualShippingDate"); errors.Remove("ActualShippingDate"); Avoids duplicate key exception B if (value.HasValue && Adds error if rule is broken C EstimatedShippingDate.HasValue && value.Value < EstimatedShippingDate.Value) { errors.Add("ActualShippingDate", "Actual shipping date cannot ➥ be lower that estimated shipping date"); } } } Listing 17.5 Adding errors to the dictionary 431Designing model classes for binding VB Public Overridable Property ActualShippingDate() As Nullable(Of System.DateTime) Get Return _actualShippingDate End Get Set(ByVal value As Nullable(Of System.DateTime)) _actualShippingDate = value NotifyPropertyChanged("ActualShippingDate") errors.Remove("ActualShippingDate") Avoids duplicate key exception B If value.HasValue AndAlso Adds error if rule is broken C EstimatedShippingDate.HasValue AndAlso value.Value < EstimatedShippingDate.Value Then errors.Add("ActualShippingDate", "Actual shipping date cannot ➥ be lower that estimated shipping date") End If End If End Set End Property As you can see in this listing, the code in the property’s setter checks that the actual shipping date isn’t earlier than the estimated shipping date. Before performing the check, any error related to the property is removed from the errors dictionary B. Then, if the check fails, a new entry for the property is added to the errors diction- ary C. The binding system invokes the default property once for each property that’s bound, and it uses the returned information to display the errors. The interfaces you’ve seen so far have opened up a brand-new problem: because the code is generated via templates, each time you run the template your customiza- tions are lost. Nevertheless, there’s nothing preventing you from modifying the tem- plate to generate the code you need, based on custom annotations in the EDM. 17.2.4 Using a template to generate the binding code In chapter 13, you learned about code generation. Binding code is another good can- didate for template-driven code generation. NOTE We won’t show any code in this section because it would be unnec- essarily lengthy. You’ll find the templates in the book’s source code. Adding code to the INotifyPropertyChanged interface isn’t difficult. Its implementa- tion is static, so the steps are always the same: 1 Modify the class declaration, adding the interface. 2 Add the code for the event. 3 Add the code for the method that notifies subscribers. 4 Modify the properties setter to invoke the preceding method. The only point you have to remember is that the code in steps 1–3 must be generated only for base classes. For example, the Product class must have those methods and events; but Shirt and Shoes inherit them, so you don’t have to declare them again. 432 CHAPTER 17 Entity Framework and Windows applications When it comes to adding code for the IEditableObject interface, the situation is slightly different. The steps are similar, but you have to pay more attention to inheri- tance details: 1 Modify the class declaration, adding the interface. 2 Add the code for the interface methods. 3 Add the code for backup properties. 4 Add the code for the internal methods. Steps 1 and 2 must be done only for base classes and not in inherited classes, as we dis- cussed before. Step 3 must always be performed, and step 4 is the trickiest. In base classes, you have to declare the internal methods as virtual for C# or Overridable for VB, whereas in inherited classes they must be declared as override for C# or Overrides for VB. What’s more, in inherited classes these methods must invoke the base class implementation to ensure that all properties are backed up. Adding code for IDataErrorInfo is more complicated than for the other inter- faces. Here the code is dynamic, because the rules must be modified by you and can’t be generated unless you create a set of designer extensions, which add new elements to the EDM and then customize the template to read those elements and generate val- idation code (you saw something similar in chapter 13). If you opt for writing the code on your own, you must modify the template to place a hook in the property setter to inject the validation code, and here partial methods come to the rescue: 1 Modify the class declaration, adding the interface. 2 Add the code for the method. 3 Add the code for the default property. 4 Add the partial method declaration. 5 Create a partial class where you implement partial methods, adding validation. In the partial method implementation, you write the validation code and add errors to the dictionary. There’s no need to do anything else, because the rest of the code is template-generated. Now that you know how to adapt classes for binding, it’s time to start using them in a Windows Forms application, so that you can see the benefits of implementing such interfaces. 17.3 Binding in Windows Forms applications The form you’ll create enables users to create, modify, and delete orders and details. You have to perform several tasks:  Create the grid for orders.  Create the text box for editing orders.  Create the grid for the selected order’s details.  Create the components for editing details. 433Binding in Windows Forms applications  Link order and detail data to create a master-detail relationship.  Enable transactional editing, property-changed notifications, and error notifications Don’t worry, this is going be fun. 17.3.1 Showing orders The first step is creating the grid for displaying orders and binding it to the orders coming from database. To do this, you have to add a data source to the application, use it to create the order-related controls, and bind them. Follow these steps: 1 From the Visual Studio menus, select Data > Show Data Sources. Visual Studio opens the Data Source window. 2 In the window, click the Add New Data Source button to start the Data Source Configuration Wizard. 3 In the first wizard page, select Object, and click Next. 4 In the second wizard page, shown in figure 17.2, expand the OrderIT.Model assembly node and the OrderIT.Model namespace, select the OrderIT.Model. Order class, and click Finish. 5 The Data Source window now shows the Order class. Drag it onto the form to insert a grid, a toolbar to navigate through grid rows (we’ll refer to it as the orders toolbar) and a BindingSource component, which points to the Order class. Figure 17.2 The second page of the wizard allows you to select data-source classes. 434 CHAPTER 17 Entity Framework and Windows applications 6 Declare a form-level variable of OrderITEntities type (the context). 7 Add the following code in the Load form’s Load event: C# ctx = new OrderITEntities(); orderBindingSource.DataSource = new BindingList (ctx.Orders.Include("OrderDetails").ToList()); VB ctx = new OrderITEntities() orderBindingSource.DataSource = New BindingList(Of Order)( ctx.Orders.Include("OrderDetails").ToList()) 8 Run the example. The form shows the grid with all the orders. There are a couple of important points to highlight in this code. First, you have a form-level context. Instead of creating a new instance each time you perform a query, you create an instance when loading the form and destroy that instance when closing the form. The result is that all modifications made to objects are tracked by the same context that retrieved them, making things a lot easier. NOTE This is the recommended pattern, and it’s known as the Context- per-Form pattern. The second thing to notice is the BindingList class. It offers special binding behaviors, and we strongly suggest you use it. NOTE Instead of using the BindingList class, you could use the ObjectSet class’s Execute method, which, like the BindingList class, offers some binding facilities. BindingList is more powerful, because you can create a class that inherits from BindingList and overrides or adds any behavior you need. The Execute method returns an ObjectResult instance, and there’s no way for you to modify the behavior of that class. Now you can move on the next task: adding a set of controls to the form to display the data for the selected order. 17.3.2 Showing data for the selected order Showing data for the selected order is pretty simple. You can do that by selecting the properties of the Order class in the Data Source window and dragging them onto the form. The properties are ActualShippingDate, EstimatedShippingDate, OrderDate, CustomerId, and ShippingAddress (this last property is a complex property, so you create a text box for each inner property). NOTE When a property is dropped onto the form, Visual Studio detects the property’s type and automatically uses the best control for it. For instance, DateTime properties are rendered using a DateTimePicker, whereas check boxes are used for Boolean properties. The other proper- ties are rendered as text boxes. 435Binding in Windows Forms applications At this point, the form looks like figure 17.3. Figure 17.3 The form shows the orders and the current order data. Have you noticed that ugly number in the Customer Id combo box? That’s the ID of the customer who placed the order. In terms of usability, this form is unacceptable. Let’s see how to enable a lookup combo box that shows the customer name and works with the ID behind the scenes. ADDING A LOOKUP COMBO BOX FOR DISPLAYING AND CHANGING A CUSTOMER The combo box is the best control to display and change the customer who placed an order, but you have to make it customer-aware. The first thing to do is to add a data source that points to the Customer class, as you did before for Order. After that, select the combo box smart tag (shown in figure 17.4), and set the Data Source property to the OrderIT.Model.Customer object (this automatically imports a BindingSource into the form), set Display Member to Name, set Value Member to CompanyId, and set Selected Value to the CustomerId property of the orderBindingSource object. This last setting is important, because it binds the CustomerId property of the order to the CompanyId property of the customer, enabling the lookup. Figure 17.4 Configuring the combo box. The CompanyId and CustomerID properties are bound to enable the lookup. At this point, you have a form with controls to display and edit order data. The next step is to show the details of the selected order. 436 CHAPTER 17 Entity Framework and Windows applications 17.3.3 Showing details of the selected order The binding mechanism helps a lot in showing details for the selected order. What you have to do is add a new data source that points to OrderIT.Model.OrderDetail, and then drag it onto the form to create a data grid. (The toolbar used to navigate through the order details, which we’ll refer to as the details toolbar, isn’t created auto- matically, so you have to add it to the form manually and let it point to the details binding source.) The data grid points to the details data source, but you have to bind it to the details of the selected order. To do this, you add the following two lines of code in the Load event: C# orderDetailBindingSource.DataSource = orderBindingSourc