Clojure Cookbook



字数:0 关键词: Lisp开发 Clojure

Luke VanderHart and Ryan Neufeld Clojure Cookbook Clojure Cookbook by Luke VanderHart and Ryan Neufeld Copyright © 2014 Relevance, Inc.. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Published by O’Reilly Media, Inc., 1005 Gravenstein Highway North, Sebastopol, CA 95472. O’Reilly books may be purchased for educational, business, or sales promotional use. Online editions are also available for most titles ( For more information, contact our corporate/ institutional sales department: 800-998-9938 or Editor: Meghan Blanchette Production Editor: Kristen Brown Copyeditor: Proofreader: FIX ME! Indexer: Cover Designer: Karen Montgomery Interior Designer: David Futato Illustrator: Robert Romano March 2014: First Edition Revision History for the First Edition: YYYY-MM-DD: First release See for release details. Nutshell Handbook, the Nutshell Handbook logo, and the O’Reilly logo are registered trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. !!FILL THIS IN!! and related trade dress are trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and O’Reilly Media, Inc. was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in caps or initial caps. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. ISBN: 978-1-449-36617-9 [?] Table of Contents Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix 1. Primitive Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1. Changing the Capitalization of a String 2 1.2. Cleaning up Whitespace in a String 3 1.3. Building a String from Parts 5 1.4. Treating a String as a Sequence of Characters 6 1.5. Converting Between Characters and Integers 8 1.6. Formatting Strings 9 1.7. Searching a String by Pattern 11 1.8. Pulling Values Out of a String Using Regular Expressions 12 1.9. Performing Find and Replace on Strings 14 1.10. Splitting a String into Parts 16 1.11. Pluralizing Strings Based on a Quantity 17 1.12. Converting Between Strings, Symbols and Keywords 19 1.13. Maintaining Accuracy with Extremely Large/Small Numbers 21 1.14. Working with Rational Numbers 23 1.15. Parsing Numbers 24 1.16. Truncating and Rounding Numbers 25 1.17. Performing Fuzzy Comparison 27 1.18. Performing Trigonometry 29 1.19. Inputting and Outputting Integers with Different Bases 30 1.20. Statistics on Collections of Numbers 31 1.21. Performing Bitwise Operations 35 1.22. Generating Random Numbers 36 1.23. Working with Currency 38 1.24. Generating Unique IDs 40 1.25. Obtaining the Current Date and Time 41 1.26. Representing Dates as Literals 43 iii 1.27. Parsing Date and Times using clj-time 44 1.28. Formatting Dates using clj-time 46 1.29. Comparing Dates 48 1.30. Calculating the Length of a Time Interval 49 1.31. Generating Ranges of Dates and Times 50 1.32. Generate Ranges of Dates and Times using Native Java Types 52 1.33. Retrieving Dates Relative to One Another 55 1.34. Working with Time Zones 56 1.35. Converting a Unix Timestamp to a Date 58 1.36. Converting a Date to a Unix Timestamp 59 2. Composite Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 2.1. Creating a List 65 2.2. Creating a List From an Existing Data Structure 66 2.3. “Adding” an Item to a List 68 2.4. “Removing” an Item From a List 69 2.5. Test For a List 70 2.6. Creating a Vector 71 2.7. “Adding” an Item to a Vector 72 2.8. “Removing” an Item From a Vector 73 2.9. Getting the Value at an Index 74 2.10. Setting the Value at an Index 76 2.11. Creating a Set 77 2.12. Adding and Removing Items From Sets 79 2.13. Testing Set Membership 80 2.14. Using Set Operations 82 2.15. Creating a Map 84 2.16. Retrieving Values From a Map 85 2.17. Retrieving Multiple Keys From a Map Simultaneously 89 2.18. Setting Keys in a Map 90 2.19. Using Composite Values as Map Keys 93 2.20. Maps as Sequences (and Vice Versa) 95 2.21. Applying Functions to Maps 97 2.22. Keeping Multiple Values for a Key 99 2.23. Combining Maps 103 2.24. Comparing and Sorting Values 105 2.25. Removing Duplicate Elements From a Collection 109 2.26. Determining if a Collection Holds One of Several Values 110 2.27. Implementing Custom Data Structures: Red-Black Trees - Part I 111 2.28. Implementing Custom Data Structures: Red-Black Trees - Part II 115 3. General Computing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 iv | Table of Contents 3.1. Running a Minimal Clojure REPL 121 3.2. Interactive Documentation 122 3.3. Exploring Namespaces 125 3.4. Trying a Library Without Explicit Dependencies 126 3.5. Running Clojure Programs 127 3.6. Running Programs From the Command-Line 129 3.7. Parsing Command-Line Arguments 132 3.8. Creating Custom Project Templates 135 3.9. Building Functions with Polymorphic Behavior 139 3.10. Extending a Built-in Type 145 3.11. Decoupling Consumers and Producers with core.async 147 3.12. Make a Parser for Clojure Expressions Using core.match 151 3.13. Hierarchical Graph Querying with core.logic 154 3.14. Playing a Nursery Rhyme 160 4. Local IO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 4.1. Writing to STDOUT and STDERR 165 4.2. Read a Single Keystroke From the Console 167 4.3. Executing System Commands 168 4.4. Accessing Resource Files 171 4.5. Copying Files 173 4.6. Deleting Files or Directories 175 4.7. Listing Files in a Directory 177 4.8. Memory-mapping a File 178 4.9. Reading and Writing Text Files 179 4.10. Using Temporary Files 181 4.11. Reading and Writing Files at Arbitrary Positions 182 4.12. Parallelizing File Processing 184 4.13. Parallelizing File Processing with Reducers 186 4.14. Reading and Writing Clojure Data 188 4.15. Using edn for Configuration Files 191 4.16. Emitting Records as edn values 195 4.17. Handling Unknown Tagged Literals when Reading Clojure Data 196 4.18. Read Properties From a File 199 4.19. Reading and Writing Binary Files 201 4.20. Reading and Writing CSV Data 204 4.21. Reading and Writing Compressed Files 205 4.22. Working with XML Data 206 4.23. Reading and Writing JSON Data 208 4.24. Generating PDF Files 210 Table of Contents | v 4.25. Making a GUI Window with Scrollable Text 213 5. Network IO & Web Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 5.1. Making HTTP Requests 219 5.2. Performing Asynchronous HTTP Requests 221 5.3. Sending a Ping Request 223 5.4. Retrieving and Parsing RSS Data 224 5.5. Sending Email 225 5.6. Communicating over Queues using RabbitMQ 229 5.7. Communicating with Embedded Devices via MQTT 235 5.8. Using ZeroMQ Concurrently 239 5.9. Creating a TCP Client 242 5.10. Creating a TCP Server 244 5.11. Sending and Receiving UDP Packets 247 6. Databases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 6.1. Connecting to an SQL Database 251 6.2. Connecting to an SQL Database with a Connection Pool 254 6.3. Manipulating an SQL Database 257 6.4. Simplifying SQL with Korma 263 6.5. Performing Full-text Search with Lucene 267 6.6. Indexing Data with ElasticSearch 269 6.7. Working with Cassandra 274 6.8. Working with MongoDB 277 6.9. Working with Redis 280 6.10. Connecting to a Datomic Database 283 6.11. Defining Schema for a Datomic Database 286 6.12. Writing Data to Datomic 290 6.13. Removing data from a Datomic Database 292 6.14. Trying Datomic Transactions without Committing Them 294 6.15. Traversing Datomic Indices 296 7. Web Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 7.1. Introduction to Ring 301 7.2. Using Ring Middleware 303 7.3. Serving Static Files with Ring 305 7.4. Handling Form Data with Ring 306 7.5. Handling Cookies with Ring 308 7.6. Storing Sessions with Ring 310 7.7. Reading and Writing Request & Response Headers in Ring 312 7.8. Routing Requests with Compojure 313 7.9. Performing HTTP Redirects with Ring 316 vi | Table of Contents 7.10. Building a RESTful Application with Liberator 317 7.11. Templating HTML with Enlive 318 7.12. Templating with Selmer 325 7.13. Templating with Hiccup 330 7.14. Rendering Markdown Documents 333 7.15. Building Applications with Luminus 335 8. Performance & Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 8.1. AOT Compilation 339 8.2. Packaging a Project into a JAR File 341 8.3. Creating a WAR File 344 8.4. Running an Application as a Daemon 348 8.5. Alleviating Performance Problems With Type Hinting 354 8.6. Fast Math with Primitive Java Arrays 357 8.7. Simple Profiling with Timbre 360 8.8. Logging with Timbre 361 8.9. Releasing a Library to Clojars 363 8.10. Using Macros to Simplify API Deprecations 365 9. Distributed Computation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 9.1. Building an Activity Feed System with Storm 372 9.2. Processing Data with an Extract Transform Load (ETL) Pipeline 381 9.3. Aggregating Large Files 385 9.4. Testing Cascalog Workflows 390 9.5. Checkpointing Cascalog Jobs 392 9.6. Explaining a Cascalog Query 394 9.7. Running a Cascalog Job on Elastic MapReduce 396 10. Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 10.1. Unit Testing 399 10.2. Testing with Midje 404 10.3. Thoroughly Testing by Randomizing Inputs 407 10.4. Finding Values Which Cause Failure 411 10.5. Running Browser-based Tests 414 10.6. Tracing Code Execution 419 10.7. Avoiding Null-Pointer Exceptions with core.typed 422 10.8. Verifying Java Interop using core.typed 425 10.9. Type Checking Higher-order Functions with core.typed 429 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Table of Contents | vii Preface The most important thing you should understand about this book is that it is, first and foremost, a group effort. It is not authored by one or two people. It isn’t even the work of a single, well defined group. Instead, it is the collaborative product of over sixty of the best Clojurists from all over the world, from all backgrounds. These authors use Clojure every day on real applications, ranging from aerospace to social media, banking to robotics, AI research to e-commerce. As such, you will see a lot of diversity in the recipes presented. Some are quick and to the point; “get stuff done, and move on!” Others are more deliberate, presenting diges‐ tible yet penetrating insights into the philosophy and implementation of certain aspects of Clojure. We hope that there is something in this book for readers of diverse interests. We believe that it will be useful not only as a reference for looking up specific tasks, but as a worth‐ while survey of the variety and expressitivity that Clojure is capable of. As we edited submissions, we were astonished at the at the number of concepts and techniques that were new to us, and will hopefully be new to our readers as well. Another fact that we discovered while writing and editing is how difficult it is to draw a circumference around what we wanted to cover. Every single recipe is a beautiful, endless fractal, touching multiple topics, each of which deserves a recipe, a chapter or a book of its own. But each recipe also needs to stand on its own. They each should provide some useful nugget of information which readers can understand and take away with them. We sincerely hope that we have balanced these goals appropriately, and that you find this book useful without being tedious, and insightful without being pedantic. ix Audience Anyone who uses Clojure will, we hope, be able get something out of this book. There are a lot of recipes on truly basic things that beginners will find useful, but there are a large number of recipes on more specialized topics that advanced users should find useful for getting a head start on implementation. That said, if you’re completely new to Clojure, this probably isn’t the book to start with. At least, not by itself. It covers a great many useful topics, but not as methodically or as thoroughly as a good introductory text. See the “Resources” section below for a list of general Clojure books you may find useful as prior or supplimental texts. Other Resources One thing that this book is not, and could never be, is complete. There is too much to cover, and by presenting information in a task-oriented recipe format we have inherently precluded ourselves from methodical, narrative explanation of the features and capa‐ bilities of the whole language. For a more linear, thorough explanation of Clojure and its features, we recommend one of the following books: • Clojure Programming (O’Reilly, 2012) by Chas Emerick, Brian Carper and Chris‐ tophe Grand. A good, comprehensive general purpose Clojure book focusing on the language and common tasks, oriented towards beginner Clojure programmers. • Programming Clojure, 2nd ed. (Pragmatic Bookshelf, 2012) by Stuart Halloway and Aaron Bedra. The first book on Clojure, this is a clear, comprehensive introductory tutorial to the Clojure language. • Practical Clojure, (Apress, 2010) by Luke VanderHart and Stuart Sierra. This is a terse, no-nonsense explanation of what Clojure is and what its features do. • The Joy of Clojure, (Manning, 2011) by Michael Fogus and Chris Houser. A slightly more advanced text that really digs into the themes and philosophies of Clojure. • ClojureScript: Up and Running, (O’Reilly, 2012) by Stuart Sierra and Luke Vander‐ Hart. While the Clojure Cookbook and the other Clojure books listed here focus mainly or entirely on Clojure itself, ClojureScript (a dialect of Clojure which com‐ piles to JavaScript) has gained considerable uptake. This book introduces Clojure‐ Script, how to get started with it, and covers the similarities and differences between it and Clojure. Finally, you should look at the source code for this book itself, which is freely available on Github at The selection of recipes available online is larger than that in the print version, and we are still accepting x | Preface pull requests for new recipes that might someday make it in to a future edition of this book. Structure The chapters in this book are for the most part groupings of recipes by theme, rather than strictly categorial. It is entirely possible for a recipe to be applicable to more than one chapter — in these cases, we have simply tried to place it where we think the majority of readers would look first. A recipe consists of three primary parts and one secondary: problem, solution, discus‐ sion and “see also”. A recipe’s problem statement lays a task or obstacle to be overcome. Its solution tackles the problem head on, illustrating a particular technique or library that effectively accomplishes the task. The discussion rounds everything out, exploring the solution and any caveats that may come with it. Finally, we tie the recipe off with a “See Also” section, pointing you, the reader, at any additional resources or recipes that will assist you in enacting the described solution. Chapter Listing The book is composed of the following chapters: Cross reference links like ch_primitive_data used to include a descriptive title like “Primitive Data Chapter on Pg. X”, but now they just say “Chapter 1” or “Recipe 1.2”. We really need to get this descriptive text back, or we will need to do a pass over the book adding our own. Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 cover Clojure’s built-in primitive and composite data struc‐ tures, and explain many common (and less common) ways one might want to use them. Chapter 3 is a grab bag of useful topics that are generally applicable in many different application areas and project domains, from Clojure features such as Protocols to al‐ ternate programming paradigms such as logic programming with core.logic or asyn‐ chronous coordination with core.async. Chapter 4 deals with all the ways in which your program can interact with the local computer upon which it is running. This includes reading and writing to standard input and output streams, creating and manipulating files, serializing and deserializing files, etc. Chapter 5 contains recipes with similar themes to Chapter 4, but instead deals with remote communication over a network. It includes recipes on a variety of network communication protocols and libraries. Chapter 6 demonstrates techniques and tools for connecting to and using a variety of databases. Special attention is given to Datomic, a data store that shares and extends much of Clojure’s underlying philosphy of value, state and identity to persistent storage. Preface | xi Chapter 7 dives in depth to one of the most common applications for Clojure - buliding and maintaining dynamic websites. It provides comprehensive treatment of Ring (the most popular HTTP server library for Clojure), as well as tools for HTML templating and rendering. Chapter 8 explains what to do with a Clojure program once you have one, going over common patterns for packaging, distributing, profiling, logging, and associated ongo‐ ing tasks over the lifetime of an application. Chapter 9 goes in-depth on cloud computing, and using Clojure for heavyweight dis‐ tributed data-crunching. Special attention is given to Cascalog, a declarative Clojure interface to the Hadoop map-reduce framework. Last but not least, Chapter 10 covers a variety of techniques for ensuring the integrity and correctness of your code and data, ranging from traditional unit and integration tests to more comprehensive generative and simulation testing, and even optional compile-time validations using static typing with core.typed. Software Prerequisites To follow along with the recipes in this book you will need valid installations of the Java Development Kit and Clojure’s de facto build tool, Leiningen. We recommend version 7 of the JDK, but a minimum of 6 will do. For Leiningen, you should have at least version 2.2. If you don’t have Java installed (or would like to upgrade), visit technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html for instructions on downloading and installing the Java JDK. To install Leiningen, follow the installation instructions on Leiningen’s website (http:// If you already have Leiningen installed, get the latest version by exe‐ cuting the command lein upgrade. If you aren’t familiar with Leiningen, visit the tutorial to learn more. The one thing you won’t need to manually install is Clojure itself, Leiningen will do this for you on an ad hoc basis. To verify your installation, run lein repl and check your Clojure version. $ lein repl # ... user=> *clojure-version* {:major 1, :minor 5, :incremental 1, :qualifier nil} xii | Preface Some recipes have accompanying online materials available on Git‐ Hub. If you do not have Git installed on your system, follow the in‐ structions at to enable you to checkout a GitHub repository locally. Some recipes—such as the database recipes—require further software installations. Where this occurs, recipes will include additional information on installing those tools. Conventions Used in This Book Being a book full of solutions, you’ll find no shortage of Clojure source code in the book. Clojure source code appears in a monospace font, like this: (defn add [x y] (+ x y)) When a Clojure expression is evaluated for a return value, that value is denoted with a comment followed by an arrow, much like it would appear on the command line: (add 1 2) ;; -> 3 Where appropriate, code samples may omit or ellipsize return value comments. The two most common places you’ll see this are when defining a function/var or shortening lengthy output. ;; This would return #'user/one, but do you really care? (def one 1) (into [] (range 1 20)) ;; -> [1 2 ... 20] When an expression produces output to STDOUT or STDERR it is denoted by a comment (*out* and *error*, respectively), followed by a comment with each line of output. (do (println "Hello!") (println "Goodbye!")) ;; -> nil ;; *out* ;; Hello! ;; Goodbye! REPL Sessions Seeing that REPL-driven Development is in vogue at present, it follows that this be a REPL-driven book. REPLs (Read-Eval-Print Loops) are interactive prompts that eval‐ uate expressions and print their results. The Bash prompt, irb, and the python prompt Preface | xiii are examples of REPLs. Nearly every recipe in this book is designed to be run at a Clojure REPL. While Clojure REPLs are traditionally displayed as user=> ..., this book aims for readers to be able to copy-paste all of the examples in a recipe and see the indicated results. As such, samples omit user=> and comment-out any output to make things easier. This is especially helpful if you’re following along on a computer; You can blindly copy-paste code samples without worrying about trying to run non-code. When an example is only relevant in the context of a REPL, we will retain the traditional REPL style (with user=>). What follows is an example of each, a REPL-only sample and its simplified version. REPL-only. user=> (+ 1 2) 3 user=> (println "Hello!") Hello! nil Simplified. (+ 1 2) ;; -> 3 (println "Hello!") ;; *out* ;; Hello! Console/Terminal Sessions Console sessions (e.g. shell commands) are denoted by monospace font, with lines be‐ ginning with a dollar sign ($) indicating a shell prompt. Output is printed without a leading "$“. A backslash (\) at the end of a command indicates to the console that the command continues on the next line. $ lein version Leiningen 2.0.0-preview10 on Java 1.6.0_29 Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM Our Golden Boy, lein-try Clojure is not known for its extensive standard library. Unlike languages like Perl or Ruby, Clojure’s standard library is comparatively small; Clojure chose simplicity and power instead. As such, Clojure is a language full of libraries, not built-ins (well, except for Java…) xiv | Preface Since so many of the solutions in this book rely on third-party libraries, we developed lein-try. lein-try is a small plugin for Leiningen, Clojure’s de facto project tool, that lets you quickly and easily try out various Clojure libraries. To use lein-try, ensure you have Leiningen installed, then edit your user profile as follows: ~/.lein/profiles.clj. {:user {:plugins [[lein-try "0.4.1"]]}} Now, inside of a project or out, you can use the lein try command to launch a REPL with access to whichever library you please. $ lein try clj-time #... user=> Long story short: Where possible, you’ll see instructions on which lein-try command to execute above recipes that use third-party libraries. You’ll find an example of trying recipes with lein-try in Recipe 3.4. If a recipe cannot be run via lein-try we have made efforts to include adequate in‐ structions on how to run that recipe on your local machine. Typesetting Conventions The following typographic conventions are used in this book: These conventions *roughly* follow standards layed out as the O’Reilly standard. Bold is used to emphasize a word or phrase. Italic is used for URLs, filenames, and file extensions. New terms are also italicized when they first appear in the text. Constant Width is used for function and method names and their arguments; in examples to show both input and output; and in regular text to show literal code. Constant Width Bold is used to indicate commands that you should enter literally at the command-line. The names of libraries follow one of two conventions: libraries with proper names are displayed in capitalized plain text (e.g. “Hiccup” or “Swing”), while libraries with names Preface | xv meant to mimic code symbols are displayed in constant width text (e.g. core.async or clj-commons-exec). This element signifies a tip, suggestion, or general note. This element indicates a warning or caution. Using Code Examples PROD: Please reach out to author to find out if they will be uploading code examples to or their own site (e.g., GitHub). If there is no code download, delete this whole section. If there is, when you email digidist with the link, let them know what you filled in for title_title (should be as close to book title as possible, i.e., learning_python_2e). This info will determine where digidist loads the files. Supplemental material (code examples, exercises, etc.) is available for download at This book is here to help you get your job done. 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To comment or ask technical questions about this book, send email to bookques For more information about our books, courses, conferences, and news, see our website at Find us on Facebook: Follow us on Twitter: Watch us on YouTube: Acknowledgments Fill in... Preface | xvii 1. JVM is short for Java Virtual Machine. The JVM is where Java bytecode is executed. The Clojure compiler targets the JVM by emitting bytecode to be run there, thus your have all of the native Java types at your disposal. CHAPTER 1 Primitive Data 1.0. Introduction Clojure is a fantastic language for tackling hard problems. Its simple tools let us software developers build up layer upon layer of abstractions until we’ve tackled some of the world’s most difficult problems with ease. Like chemistry, every great Clojure program boils down to simple atoms—these are our primitives. Standing on the shoulders of the Java giants from days of yore, Clojure leverages a fantastic array of battle-hardened types present in the JVM 1; strings, numeric types, dates, UUIDs, you name it, Clojure has it all. This chapter dives in to the primitives of Clojure and how to accomplish common tasks. Strings Almost every programming language knows how to work with and deal in strings. Clojure is no exception and, despite a few differences, Clojure provides the same general capabilites as most other languages. Here are a few key differences we think you should know about: First, Clojure strings are backed by Java’s UTF-16 strings. You don’t need to add com‐ ments to files to indicate string encoding or worry about losing characters in translation. Your Clojure programs are ready to communicate in the world beyond a-Z. Second, unlike languages like Perl or Ruby which have extensive string libraries, Clojure has a rather spartan built-in string manipulation library. This may seem odd at first, but Clojure prefers simple and composable tools; any of the plethora of collection modifying 1 2. By using use, you introduce numerous new symbols into your project’s namespaces without leaving any clues as to where they came from. This is often confusing and frustrating for maintainers of the codebase. We highly suggest you avoid use. functions in Clojure are all perfectly capable of accepting strings - they’re collections too! For this reason, Clojure’s string library is unexpectedly small. You’ll find that small set of very string-specific functions in the clojure.string namespace. Clojure also embraces its host platform (the JVM), and does not duplicate functionality already adequalty performed by Java’s java.lang.String class. Using Java interop in Clojure is not a failure—the langauge is designed to make it straightforward, and using the built-in string methods is usually just as easy as invoking a Clojure function. We suggest you “require as” the clojure.string namespace when you need it. Blind‐ ly :useing a namespace is always annoying 2, and often results in collisions/confusion. Prefixing everything with clojure.string is kind of odd, so we prefer to alias it to str or s. (require '[clojure.string :as str]) (str/blank? "") ;; -> true Numeric Types The veneer between Clojure and Java is a little thicker over the numeric types. This isn’t necessarily a bad thing, though; while Java’s numeric types can be extremely fast or arbitrarily precise, numerics overall don’t have the prettiest set of interfaces to work with. Clojure unifies the various numeric types of Java into one coherent package, with clear escape hatches at every turn. The recipes on numeric types in this chapter will show you how to work with these hatches, showing you how to be as fast or precise or expressive as you desire. Dates Dates and times have a long and varied history in the Java ecosystem. Do you want a Date, Time, DateTime or a Calendar? Who knows. And why are these APIs all so wonky!? The recipes in this chapter should hopefully illuminate how and when to use the ap‐ propriate built-in types, and when to look to an external library when built-ins aren’t sufficient (or are just too darned difficult to use). 1.1. Changing the Capitalization of a String by Ryan Neufeld 2 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data Problem You need to change the capitalization of a string. Solution Use clojure.string/capitalize to capitalize the first character in a string. (clojure.string/capitalize "this is a proper sentence.") ;; -> "This is a proper sentence." When you need to change the case of all characters in a string use clojure.string/ lower-case or clojure.string/upper-case. (clojure.string/upper-case "loud noises!") ;; -> "LOUD NOISES!" (clojure.string/lower-case "COLUMN_HEADER_ONE") ;; -> "column_header_one" Discussion Capitalization functions only affect letters. While the functions capitalize, lower- case and upper-case may modify letters, characters like punctuation marks, digits or otherwise will remain untouched. (clojure.string/lower-case "!&$#@#%^[]") ;; -> "!&$#@#%^[]" Clojure uses UTF-16 for all strings and as such its definition of what a letter is is liberal enough to include accented characters. Take for example the phrase “Hurry up, com‐ puter!” which includes the letter e with both acute (é) and circumflex (ê) accents when translated to French. Since these special characters are considered letters it is possible for capitalization functions to change case appropriately. (clojure.string/upper-case "Dépêchez-vous, l'ordinateur!") ;; -> "DÉPÊCHEZ-VOUS, L'ORDINATEUR!" See Also • The clojure.string namespace API documentation • The java.lang.String API documentation. 1.2. Cleaning up Whitespace in a String by Ryan Neufeld 1.2. Cleaning up Whitespace in a String | 3 Problem You need to clean up the whitespace in a string. Solution Use the clojure.string/trim function to remove all of the whitespace at the beginning and end of a string. (clojure.string/trim " \tBacon ipsum dolor sit.\n") ;; -> "Bacon ipsum dolor sit." To manage whitespace inside a string you need to get more creative. Use clo jure.string/replace to fix-up whitespace inside a string. ;; Collapse whitespace into a single space (clojure.string/replace "Who\t\nput all this\fwhitespace here?" #"\s+" " ") ;; -> "Who put all this whitespace here?" ;; Replace Windows-style line-endings with Unix-style newlines" (clojure.string/replace "Line 1\r\nLine 2" "\r\n" "\n") ;; -> "Line 1\nLine 2" Discussion What constitutes whitespace in Clojure? The answer depends on the function, some are more liberal than others, but you can safely assume space ( ), tab (\t), newline (\n), carriage return (\r), line feed (\f) and vertical tab (\x0B) will be treated as whitespace. This set of characters is the set matched by \s in Java’s regular expression implementa‐ tion. Unlike Ruby and other languages that include string manipulation functions in the core namespace, Clojure excludes its clojure.string namespace from clojure.core, mak‐ ing it unavailable for naked use. A common technique is to require clojure.string as a shorthand like str or string to make code more terse. (require '[clojure.string :as str]) (str/replace "Look Ma, no hands" "hands" "long namespace prefixes") ;; -> "Look Ma, no long namespace prefixes" You might not always want to remove whitespace from both ends of a string. For cases where you want to remove whitespace from just the left or right hand side of a string use clojure.string/triml or clojure.string/trimr, respectively. (clojure.string/triml " Column Header\t") ;; -> "Column Header\t" (clojure.string/trimr "\t\t* Second-level bullet.\n") ;; -> "\t\t* Second-level bullet." 4 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data See Also • Recipe 1.3 1.3. Building a String from Parts by Ryan Neufeld Problem You have multiple strings, values or collections that you need to combine into one string. Solution Use the str function to concatenate strings and/or values. (str "John" " " "Doe") ;; -> "John Doe" ;; Str also works with vars, or any other values (def first-name "John") (def last-name "Doe") (def age 42) (str last-name ", " first-name " - age: " age) ;; -> "Doe, John - age: 42" Use apply with str to concatenate a collection of values into a single string. ;; To collapse a sequence of characters back into a string (apply str "ROT13: " [\W \h \y \v \h \f \ \P \n \r \f \n \e]) ;; -> "ROT13: Whyvhf Pnrfne" ;; Or, to reconstitute a file from lines (if they already have newlines...) (def lines ["#! /bin/bash\n", "du -a ./ | sort -n -r\n"]) (apply str lines) ;; -> "#! /bin/bash\ndu -a ./ | sort -n -r\n" Discussion Clojure’s str is like a good Unix tool; It has one job, and it does it well. When provided with one or more argument, str invokes Java’s .toString() method on each of its arguments, tacking each result on to the next. When provided nil or invoked without arguments str will return the identity value for strings, the empty string. When it comes to string concatenation Clojure takes a fairly hands-off approach. There is nothing string-specific about (apply str ...), it is merely the higher-order function apply being used to emulate calling str with a variable number of arguments. 1.3. Building a String from Parts | 5 This apply… (apply str ["a" "b" "c"]) …is functionally equivalent to: (str "a" "b" "c") Since Clojure injects little opinion into joining strings, you’re free to inject your own with the plethora collection manipulating functions Clojure provides. Take for example constructing a CSV from a header and a number of rows. This example is particularly well suited for apply, as you can prefix the header without having to insert it on to the front of your rows collection. ;; Constructing a CSV from a header string and vector of rows (def header "first_name,last_name,employee_number\n") (def rows ["luke,vanderhart,1","ryan,neufeld,2"]) (apply str header (interpose "\n" rows)) ;; -> "first_name,last_name,employee_number\nluke,vanderhart,1\nryan,neufeld,2" apply and interpose can be a lot of ceremony when you’re not doing anything too fancy. It is often easier to use the clojure.string/join function for simple string joins. The join function takes a collection and an optional separator. With a separator, join returns a string with each item of the collection separated by the provided separator. Without, it returns each item squashed together similar to what (apply str coll) would return. (def food-items ["milk" "butter" "flour" "eggs"]) (clojure.string/join ", " food-items) ;; -> "milk, butter, flour, eggs" (clojure.string/join [1 2 3 4]) ;; -> "1234" See Also • Recipe 1.6 • The clojure.string namespace API documentation • The java.lang.String API documentation. 1.4. Treating a String as a Sequence of Characters by Ryan Neufeld 6 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data Problem You need to work with the individual characters in a string. Solution Use seq on a string to expose the sequence of characters representing it. (seq "Hello, world!") ;; -> (\H \e \l \l \o \, \space \w \o \r \l \d \!) You don’t need to call seq every time you want to get at a strings characters, though. Any function taking a function will naturally coerce a string into a sequence of char‐ acters. ;; Count the occurrence of each character in a string. (frequencies (clojure.string/lower-case "An adult all about A's")) ;; -> {\space 4, \a 5, \b 1, \d 1, \' 1, \l 3, \n 1, \o 1, \s 1, \t 2, \u 2} ;; Is every letter in a string capitalized? (defn yelling? [s] (every? #(or (not (Character/isLetter %)) (Character/isUpperCase %)) s)) (yelling? "LOUD NOISES!") ;; -> true (yelling? "Take a DEEP breath.") ;; -> false Discussion In Computer Science “string” literally means “sequence of characters” and Clojure treats strings exactly as such. Because Clojure strings are sequences under the covers, you may substitute a string anywhere a collection is expected. When you do so, the string will be interpreted as a collection of characters. There’s nothing special about (seq string), the seq function is merely returning a seq of the collection of characters that the string is. More often than not, after you’ve done some work on the characters within a string you’ll want to transform that collection back into a string. Use apply with str on a collection of characters to collapse them into a string. (apply str [\H \e \l \l \o \, \space \w \o \r \l \d \!]) ;; -> "Hello, world!" 1.4. Treating a String as a Sequence of Characters | 7 See Also • Recipe 1.3 • Recipe 1.5 1.5. Converting Between Characters and Integers by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to convert characters to their respective unicode code points (as integer values) or vice versa. Solution Use the int function to convert a character to its integer value. (int \a) ;; -> 97 (int \ø) ;; -> 248 (int \α) ; greek letter alpha ;; -> 945 (int \u03B1) ; greek letter alpha (by code point) ;; -> 945 (map int "Hello, world!") ;; -> (72 101 108 108 111 44 32 119 111 114 108 100 33) Use the char function to return a character corresponding to the code point specified by the integer. (char 97) ;; -> \a (char 125) ;; -> \} (char 945) ;; -> \α (reduce #(str %1 (char %2)) "" 8 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data [115 101 99 114 101 116 32 109 101 115 115 97 103 101 115]) ;; -> "secret messages" Discussion Clojure inherits the JVM’s robust Unicode support. All strings are UTF-16 strings, and all characters are unicode characters. Conveniently, the first 256 Unicode code points are identical to ASCII, which makes standard ASCII text easy to work with. However, Clojure (and Java) do not actually privilege ASCII in any way the 1:1 correspondence between characters and integers indicating code points continues all the way up through the Unicode space. For example, the expression (map char (range 0x0410 0x042F)) prints out all the Cyrillic capital letters, which happen to lie on that range on the Unicode spectrum: (\А \Б \В \Г \Д \Е \Ж \З \И \Й \К \Л \М \Н \О \П \Р \С \Т \У \Ф \Х \Ц \Ч \Ш \Щ \Ъ \Ы \Ь \Э \Ю) The char and int functions are useful primarily for coercing a number into either an instance of java.lang.Integer or java.lang.Character. Both Integer+s and +Char acter+s are, ultimately, encoded as numbers, although +Character’s support additional text-related methods, and cannot be used in mathematic expressions without first being converted to a true numeric type. See Also • For truly comprehensive coverage of how unicode and internationalization works, see Unicode Explained, by Jukka K. Korpela. • Recipe 1.4 for details on working with the characters that constitute a string. • Recipe 1.15 1.6. Formatting Strings by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to insert values into a string, formatting how those values appear in the string. Solution The quickest method for formatting values into a string with the str function. (def me {:first-name "Ryan", :favorite-language "Clojure"}) (str "My name is " (:first-name me) 1.6. Formatting Strings | 9 ", and I really like to program in " (:favorite-language me)) ;; -> "My name is Ryan, and I really like to program in Clojure" (apply str (interpose " " [1 2.000 (/ 3 1) (/ 4 9)])) ;; -> "1 2.0 3 4/9" With str, however, values are inserted blindly, appearing in their default ".to String()" appearance. Not only that, it can sometimes be difficult to look at a str form and interpret what the intended output is. For greater control over how values are printed use the format function. ;; Produce a filename with a zero-padded sortable index (defn filename [name i] (format "%03d-%s" i name)) (filename "my-awesome-file.txt" 42) ;; -> "042-my-awesome-file.txt" ;; Create a table using justification (defn tableify [row] (apply format "%-20s | %-20s | %-20s" row)) (def header ["First Name", "Last Name", "Employee ID"]) (def employees [["Ryan", "Neufeld", 2] ["Luke", "Vanderhart", 1]]) (->> (concat [header] employees) (map tableify) (mapv println)) ;; *out* ;; First Name | Last Name | Employee ID ;; Ryan | Neufeld | 2 ;; Luke | Vanderhart | 1 The 0 flag indicates to pad a digit (”d“) with zeroes (three, in this case.) The - flag indicates to left justify the string (”s“) by 20 characters. Discussion When it comes to inserting values into a string you have two very different options. You could use str, which is great for a quick fix, but lacks control over how values are presented. Or, you could use format, which exposes fine-grained control over how values are displayed, but requires knowledge of C and Java-style formatting strings. Ultimately, you should use only as much tooling/complexity as is necessary for the task 10 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data at hand: stick to str when the default formatting for a value will suffice, and use for mat when you need more control over how values display. Format Strings The first argument passed to format is what is called a “format string.” The syntax for these strings isn’t new or unique to Clojure or even Java, but in fact comes from C’s printf function. Clojure’s format function uses Java’s String/format, which imple‐ ments printf style value substitution. A format string is a normal string with any number of embedded format specifiers. A format specifier is a placeholder to be replaced by a value some time later. In its simplest form this is a % followed by a type specifier character, for example "%d" for a integer (d is for digit), or “+%f%” for a float. Beyond specifiers for strings, integers and floats, there are specifiers for characters, dates, and numbers of different bases (octal, hexadecimal) to name a few. What makes these format specifiers special is that you may indicate any number of flags and options between the percent sign and the specifier character. From the above ex‐ amples: "%-10s" indicates the provided string (s) should be left justified (-) with a total minimum width of 10. "%07.3f" would turn a number into zero-padded number that was seven characters wide and included three decimal places (just like the Dewey Dec‐ imal system.) (format "%07.3f" 0.005) ;; -> "000.005" ;; The Dewey Decimal sub-class for books on "Computer ;; ;; programming, programs & data" Visit java.util.Formatter to learn more about formatting strings. See Also • Recipe 1.3 • Recipe 1.28 1.7. Searching a String by Pattern by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to test a string to see if parts of it match a pattern. 1.7. Searching a String by Pattern | 11 Solution To check for the presence of a pattern inside a string, invoke re-find with a desired pattern and the string to test. Express the desired pattern using a regular expression literal (like "foo" or "\d+"). ;; Any contiguous groups of numbers (re-find #"\d+" "I've just finished reading Fahrenheit 451") ;; -> "451" (re-find #"Bees" "Beads aren't cheap.") ;; -> nil Discussion re-find is quite handy for quickly testing a string for the presence of a pattern. It takes a regular expression pattern and a string, then returns either the first match of that pattern or nil. If your criterion is more stringent and you require the entire string match a pattern use re-matches. Unlike re-find, which matches any portion of a string, re-matches matches if and only if the entire string matches the pattern. ;; In find, #"\w+" is any contiguous word characters (re-find #"\w+" "my-param") ;; -> "my" ;; But in matches #"\w+" means "all word characters" (re-matches #"\w+" "my-param") ;; -> nil (re-matches #"\w+" "justLetters") ;; -> "justLetters" See Also • The API documentation for java.lang.Pattern, which defines the exact regex syntax supported by Java (and Clojure’s regular expression literals.) • Recipe 1.8 for information on extracting values from a string using regular expres‐ sions. • Recipe 1.9 1.8. Pulling Values Out of a String Using Regular Expressions by Ryan Neufeld 12 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data Problem You need to extract portions of a string matching a given pattern. Solution Use re-seq with a regular expression pattern and string to retrieve a sequence of suc‐ cessive matches. ;; Extract simple words from a sentence (re-seq #"\w+" "My Favorite Things") ;; -> ("My" "Favorite" "Things") ;; Extract simple 7-digit phone numbers (re-seq #"\d{3}-\d{4}" "My phone number is 555-1234.") ;; -> ("555-1234") Regular expressions with matching groups (parentheses) will return a vector for each total match. ;; Extract all of the twitter usernames and hashtags in a tweet. (defn mentions [tweet] (re-seq #"(@|#)(\w+)" tweet)) (mentions "So long, @earth, and thanks for all the #fish. #goodbyes") ;; -> (["@earth" "@" "earth"] ["#fish" "#" "fish"] ["#goodbyes" "#" "goodbyes"]) Discussion Provided a simple pattern (one without matching groups), re-seq will return a flat sequence of matches. Fully expressing the power of Clojure, this is a lazy sequence. Calling re-seq on a gigantic string will not scan the entire string right away; you’re free to consume those values bit-by-bit, or defer evaluation to some other constituent part of your application further down the road. When given a regular expression containing matching groups re-seq will do something a little different. Don’t worry, the resulting sequence is still lazy, but instead of flat strings its values will be vectors. The first value of the vector will always be the whole match, grouped or not; subsequent values will be the strings captured by matching group pa‐ renthesis. These captured values will appear in the order their opening parenthesis ap‐ peared, despite any nesting. Take a look at this example: ;; Re to capture and decompose a phone number and its title (def re-phone-number #"(\w+): \((\d{3})\) (\d{3}-\d{4})") (re-seq re-phone-number "Home: (919) 555-1234, Work: (191) 555-1234") ;; -> (["Home: (919) 555-1234" "Home" "919" "555-1234"] ;; ["Work: (191) 555-1234" "Work" "191" "555-1234"]) 1.8. Pulling Values Out of a String Using Regular Expressions | 13 If all you’re looking for is a single match from a string, then use re-find. It behaves almost identically to re-seq, but returns only the first match as a singular value, instead of a sequence of match values. Apart from re-seq, there is another way to iterate over the matches in a string. You could do this by repeatedly calling re-find on a re-matcher, but we don’t suggest this approach. Why? Because it isn’t very idiomatic Clojure. Mutating a re-matcher object with repeated calls to re-find is just wrong; it completely violates the principle of pure functions. We highly suggested you prefer re-seq over re-matcher and re-find unless you have a really good reason not to. See Also • Recipe 1.7 for testing a string for the presence of a pattern. • Recipe 1.9 for information on using regular expressions to find and replace portions of a string. • The API documentation for java.lang.Pattern, which defines the exact regex syntax supported by Java (and Clojure’s regular expression literals.) 1.9. Performing Find and Replace on Strings by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to modify portions of a string that match some well-defined pattern. Solution The versatile clojure.string/replace is the function you should reach for when you need to selectively replace portions of a string. For simple patterns use replace with a normal string as its matcher. (def about-me "My favorite color is green!") (clojure.string/replace about-me "green" "red") ;; -> "My favorite color is red!" (defn de-canadianize [s] (clojure.string/replace s "ou" "o")) (de-canadianize "Those Canadian neighbours have coloured behaviour when it comes to word endings") ;; -> "Those Canadian neighbors have colored behavior when it comes to word endings" 14 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data Plain string replacement will only get you so far. When you need to replace a pattern with some variability to it you’ll need to reach for the big guns: regular expressions. Use Clojure’s regular expression literals (#"…") to specify a pattern as a regular expression. (defn linkify-comment "Add Markdown-style links for any GitHub issue numbers present in comment" [repo comment] (clojure.string/replace comment #"#(\d+)" (str "[#$1](" repo "/issues/$1)"))) (linkify-comment "next/big-thing" "As soon as we fix #42 and #1337 we should be set to release!") ;; -> "As soon as we fix ;; [#42]( and ;; [#1337]( we ;; should be set to release!" Discussion As far as string functions go, replace is one of the more powerful and most complex ones. The majority of this complexity arises from the varying match and replacement types it can operate with. When passed a string match replace expects a string replacement. Any occurrences of match in the supplied string will be replaced directly with replacement. When passed a character match (such as \c or \n) replace expects a character replace ment. Like string/string the character/character mode of replace replaces item directly. When passed a regular expression for a match replace get much more interesting. One possible replacement for a regex match is a string just like the linkify-comment ex‐ ample; This string interprets special character combinations like $1 or $2 as variables to be replaced by matching groups in the match. In the linkify-comment example any contiguous digits (\d+) following a number-sign (#) are capture in parenthesis and available as $1 in the replacement. When passing a regex match you can also provide a function for replacement instead of a string. In Clojure, the world is your oyster when you can pass a function as an argument; You could capture your replacement in a re-usable (and testable) function, you could pass different functions in depending on the circumstances, or you could even pass a map that dictated replacements. ;; linkify-comment re-written with linkification as a separate function (defn linkify [repo [full-match id]] (str "[" full-match "](" repo "/issues/" id ")")) (defn linkify-comment [repo comment] (clojure.string/replace comment #"#(\d+)" (partial linkify repo))) 1.9. Performing Find and Replace on Strings | 15 If you’ve not used regular expressions before, then you’re in for a treat. Regexps are a powerful tool for modifying strings with unbounded flexibility. Like any powerful new tool, it’s easy to over-do it. Because of their terse and compact syntax it’s very easy to produce regexps that are both difficult to interpret and at a high risk of being incorrect. You should use regular expressions sparingly, and only if you fully understand their syntax. Mastering Regular Expressions, 3rd Edition is a fantastic book for learning and mas‐ tering Regular Expression syntax. See Also • Recipe 1.7 • clojure.string/replace-first, a function that operates nearly identically to clojure.string/replace, but only replaces the first occurrence of match. • The API documentation for java.lang.Pattern, which defines the exact regex syntax supported by Java (and Clojure’s regular expression literals.) 1.10. Splitting a String into Parts by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to split a string into a number of parts. Solution Use clojure.string/split to tokenize a string into a vector of tokens. split takes two arguments, a string to tokenize and a regular expression to split on. (clojure.string/split "HEADER1,HEADER2,HEADER3" #",") ;; -> ["HEADER1" "HEADER2" "HEADER3"] (clojure.string/split "Spaces Newlines\n\n" #"\s+") ;; -> ["Spaces" "Newlines"] Discussion In addition to just naively splitting on a regular expression split allows you to control how many (or how few) times to split the provided string. You can control this with the optional limit argument. The most obvious effect of limit is to limit the number values 16 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data returned in the resulting collection. That said, limit doesn’t always work like you would expect, and even the absence of this argument carries a meaning. Without limit, the split function will return every possible delimitation, but exclude any trailing empty matches. ;; Splitting on whitespace without an explicit limit performs an implicit trim (clojure.string/split "field1 field2 field3 " #"\s+") ;; -> ["field1" "field2" "field3"] If you indeed do want absolutely every match, including trailing empty ones, the you can specify -1 as the limit. ;; In CSV parsing an empty match at the end of a line is still a meaningful one (clojure.string/split "ryan,neufeld," #"," -1) ;; -> ["ryan" "neufeld" ""] Specifying some other positive number as a limit will cause split to return at maxi‐ mum limit sub-strings. (def data-delimiters #"[ :-]") ;; No-limit split on any delimiter (clojure.string/split "2013-04-05 14:39" data-delimiters) ;; -> ["2013" "04" "05" "14" "39"] ;; Limit of 1 - functionally: return this string in a collection (clojure.string/split "2013-04-05 14:39" data-delimiters 1) ;; -> ["2013-04-05 14:39"] ;; Limit of 2 (clojure.string/split "2013-04-05 14:39" data-delimiters 2) ;; -> ["2013" "04-05 14:39"] ;; Limit of 100 (clojure.string/split "2013-04-05 14:39" data-delimiters 100) ;; -> ["2013" "04" "05" "14" "39"] See Also • The clojure.string namespace API documentation • Recipe 1.7 • Recipe 1.8 1.11. Pluralizing Strings Based on a Quantity by Ryan Neufeld 1.11. Pluralizing Strings Based on a Quantity | 17 3. If you haven’t already installed lein-try, follow the instructions in “Our Golden Boy, lein-try” on page xiv Problem You need to pluralize a word given some quantity, such as “0 eggs” or “1 chicken.” Solution When you need to perform Ruby on Rails-style pluralization use Roman Scherer’s inflections library. To follow along with this recipe, start a REPL using lein-try 3: lein try inflections Use inflections.core/pluralize with a count to attempt to pluralize that word if count is not one. (require '[inflections.core :as inf]) (inf/pluralize 1 "monkey") ;; -> "1 monkey" (inf/pluralize 12 "monkey") ;; -> "12 monkeys" If you have a special or non-standard pluralization you can provide your own plurali‐ zation as an optional third argument to pluralize. (inf/pluralize 1 "box" "boxen") ;; -> "1 box" (inf/pluralize 3 "box" "boxen") ;; -> "3 boxen" Discussion When it comes to user-facing text, inflection is key. Humanizing the output of your programs or websites goes a long way to building a trustworthy and professional image. Ruby on Rails set the gold standard for friendly and humanized text with its Active Support::Inflections class. Inflections#pluralize is one such inflection, but In flections is chock full of cutesy-sounding methods ending in “ize” that change the inflection of strings. inflections provides nearly all of these capabilities in a Clojure context. Two interesting functions in the inflections library are plural and singular. These functions work a bit like the upper-case and lower-case of pluralization; plural 18 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data transforms words to their plural form and singular coerces words to their singular form. These transformations are based on a number of rules in inflections.plural. You can add your own rules for pluralization with inflections.core/plural!. (inf/plural "box") ;; -> "boxes" ;; Words ending in 'ox' pluralize with 'en' (and not 'es') (inf/plural! #"(ox)(?i)$" "$1en") (inf/plural "box") ;; -> "boxen" ;; plural is also the basis for pluralize... (inf/pluralize 2 "box") ;; -> "2 boxen" inflections also has support for inflections like camelize, parameterize and ordinal ize. ;; Convert "snake_case" to "CamelCase" (inf/camelize "my_object") ;; -> "MyObject" ;; Clean strings for usage as URL parameters (inf/parameterize "My most favorite URL!") ;; -> "my-most-favorite-url" ;; Turn numbers into ordinal numbers (inf/ordinalize 42) ;; -> "42nd" See Also • inflections core.clj for the most up-to-date listing of inflections available. 1.12. Converting Between Strings, Symbols and Keywords by Colin Jones Problem You have a string, a symbol, or a keyword, and you’d like to convert it into a different one of these string-like data types. 1.12. Converting Between Strings, Symbols and Keywords | 19 Solution To convert from a string to a symbol, use the symbol function. (symbol "valid?") ;; -> valid? To convert from a symbol to a string, use str. (str 'valid?) ;; -> "valid?" When you have a keyword and want a string, you can use name, or str if you want the leading colon. (name :triumph) ;; -> "triumph" ;; Or, to include the leading colon: (str :triumph) ;; -> ":triumph" To convert from a symbol or string to a keyword, use keyword. (keyword "fantastic") ;; -> :fantastic (keyword 'fantastic) ;; -> :fantastic You’ll need an intermediate step through name, to go from keyword to symbol. (symbol (name :wonderful)) ;; -> wonderful Discussion The primary conversion functions here are str, keyword, and symbol - each named for the data type they return. One of these, symbol, is a bit more strict in terms of the input it allows: it must take a string, which is why you need the extra step in the keyword-to- symbol conversion. There is another class of differences among these types: namely, that keywords and symbols may be namespaced, signified by a slash in the middle. For these kinds of keywords and symbols, the name function may or may not be sufficient to convert to a string, depending on your use case. ;; If you only want the name part of a keyword (name :user/valid?) ;; -> "valid?" ;; If you only want the namespace 20 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data (namespace :user/valid?) ;; -> "user" Very often, you actually want both parts. You could collect them separately, and con‐ catenate the strings, with a / in the middle, but there’s an easier way. Java has a rich set of performant methods for dealing with immutable strings. You can take the leading- colon string and lop off the first character with java.lang.String.substring(int). (str :user/valid?) ;; -> ":user/valid?" (.substring (str :user/valid?) 1) ;; -> "user/valid?" See java.lang.String for more String methods. You can convert namespaced symbols to keywords just as easily as their non- namespaced counterparts, but again, converting in the other direction (keyword to symbol) takes an extra step. (keyword 'produce/onions) ;; -> :produce/onions (symbol (.substring (str :produce/onions) 1)) ;; -> produce/onions And finally, both the keyword and symbol functions have 2-argument versions that allow you to pass in the namespace and name separately. Sometimes this is nicer, for example when you already have one or both of the values bound in a def, let, or other binding. (def shopping-area "bakery") (keyword shopping-area "bagels") ;; -> :bakery/bagels (symbol shopping-area "cakes") ;; -> bakery/cakes These three string-like data types are all great for different situations, and how to choose among them is another topic. But it’s quite common to need to convert among them, so keyword, symbol, str, namespace, and name are handy to have in your toolbelt. See Also • Recipe 1.5 1.13. Maintaining Accuracy with Extremely Large/Small Numbers by Ryan Neufeld 1.13. Maintaining Accuracy with Extremely Large/Small Numbers | 21 Problem You need to work precisely with numbers, especially those that are very large or very small, without the imprecision implied by using floating-point representations such as double values. Solution First, know that Clojure supports exponents as literal numbers, allowing you to suc‐ cinctly express large/small numbers. ;; Avogadro's number 6.0221413e23 ;; -> 6.0221413E23 ;; 1 Angstrom in meters 1e-10 ;; -> 1.0E-10 Integer values passing the upper bound of a size-bounded type (like long) will raise an integer overflow error. Use the “quote” versions of numeric operations like - or * to allow promotion to "Big" types. (* 9999 9999 9999 9999 9999) ;; ArithmeticException integer overflow clojure.lang.Numbers.throwIntOverflow (*' 9999 9999 9999 9999 9999) ;; -> 99950009999000049999N Discussion Clojure has a number of numeric types; integer and long, double, and BigInteger and BigDecimal. The bounded types (integer, long and double) all seamlessly transition as needed while inside the total bounds of those types. Exceeding those bounds causes one of two things to happen; for integers, an integer overflow error is raised, for floating point numbers, the result will become Infinity. With integers, you can avoid this error by using quote versions of +, -, * and / - these operations support arbitrary precision and will promote integers to BigInteger if necessary. Floating point values are a little more tricky. The “quote” versions of numeric operations won’t help - you’ll need to infect your operations with the BigDecimal type. In Clojure, the BigInteger and BigDecimal types are what you would call “contagious.” Once a “big” number is introduced to an operation, it infects all of the follow-on results. You could do something like multiplying a number by a BigDecimal 1, but its much easier to use the bigdec or bigint functions to promote a value manually. (* 2 Double/MAX_VALUE) ;; -> Double/POSITIVE_INFINITY 22 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data (* 2 (bigdec Double/MAX_VALUE)) ;; -> 3.5953862697246314E+308M Contagion doesn’t only effect Big types, it also pops up in the integer-to-floating-point boundary - floating point numbers are contagious to integers. Arithmetic involving any floating point values will always return a floating point value. See Also • Recipe 1.14 for information on maintaining accuracy when using rational numbers. 1.14. Working with Rational Numbers by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to manipulate fractional numbers with absolute precision. Solution When manipulating integers (or other rationals) you can expect to maintain precision, including recurring fractions like 1/3 (0.333…). (/ 1 3) ;; -> 1/3 (type (/ 1 3)) ;; -> clojure.lang.Ratio (* 3 (/ 1 3)) ;; -> 1N Use rationalize on doubles to coerce them to rationals to avoid losing precision. (+ (/ 1 3) 0.3) ;; -> 0.6333333333333333 (rationalize 0.3) ;; -> 3/10 (+ (/ 1 3) (rationalize 0.3)) ;; -> 19/30 1.14. Working with Rational Numbers | 23 Discussion Clojure does its best to help you retain accuracy when working with numbers, especially integers. When dividing integers Clojure maintains accuracy by expressing the quotient as an accuracy maintaining ratio of integers instead of a lossy double. This accuracy isn’t without a cost though; operations on rational numbers are much slower than operations on more simple types. As is discussed in Recipe 1.13, accuracy is always a trade off for performance, and something you need to consider given the problem at hand. When operating on both doubles and rationals at the same time care is advised; on account of the way type-contagion works in Clojure, performing an operation over both types will cause the rational number to be coerced to a double. This transition isn’t necessarily inaccurate for a single operation, but the change in type introduces the pos‐ sibility for inaccuracy to creep in. To maintain accuracy when working with doubles, use the rationalize function. This function returns the rational value of any number. Calling rationalize on any values that might possibly be a double will allow you to maintain absolute accuracy (at the cost of performance.) See Also • Recipe 1.13 1.15. Parsing Numbers by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to parse numbers out of strings. Solution For “normal"-sized large or precise numbers, use Integer/parseInt or Double/ parseDouble to parse them. (Integer/parseInt "-42") ;; -> -42 (Double/parseDouble "3.14") ;; -> 3.14 24 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data Discussion What is a “normal"-sized number? For Integer/parseInt normal is anything below Integer/MAX_VALUE (2147483647) and for Double/parseDouble anything below Dou ble/MAX_VALUE (around 1.79 x 10^308). When the numbers you are parsing are either abnormally large, or abnormally precise, then you’ll need to parse them with BigInteger or BigDecimal to avoid losing precision. The versatile bigint and bigdec functions can coerce strings (or any other numerical type for that matter) into infinite precision containers. (bigdec "3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197") ;; -> 3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197M (bigint "122333444455555666666777777788888888999999999") ;; -> 122333444455555666666777777788888888999999999N See Also • Documentation for Integer/parseInt and Double/parseDouble 1.16. Truncating and Rounding Numbers by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to truncate or round a decimal number to a lower precision number. Solution If the integer portion of a number is all you are concerned with, use int to coerce a number to an integer. Of course, this completely discards any decimal places without performing any rounding. (int 2.0001) ;; -> 2 (int 2.999999999) ;; -> 2 If you still value some level of precision then rounding is probably what you’re after. You can use Math/round to perform simple rounding. (Math/round 2.0001) ;; -> 2 1.16. Truncating and Rounding Numbers | 25 (Math/round 2.999) ;; -> 3 ;; This is equivalent to: (int (+ 2.99 0.5)) ;; -> 3 If you want to perform an unbalanced rounding, such as unconditionally “rounding up” or “rounding down” then you should use Math/ceil or Math/floor respectively. (Math/ceil 2.0001) ;; -> 3.0 (Math/floor 2.999) ;; -> 2.0 You’ll notice these functions return decimal numbers. Wrap calls to ceil or floor in int to return an integer. Discussion One of the most simple ways to “round” numbers is truncation. int will do this for you, coercing floating-point numbers to integers by simply chopping off any trailing decimal places. This isn’t necessarily mathematically correct, but it is certainly convenient if it is accurate enough for the problem at hand. Math/round is the next step up in rounding technology. Like many other primitive manipulation functions in Clojure the language prefers not to re-invent the wheel. Math/round is a Java function that rounds by adding 1/2 to a number before dropping decimal places similarly to int. For more advanced rounding, such as controlling number of decimal places or complex rounding modes, you may need to resort to using with-precision function. You likely already know BigDecimal numbers are backed by Java classes, but you might not have know that Java exposes a number of knobs for tweaking BigDecimal calculations; with- precision exposes these knobs. with-precision is a macro that accepts a BigDecimal “precision” mode and any number of expressions, executing those expressions in a BigDecimal context tuned to that pre‐ cision. So what does precision look like? Well, it’s a little strange. The most basic pre‐ cision is simple a positive integer “scale” value - this value specifies the number decimal places to work with. More complex precisions involve a :rounding value, specified like a key-value pair like :rounding FLOOR (this is a macro of course, so why not!?) When not specified the default rounding mode is HALF_UP, but any of the values CEILING, FLOOR, HALF_UP, HALF_DOWN, HALF_EVEN, UP, DOWN or UNNECESSARY are allowed. See RoundingMode for more detailed descriptions of each mode. 26 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data (with-precision 3 (/ 7M 9)) ;; -> 0.778M (with-precision 1 (/ 7M 9)) ;; -> 0.8M (with-precision 1 :rounding FLOOR (/ 7M 9)) ;; -> 0.7M One notable “gotcha” with with-precision is that it only changes the behavior of BigDecimal arithmetic, leaving regular arithmetic unchanged. You’ll either have to in‐ troduce BigDecimal values into your expressions with literal values (3M) or by means of the bigdec function. (with-precision 3 (/ 1 3)) ;; -> 1/3 (with-precision 3 (/ (bigdec 1) 3)) ;; -> 0.333M See Also • Recipe 1.13 for more information on BigDecimal, specifically type-contagion. • Recipe 1.17 1.17. Performing Fuzzy Comparison by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to test for equality with some tolerance for minute differences. This is espe‐ cially a problem when comparing floating point numbers, which are susceptible to “drift” through repeated operations. Solution Clojure has no built-in functions for fault-tolerant equality or “fuzzy comparison” as it is often called. It’s trivial to implement your own fuzzy= function. (defn fuzzy= [tolerance x y] (let [diff (Math/abs (- x y))] (< diff tolerance))) (fuzzy= 0.01 10 10.000000000001) ;; -> true 1.17. Performing Fuzzy Comparison | 27 (fuzzy= 0.01 10 10.1) ;; -> false Discussion fuzzy= works like most other fuzzy comparison algorithms do; first, it finds the absolute difference between the two operands, and second, it tests whether that difference falls beneath the given tolerance. Of course, there’s nothing dictating that the tolerance needs to be some minute fractional number. If you were comparing large numbers and wanted to ignore variations under a thousand you could set the tolerance to 1000. Even with fuzzy=, you still need to take care when comparing floating point values, especially for values differing by numbers very close to your tolerance. At differences bordering the supplied tolerance you may find the results to be unexpected. (- 0.22 0.23) ;; -> -0.010000000000000009 (- 0.23 0.24) ;; -> -0.009999999999999981 As odd as this is, this isn’t unexpected. The IEEE 754 specification for floating point values is a purposefully limited format, a tradeoff between accuracy and performance. If absolute precision is what you’re after, then you should be using BigDecimal or BigInt. See Recipe 1.13 for more information on those two types. The fuzzy= function, as written, has a number of interesting side effects. First and foremost, having tolerance as the first argument makes it use partial to produce par‐ tially applied equals functions tuned to a specific tolerance. (def equal-within-ten? (partial fuzzy= 10)) (equal-within-ten? 100 109) ;; -> true (equal-within-ten? 100 110) ;; -> false What if you wanted to sort using fuzzy comparison? The sort function takes as an optional argument a predicate or comparator. Let’s write a function fuzzy- comparator that returns a comparator with a given tolerance. (defn fuzzy-comparator [tolerance] (fn [x y] (if (fuzzy= tolerance x y) 0 (compare x y)))) (sort (fuzzy-comparator 10) [100 11 150 10 9]) ;; -> (11 10 9 100 150) ; 100 and 150 have moved, but not 11, 10, 9 28 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data If the two values being compared are within tolerance of each other, return 0 to indicate they are equal. Otherwise fallback to normal compare See Also • The Wikipedia article on IEEE Floating Point. • Recipe 1.13 • Recipe 1.16 1.18. Performing Trigonometry by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to implement mathematical functions that require trigonometry. Solution All of the trigonometric functions are accessible via java.util.Math, which is available as Math. Use them like you would any other namespaced function. ;; Calculating sin(a + b). The formula for this is ;; sin(a + b) = sin a * cos b + sin b cos a (defn sin-plus [a b] (+ (* (Math/sin a) (Math/cos b)) (* (Math/sin b) (Math/cos a)))) (sin-plus 0.1 0.3) ;; -> 0.38941834230865047 Trigonometric functions operate on values measured in radians. If you have values measured in degrees, such as latitude or longitude, then you’ll need to convert them to radians first. Use Math/toRadians to convert degrees to radians. ;; Calculating the distance in kilometres between two points on Earth (def earth-radius 6371.009) (defn degrees->radians [point] (mapv #(Math/toRadians %) point)) (defn distance-between "Calculate the distance in km between two points on earth. Each point is a pair of degrees latitude and longitude, in that order." ([p1 p2] (distance-between p1 p2 earth-radius)) 1.18. Performing Trigonometry | 29 ([p1 p2 radius] (let [[lat1 long1] (degrees->radians p1) [lat2 long2] (degrees->radians p2)] (* radius (Math/acos (+ (* (Math/sin lat1) (Math/sin lat2)) (* (Math/cos lat1) (Math/cos lat2) (Math/cos (- long1 long2))))))))) (distance-between [49.2000 -98.1000] [35.9939, -78.8989]) ;; -> 2139.42827188432 Discussion It may be surprising to some that Clojure doesn’t have its own internal math namespace, but why re-invent the wheel? Despite its tainted reputation, Java can perform, especially when it comes to math; Clojure’s Java interop forms and typing sugar make doing math using java.util.Math almost pleasant. java.lang.Math isn’t only for trigonometry, it also contains a number of functions useful for dealing with exponentiation, logarithms and roots. A full list of methods is available in the java.util.Math javadocs. See Also • Recipe 8.5 for tips on improving performance. 1.19. Inputting and Outputting Integers with Different Bases by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to enter numbers into a Clojure REPL or code in a different base (such as hexadecimal or binary). Solution Specify the base or “radix” of a literal number by prefixing it with the radix number (e.g. 2, 16, etc.) and the letter r. Any base from 2 to 36 is valid (there are of course 10 digits and 26 letters available…) 2r101010 ;; -> 42 3r1120 ;; -> 42 30 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data 16r2A ;; -> 42 36rABUNCH ;; -> 624567473 To output integers use the Java method Integer/toString. (Integer/toString 13 2) ;; -> "1101" (Integer/toString 42 16) ;; -> "2a" (Integer/toString 35 36) ;; -> "z" Discussion Unlike the ordering of most Clojure functions, this method takes an integer first, and the optional base second, making it hard to partially apply without wrapping it in an‐ other function. You can write a small wrapper around Integer/toString to accomplish this. (defn to-base [radix n] (Integer/toString n radix)) (def base-two (partial to-base 2)) (base-two 9001) ;; -> "10001100101001" See Also • Recipe 1.6 for information on format. The o and x specifiers print integers in octal and hexadecimal, respectively. • Recipe 1.15 1.20. Statistics on Collections of Numbers by Ryan Neufeld and Jean Niklas L’orange Problem You need to calculate simple statistics like mean, median, mode and standard deviation on a collection of numbers. 1.20. Statistics on Collections of Numbers | 31 Solution Find the mean (average) of a collection by dividing its total by the count of the collection. (defn mean [coll] (let [sum (apply + coll) count (count coll)] (if (pos? count) (/ sum count) 0))) (mean [1 2 3 4]) ;; -> 5/2 (mean [1 1.6 7.4 10]) ;; -> 5.0 (mean []) ;; -> 0 Find the median (middle value) of a collection by sorting its values and getting its middle value. There are, of course, special considerations for collections of odd-length. In these cases median is considering the mean of the two middle values. (defn median [coll] (let [sorted (sort coll) cnt (count sorted) halfway (int (/ cnt 2))] (if (odd? cnt) (nth sorted halfway) (let [bottom (dec halfway) bottom-val (nth sorted bottom) top-val (nth sorted halfway)] (mean [bottom-val top-val]))))) (median [5 2 4 1 3]) ;; -> 3 (median [7 0 2 3]) ;; -> 5/2 ; The average of 2 and 3. In the case coll has an odd number of items, simply retrieve that item with nth. When coll has an even number of items, find the index for the other central value (bottom), and take the mean of the top and bottom value. Find the mode (most frequently occurring value) of a collection by using frequen cies to tally occurrences, then massage that tally to retrieve the discrete list of modes. (defn mode [coll] (let [freqs (frequencies coll) occurrences (group-by second freqs) 32 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data modes (last (sort occurrences)) modes (->> modes second (map first))] modes)) (mode [:alan :bob :alan :greg]) ;; -> (:alan) (mode [:smith :carpenter :doe :smith :doe]) ;; -> (:smith :doe) Standard Deviation Find the sample standard deviation by completing the following steps: • For each value in the collection, subtract the mean from the value and multiply that result by itself. • Then, sum up all those values. • Divide the result by the number of values minus one. • Finally, take the square root of the previous result. (defn standard-deviation [coll] (let [avg (mean coll) squares (for [x coll] (let [x-avg (- x avg)] (* x-avg x-avg))) total (count coll)] (-> (/ (apply + squares) (- total 1)) (Math/sqrt)))) (standard-deviation [4 5 2 9 5 7 4 5 4]) ;; -> 2.0 (standard-deviation [4 5 5 4 4 2 2 6]) ;; -> 1.4142135623730951 Discussion Both mean and median are fairly easy to reproduce in Clojure, but mode requires a bit more effort. mode is a little different than mean or median in that it generally only makes sense for non-numeric data. Calculating the modes of a collection is a little more in‐ volved, and ultimately requires a good deal of processing compared to its numeric cousins. Here is a break down of how mode works: 1.20. Statistics on Collections of Numbers | 33 (defn mode [coll] (let [freqs (frequencies coll) ; occurrences (group-by second freqs) ; modes (last (sort occurrences)) ; modes (->> modes ; second (map first))] modes)) frequencies returns a map that tallies the number of times each value in coll occurs. This would be something like {:a 1 :b 2} group-by with second inverts the freqs map, turning keys into values, merging duplicates into groups. This would turn {:a 1 :b 1} into {1 [[:a 1] [:b 1]]}. The list of occurrences is now sortable; the last pair in the sorted list will be the modes, or most frequently occurring values. The final step is processing the raw mode pairs into discrete values. Taking second turns ‘[2 [[:alan 2]]]` into [[:alan 2]], and (map first) turns that into ’(:alan). The standard deviation measures how much, on average, the individual values in a population deviate from the mean: The higher the standard deviation is, the “farther away” the individual values will be (on average). standard-deviation is a bit more mathematical than mean, median and mode, follow along the execution of this function with a step by step breakdown. (defn standard-deviation [coll] (let [avg (mean coll) ; squares (for [x coll] ; (let [x-avg (- x avg)] (* x-avg x-avg))) total (count coll)] (-> (/ (apply + squares) ; (- total 1)) (Math/sqrt)))) Calculate the mean of the collection. For each value, calculate the square of the difference between the value and the mean. Finally, calculate the sample standard deviation by taking the square root of the sum of squares over population size minus one. If you have the complete population, you can compute the popula‐ tion standard deviation by dividing by total instead of (- total 1). 34 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data See Also • The Wikipedia article on Standard deviation for more information on standard deviation and what it can be used for. 1.21. Performing Bitwise Operations by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to perform bitwise operations on numbers. Solution Bitwise operations aren’t quite as commonly used in high-level languages (like Clojure) as they are in systems languages like C or C++, but the techniques learned in those systems languages can still be useful. Clojure exposes a number of bitwise operations in its core namespace, all prefixed with bit-. One place bitwise operations really shine is in compressing a large number of binary flags into a single value. ;; Modelling a subset of Unix filesystem flags in a single integer (def fs-flags [:owner-read :owner-write :group-read :group-write :global-read :global-write]) ;; Fold flags into a map of flag->bit (def bitmap (zipmap fs-flags (map (partial bit-shift-left 1) (range)))) ;; -> {:owner-read 1, :owner-write 2, :group-read 4, ...} (defn permissions-int [& flags] (reduce bit-or 0 (map bitmap flags))) (def owner-only (permissions-int :owner-read :owner-write)) (Integer/toBinaryString owner-only) ;; -> "11" (def read-only (permissions-int :owner-read :group-read :global-read)) (Integer/toBinaryString read-only) ;; -> "10101" (defn able-to? [permissions flag] (not= 0 (bit-and permissions (bitmap flag)))) (able-to? read-only :global-read) ;; -> true (able-to? read-only :global-write) ;; -> false 1.21. Performing Bitwise Operations | 35 Discussion Clojure provides a full complement of bitwise operations in its core library. This includes and, or, their negations and shifts, to name a few. When working with bitwise operations it can often be necessary to view the binary representation of an integer. Java’s Integer/toBinaryString can conveniently print out a binary representation of a number. Interestingly enough, core also includes a bit-set and bit-test. These two operations set or test an individual bit position in an integer. Instead of working in multiples of two as is necessary for operations like bit-and, you can operate by the index of the flag you’re interested in. This drastically simplifies the above example. ;; Modelling a subset of Unix filesystem flags in a single integer (def fs-flags [:owner-read :owner-write :group-read :group-write :global-read :global-write]) (def bitmap (zipmap fs-flags (map #(.indexOf fs-flags %) fs-flags))) (def no-permissions 0) (def owner-read (bit-set no-permissions (:owner-read bitmap))) (Integer/toBinaryString owner-read) ;; -> "1" ;; Granting global permissions... (def anything (reduce #(bit-set %1 (bitmap %2)) no-permissions fs-flags)) (Integer/toBinaryString anything) ;; -> "111111" See Also • Recipe 8.6 1.22. Generating Random Numbers by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to generate a random number. Solution Clojure has a number of pseudo-random number generating functions available for your disposal. 36 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data For generating random floating point numbers from 0.0 up to (but not including) 1.0, use rand. (rand) ;; -> 0.0249306187447903 (rand) ;; -> 0.9242089829055088 For generating random integers use rand-int. ;; Emulating a six-sided die (defn roll-d6 [] (inc (rand-int 6))) (roll-d6) ;; -> 1 (roll-d6) ;; -> 3 Discussion In addition to generating a number from 0.0 to 1.0, rand also accepts an optional argument that specifies the exclusive maximum value. For example, (rand 5) would return a floating point number ranging from 0.0 (inclusive) to 5.0 (exclusive). (rand-int 5), on the other hand, would return a random integer between 0 (inclusive) and 5 (exclusive). At first blush rand-int might seem like an ideal way to select a random element from a vector or list. This is a lot of ceremony though, use rand-nth instead to get a random element from any sequential collection (i.e. the collection responds to nth). (rand-nth [1 2 3]) ;; -> 1 (rand-nth '(:a :b :c)) ;; -> :c This won’t work for sets or hash-maps however. If you want to retrieve a random element from a non-sequential collection like a set, use seq to transform that collection into a sequence before calling rand-nth on it. (rand-nth (seq #{:heads :tails})) ;; -> :heads If you’re trying to randomly sort a collection, use shuffle to receive a random permu‐ tation of your collection. (shuffle [1 2 3 4 5 6]) ;; -> [3 1 4 5 2 6] 1.22. Generating Random Numbers | 37 See Also • The API documentation for java.util.Random • Recipe 10.3 1.23. Working with Currency by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to manipulate values that represent currency. Solution Use the Money library for representing, manipulating and storing values in monetary units. To follow along with this recipe, add [clojurewerkz/money "1.4.0"] to your project’s dependencies, or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try clojurewerkz/money The namespace contains functions for creating, modi‐ fying and comparing units of currency. (require '[ :as ma]) (require '[ :as mc]) ;; $2.00 in USD (def two (ma/amount-of mc/USD 2)) two ;; -> # (ma/plus two two) ;; -> # (ma/minus two two) ;; -> # (ma/< two (ma/amount-of mc/USD 2.01)) ;; -> true (ma/total [two two two two]) ;; -> # 38 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data Discussion Working with currency is serious business. Never trust built-in numerical types with handling currency - especially floating point values. These types are simply not meant to capture and manipulate currency with the semantics and precision required. In par‐ ticular, floating point values of the IEEE 754 standard carry a certain imprecision by design. (- 0.23 0.24) ;; -> -0.009999999999999981 You should always use a library custom-tailored for dealing with money. The Money library wraps the trusted and battle-tested Java library Joda Money. Money provides a large amount of functionality beyond arithmetic including rounding and currency conversion. (ma/round (ma/amount-of mc/USD 3.14) 0 :down) ;; -> # (ma/convert-to (ma/amount-of mc/CAD 152.34) mc/USD 1.01696 :down) ;; -> # The round function takes four arguments, an amount of currency, a scale factor, and a rounding mode. Scaling factor is a somewhat peculiar argument, it might be familiar to you if you’ve ever done scaling with BigDecimal, which shares identical factors. A scale of -1 scales to the tens place, 0 scales to the ones place, and so on and so forth. Further details can be found in the javadoc for the rounded method of Joda Money’s Money class. The final argument is a rounding mode, of which there are quite a few. :ceiling and :floor round towards positive or negative infinity. :up and :down round towards or away from zero. Finally :half-up, :half-down and :half-even round towards the nearest neighbour, preferring up, down or the most even neighbor. is a much less complicated function. convert-to take an amount of currency, a target currency, a conversion factor and a rounding mode. Money doesn’t provide its own conversion factor, since these change so often, so you’ll need to seek out a reputable source for conversation rates. Unfortu‐ nately we can’t help you with this one. Money also provides support for a number of different persistence and serialization mediums, including Cheshire for converting to/from JSON and Monger for persisting currency values to MongoDB. See Also • Recipe 1.13 • Recipe 1.16 1.23. Working with Currency | 39 1.24. Generating Unique IDs by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to generate a unique ID. Solution Use Java’s java.util.UUID/randomUUID to generate a universally unique ID (UUID). (java.util.UUID/randomUUID) ;; -> #uuid "5358e6e3-7f81-40f0-84e5-750e29e6ee05" (java.util.UUID/randomUUID) ;; -> #uuid "a6f92a6f-f736-468f-9e26-f392852825f4" Discussion Often times when building systems you want to assign a unique ID to objects and re‐ cords. Often times IDs are simple integers that monotonically increase with time. This isn’t without its problems though; You can’t mingle IDs of objects from different origins and worse, they reveal information about the amount and input volume of your data. This is where UUIDs come in. UUIDs, or Universally Unique Identifiers, are 128-bit random numbers almost certainly unique across the entire universe. A bold claim, of course - see RFC 4122 for more detailed information on UUIDs, how they’re generated, and the math behind them. You may have noticed Clojure prints UUIDs with a #uuid in front of them. This is a reader literal tag, it acts as a shortcut for the Clojure reader to read and initialize UUID objects. Reader literals are a lot like string or number literals like "Hi" or 42, but they can capture more complex data types. This makes it possible for formats like edn to communicate in a common lingo about things like UUIDs without resorting to string interning and accompanying custom parsing logic. Sequential IDs One thing you will lose with the move from sequential IDs to UUIDs is the implicit sortability of a chronologically increasing number. What if you could generate UUIDs that were both unique and sortable? Datomic does something similar with its datom ic.api/squuid function. It’s simple to write a function that behaves similarly. (defn squuid [] (let [uuid (java.util.UUID/randomUUID) 40 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data time (System/currentTimeMillis) secs (quot time 1000) lsb (.getLeastSignificantBits uuid) msb (.getMostSignificantBits uuid) timed-msb (bit-or (bit-shift-left secs 32) (bit-and 0x00000000ffffffff msb))] (java.util.UUID. timed-msb lsb))) This approximation of Datomic’s squuid splits and re-assembles a random UUID, using bit-or to merge the current time with the most significant 32-bits of the UUID. The two halves of the UUID are then re-assembled using the java.util.UUID. constructor, yielding UUIDs that increase sequentially over time. (def first (squuid)) first ;; -> #uuid "527bf210-dfae-4c73-8b7a-302d3b511f41" (def second (squuid)) second ;; -> #uuid "527bf219-65f0-4241-a165-c5c541cb98ea" (def third (squuid)) third ;; -> #uuid "527bf232-42b2-44bc-8dd7-ddae2abfcb87" (sort [first second third]) ;; -> (#uuid "527bf210-dfae-4c73-8b7a-302d3b511f41" ;; #uuid "527bf219-65f0-4241-a165-c5c541cb98ea" ;; #uuid "527bf232-42b2-44bc-8dd7-ddae2abfcb87") See Also • Recipe 1.21 • Recipe 1.26 for information on #inst, another example of a reader literal, for dates. 1.25. Obtaining the Current Date and Time by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to obtain the current date or time. 1.25. Obtaining the Current Date and Time | 41 Solution Use Java’s java.util.Date constructor to create a Date instance representing the present time and date. (defn now [] (java.util.Date.)) (now) ;; -> #inst "2013-04-06T14:33:45.740-00:00" ;; A few seconds later... (now) ;; -> #inst "2013-04-06T14:33:51.234-00:00" If you’re more interested in the current Unix timestamp, use System/currentTimeMil lis. (System/currentTimeMillis) ;; -> 1365260110635 (System/currentTimeMillis) ;; -> 1365260157013 Discussion It doesn’t make much sense for Clojure to re-implement or wrap the JVM’s backing time and date functionality. As such the norm is to use Clojure’s Java interop forms to in‐ stantiate a Date object representing “now.” #inst "2013-04-06T14:33:51.234-00:00" doesn’t look very much like Java now, does it? That’s because Clojure’s “instant” reader literal uses java.util.Date as its backing implementation. You can learn more about the #inst reader literal in Recipe 1.26 Using System/currentTimeMillis can be useful for performing a one-off benchmark, but given the high quality tools out there that do this already currentTimeMillis is of limited utility; you may want to try Hugo Duncan’s criterium library if benchmarking is what you’re after. Additionally, you shouldn’t try to use currentTimeMillis as some sort of unique value - UUIDs do a much better job of this. If you decide you would rather use clj-time to work with dates, it provides the a func‐ tion clj-time.core/now to get the current DateTime. (require '[clj-time.core :as timec]) (timec/now) ;; -> # Use clj-time.local/local-now to retrieve a DateTime instance for the present scoped to your machine’s local time zone. 42 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data (require '[clj-time.local :as timel]) (timel/local-now) ;; -> # See Also • Recipe 1.26 for more information on the #inst reader literal. • Recipe 1.24 to learn how to generate universally unique IDs. 1.26. Representing Dates as Literals by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need represent instances of time in a readable and serializable form. Solution Use Clojure’s #inst literals in source to represent fixed points in time. (def ryans-birthday #inst "1987-02-18T18:00:00.000-00:00") (println ryans-birthday) ;; *out* ;; #inst "1987-02-18T18:00:00.000-00:00" When communicating with other Clojure processes (or anything else that speaks edn) use clojure.edn/read to reify instant literal strings into Date objects. ;; A faux communication channel that "receives" edn strings (require 'clojure.edn) (import '[ PushbackReader StringReader]) (defn remote-server-receive-date [] (-> "#inst \"1987-02-18T18:00:00.000-00:00\"" (StringReader.) (PushbackReader.))) (clojure.edn/read (remote-server-receive-date)) ;; -> #inst "1987-02-18T18:00:00.000-00:00" In the above example remote-server-receive-date emulates a communications chan‐ nel upon which you may receive edn data. 1.26. Representing Dates as Literals | 43 Discussion Since Clojure 1.4 instants in time have been represented via the #inst reader literal. This means dates are no longer represented by code that must be evaluated, but a textual representation that is both consistent and serializable. This standard allows any process capable of communicating in edn, or “extensible data notation” of speaking clearly about instants of time. See the edn implementations list for a list of languages that speak edn; the list includes Clojure, Ruby and JavaScript so far, with many more implementations in the works. clojure.core/read vs. clojure.edn/read While it may seem convenient to read strings using Clojure’s built-in reader (clo jure.core/read), it is NEVER safe to parse input from an untrusted source using this reader. If you need to receive simple Clojure data from an external source it is best to use the edn reader (clojure.edn/read). clojure.core/read isn’t safe, because it was only designed for reading Clojure data and strings from trusted source (such as the source files you write). clojure.edn/read is designed specifically for use as part of a communication channel, and as such is built with security in mind. It’s also possible to vary how the reader evaluate #inst literals by changing the binding of data-readers. By varying the binding of data-readers it is possible to reader #inst literals as java.util.Calendar or java.util.Timestamp if you so desire. (def instant "#inst \"1987-02-18T18:00:00.000-00:00\"") (binding [*data-readers* {'inst clojure.instant/read-instant-calendar}] (class (read-string instant))) ;; -> java.util.GregorianCalendar (binding [*data-readers* {'inst clojure.instant/read-instant-timestamp}] (class (read-string instant))) ;; -> java.sql.Timestamp See Also • Recipe 1.24 for another example of a reader literal included with Clojure. 1.27. Parsing Date and Times using clj-time by Ryan Neufeld 44 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data Problem You need to parse dates from a string. Solution Working directly with Java’s date and time classes is like pulling teeth. We suggest using clj-time, a Clojure wrapper over the excellent Joda Time library. Before starting, add [clj-time "0.6.0"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try clj-time Use clj-time.format/formatter to create custom date/time representations capable of parsing candidate strings. Use the clj-time.format/parse function with those for‐ matters to parse strings into DateTime objects. (require '[clj-time.format :as tf]) ;; To parse dates like: "02/18/87" (def government-forms-date (tf/formatter "MM/dd/yy")) (tf/parse government-forms-date "02/18/87") ;; -> # (def wonky-format (tf/formatter "HH:mm:ss:SS' on 'yyyy-MM-dd")) ;; -> #'user/wonky-format (tf/parse wonky-format "16:13:49:06 on 2013-04-06") ;; -> # Discussion The formatter function is a powerful little function that takes a date/time format string and returns an object capable of parsing date/time strings in that format. This format string can include any number of symbols representing portions of a time or date. Some example symbols include year (“yy” or “yyyy”), day (“dd”) or even a literal string like "on“. The full list of these symbols is available in the Joda Time DateTimeFormat javadoc. More often than not, the dates and times you’re parsing may be strange, but not so strange that no one has seen them before. For this, clj-time includes a large number of built-in formatters. Use clj-time.format/show-formatters to print out a list of built-in formats and a sample date/time in that format. Once you’ve picked a suitable format use clj-time.formater/formatters with its keyword to receive the appropriate DateTimeFormatter. 1.27. Parsing Date and Times using clj-time | 45 By default, formatter always parses strings into DateTime objects with a UTC time zone. formatter optionally takes a time zone as its second argument. You can use clj- time.core/time-zone-for-offset or clj-time.core/time-zone-for-id to receive a DateTimeZone object to pass to formatter. See Also • Recipe 1.28 for information on how to use formatters to unparse strings. • The official API documentation for Java’s simple date formatter. 1.28. Formatting Dates using clj-time by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to print dates or times in a particular format. Solution While it is possible to format Java Date-like instances (Date, Calendar and Timestamp) with clojure.core/format, you should use clj-time to format dates. Before starting, add [clj-time "0.6.0"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try clj-time To output a date/time as a string, use clj-time.format/unparse with a DateTimeFor matter. There are a number of built-in formatters available via clj-time.format/ formatters, or you can build your own with clj-time.format/formatter. (require '[clj-time.format :as tf]) (require '[clj-time.core :as t]) (tf/unparse (tf/formatters :date) (t/now)) ;; -> "2013-04-06" (def my-format (tf/formatter "MMM d, yyyy 'at' hh:mm")) (tf/unparse my-format (t/now)) ;; -> "Apr 6, 2013 at 04:54" 46 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data Discussion It is certainly possible to format pure Java dates and times; however, in our experience it isn’t worth the hassle—the syntax is ugly, and the workflow is overly verbose. clj- time and its backing library Joda Time have a track record for making it easy to work with dates and times on the JVM. The formatter function is quite the gem, not only does it produce a “format” capable of printing or unparseing a date, it is also capable of parsing strings back into dates. In other words, DateTimeFormatter is capable of roundtripping from string to Date and back again. Much of how formatter and formatters work is covered in Recipe 1.27. One format symbol used less frequently in parsing is the textual day of week (i.e. “Tues‐ day” or “Tue”). Use "E" in your format string to output the abbreviated day of week, and "EEEE" for the full length day of week. (def abbr-day (tf/formatter "E")) (def full-day (tf/formatter "EEEE")) (tf/unparse abbr-day (t/now)) ;; -> "Mon" (tf/unparse full-day (t/now)) ;; -> "Monday" If you need to format native Java date/time instances, you can use the functions in the clj-time.coerce namespace to coerce any number of Java date/time instances into Joda Time instances. (require '[clj-time.coerce :as tc]) (tc/from-date (java.util.Date.)) ;; -> # Similarly, you can use clj-time.coerce to coerce instances from Joda Time instances into other formats. (tc/to-date (t/now)) ;; -> #inst "2013-04-06T17:03:57.239-00:00" (tc/to-long (t/now)) ;; -> 1365267761585 See Also • The clj-time project page on Github. • Recipe 1.27 for more detailed information on formatter and formatters. • The official API documentation for Java’s simple date formatter. 1.28. Formatting Dates using clj-time | 47 1.29. Comparing Dates by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to compare one date to another, or you need to sort a sequence of dates. Solution You can compare Java Dates using the compare function. (defn now [] (java.util.Date.)) (def one-second-ago (now)) (Thread/sleep 1000) ;; Now is greater than (1) one second ago. (compare (now) one-second-ago) ;; -> 1 ;; One second ago is less than (-1) now. (compare one-second-ago (now)) ;; -> -1 ;; "Equal" manifests as 0. (compare one-second-ago one-second-ago) ;; -> 0 Discussion Why not just compare dates using Clojure’s built-in comparison operators (<=, >, etc.)? The problem with these operators is that they utilize clojure.lang.Numbers and at‐ tempt to coerce their arguments to numerical types. Since regular comparison won’t work, it’s necessary to use the compare function. The compare function takes two arguments and returns a number indicating that the first argument was either less-than (-1), equal-to (0), or greater-than (+1) the second argu‐ ment. Clojure’s sort functions use compare under the hood, so no extra work is required to sort a collection of dates. (def occurrences [#inst "2013-04-06T17:40:57.688-00:00" #inst "2002-12-25T00:40:57.688-00:00" #inst "2025-12-25T11:23:31.123-00:00"]) (sort occurrences) ;; -> (#inst "2002-12-25T00:40:57.688-00:00" 48 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data ;; #inst "2013-04-06T17:40:57.688-00:00" ;; #inst "2025-12-25T11:23:31.123-00:00") If you’ve been doing more complex work with dates and times and have Joda Time objects in hand, then all of this still applies. If you wish to compare Joda time objects to Java time objects, however, you will have to coerce them to one uniform type using the functions in clj-time.coerce. See Also • Recipe 2.24 1.30. Calculating the Length of a Time Interval by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to calculate the difference between two points in time. Solution Since Java date and time classes have poor support for time zones and leap years, use the clj-time library for calculating the length of a time interval. Before starting, add [clj-time "0.6.0"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try clj-time Use interval along with the numerous in- helper functions in the clj- time.core namespace to calculate the difference between times. (require '[clj-time.core :as t]) ;; The first step is to capture two dates as an interval (def since-april-first (t/interval (t/date-time 2013 04 01) (t/now))) ;; dt is the interval between April Fools Day, 2013 and today since-april-first ;; -> # (t/in-days since-april-first) ;; -> 5 ;; Years since the Moon landing (t/in-years (t/interval (t/date-time 1969 07 20) (t/now))) 1.30. Calculating the Length of a Time Interval | 49 ;; -> 43 ;; Days from Feb. 28 to March. 1 in 2012 (a leap year) (t/in-days (t/interval (t/date-time 2012 02 28) (t/date-time 2012 03 01))) ;; -> 2 ;; And on a non-leap year (t/in-days (t/interval (t/date-time 2013 02 28) (t/date-time 2013 03 01))) ;; -> 1 Discussion Calculating the length of an interval of times is one of the more complex operations you can perform with time. Time on planet Earth is a complex beast, complected by con‐ structs like leap time and time zones; clj-time is the only library we’re aware of that is capable of wrangling this complexity. The clj-time.core/interval function takes two dates and returns a representation of that discrete interval of time. From there, the clj-time.core namespace includes a myriad of in- functions that can present that time interval in different units. These helpers run the gamut in scale from in-msecs to in-years, covering nearly every scale useful for non-specialized applications. One area clj-time lacks support is leap seconds. Joda Time’s offical FAQ explains why the feature is missing in greater detail. We’re not aware of any Clojure that can reason about time at this granularity. If this concerns you, then you’re likely one of few people even capable of doing it right. Good luck to you. See Also • Recipe 1.29 • Recipe 1.31 • Recipe 1.33 1.31. Generating Ranges of Dates and Times by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to generate a lazy sequence covering a range of dates and/or times. 50 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data Solution This problem has no easy solution in Java, nor does it have one in Clojure - third-party libraries included. It is possible to use clj-time to get close, though. By composing clj-time’s Interval and periodic-seq functionality you can create a function time- range that mimics range’s capabilities but for DateTimes. (require '[clj-time.core :as time]) (require '[clj-time.periodic :as time-period]) (defn time-range "Return a lazy sequence of DateTime's from start to end, incremented by 'step' units of time." [start end step] (let [inf-range (time-period/periodic-seq start step) below-end? (fn [t] (time/within? (time/interval start end) t))] (take-while below-end? inf-range))) This is how you can use the time-range function: (def months-of-the-year (time-range (time/date-time 2012 01) (time/date-time 2013 01) (time/months 1))) ;; months-of-the-year is an unrealized lazy sequence (realized? months-of-the-year) ;; -> false (count months-of-the-year) ;; -> 12 ;; now realized (realized? months-of-the-year) ;; -> true Discussion While there is no ready-made, out-of-the-box time-range solution in Clojure, it is trivial to construct such a function with purely lazy semantics. The basis for our lazy time-range function is an infinite sequences of values with a fixed starting time. (defn time-range "Return a lazy sequence of DateTime's from start to end, incremented by 'step' units of time." [start end step] (let [inf-range (time-period/periodic-seq start step) ; below-end? (fn [t] (time/within? (time/interval start end) ; t))] (take-while below-end? inf-range))) ; 1.31. Generating Ranges of Dates and Times | 51 Acquire a lazy infinite sequence Create a predicate to terminate the sequence Modify the infinite sequence to terminate when below-end? fails (lazily, of course). Invoking periodic-seq with start and step, returns an infinite lazy sequence of values beginning at start - each subsequent value one step later than the last. Having a lazy sequence to infinite is one thing, but we need a lazy way to stop acquiring values when end is reached. The below-end? function created in let uses clj- time.core/interval to construct an interval from start to end and clj-time.core/ within? to test if a time t falls within that interval. This function is passed as the pred‐ icate to take-while, which will lazily consume values until below-end? fails. All together, time-range returns a lazy sequence of DateTime objects that stretches from a start time to an end time, stepped appropriately by the provided step value. Imagine trying to build something similar in a language without first-class laziness. See Also • Recipe 1.29 • Recipe 1.30 • Recipe 1.33 • Recipe 1.32 for an alternative that uses only native types. 1.32. Generate Ranges of Dates and Times using Native Java Types by Tom Hicks Problem You would like to generate a lazy sequence of dates (or times) beginning on a specific date and time. Further, unlike Recipe 1.31, you would like to do this using only built- in types. Solution A number of fixed-width function names like “repeatedly” are being split across lines. Is there any way we can force monospaced text to not wrap? 52 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data 4. “Gregorian” is the formal name for the style of calendar we all know and love. Read more on Wikipedia. You can use Java’s java.util.GregorianCalendar class coupled with Clojure’s repeat edly function to generate a lazy sequence of Gregorian calendar dates. You can then use java.text.SimpleDateFormat to format the dates, with a huge variety of output formats available. This example creates an infinite lazy sequence of Gregorian calendar dates 4 beginning on January 1, 1970 and each spanning a single day. The core take and drop functions are then used to select the last two days of February. (Be careful not to evaluate the infinite sequence itself in the REPL). (def daily-from-epoch (let [start-date (java.util.GregorianCalendar. 1970 0 0 0 0) ] (repeatedly (fn [] (.add start-date java.util.Calendar/DAY_OF_YEAR 1) (.clone start-date))))) (take 2 (drop 57 daily-from-epoch)) ;; -> (#inst "1970-02-27T00:00:00.000-07:00" #inst "1970-02-28T00:00:00.000-07:00") Discussion Clojure has no date type of its own but, by default, relies on its ability to easily intero‐ perate with Java (but see the clj-time library for alternatives to Java’s date, time, and calendar classes). This solution is based on the core repeatedly function, which creates a lazy sequence by repeatedly calling the argument function it is given and returning a sequence of the function’s results. Because you do not provide the optional, limiting argument to re peatedly, the result sequences produced are infinite. Consequently, in the REPL envi‐ ronment, you must be careful to evaluate your result sequences in contexts (such as take and drop) which limit the values produced. Since the function given to repeatedly is a function of no arguments, it is presumed to achieve its goals by side-effects (making it an impure function). Here, the impurity occurs as the argument function creates a Gregorian calendar date and repeatedly in‐ crements it by a single java.util.Calendar day unit. For each call of the function it returns a copy of the Gregorian calendar object (to avoid mysterious and unintended side-effects, it is advisable to avoid returning the mutated object directly). The date values in the result sequence are of type java.util.GregorianCalendar but the print function of the REPL displays them as an #inst reader literal. You can verify that the sequence elements are Gregorian calenders by mapping the class (or type) function onto the sequence: 1.32. Generate Ranges of Dates and Times using Native Java Types | 53 (def end-of-feb (take 2 (drop 57 daily-from-epoch))) (map class end-of-feb) ;; -> (java.util.GregorianCalendar java.util.GregorianCalendar) You can generalize the solution to a function which takes a starting year argument but defaults to some convenient year if the argument is not provided: (defn daily-from-year [& [start-year]] (let [ start-date (java.util.GregorianCalendar. (or start-year 1970) 0 0 0 0) ] (repeatedly (fn [] (.add start-date java.util.Calendar/DAY_OF_YEAR 1) (.clone start-date) )))) (take 3 (daily-from-year 1999)) ;; -> (#inst "1999-01-01T00:00:00.000-07:00" ;; #inst "1999-01-02T00:00:00.000-07:00" ;; #inst "1999-01-03T00:00:00.000-07:00") (take 2 (daily-from-year)) ;; -> (#inst "1970-01-01T00:00:00.000-07:00" #inst "1970-01-02T00:00:00.000-07:00") Using the java.text.SimpleDateFormat class you can then format the dates in a wide variety of different formats: (def end-of-days (take 3 (drop 353 (daily-from-year 2012)))) (def cal-format (java.text.SimpleDateFormat. "EEE M/d/yyyy")) (def iso8601-format (java.text.SimpleDateFormat. "yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss'Z'")) (map #(.format cal-format (.getTime %)) end-of-days) ;; -> ("Wed 12/19/2012" "Thu 12/20/2012" "Fri 12/21/2012") (map #(.format iso8601-format (.getTime %)) end-of-days) ;; -> ("2012-12-19T00:00:00Z" "2012-12-20T00:00:00Z" "2012-12-21T00:00:00Z") To put it all together, create a function which generates an infinite lazy sequence of formatted Gregorian date strings. For convenience, the function takes optional starting year and date format string arguments: (defn gregorian-day-seq "Return an infinite sequence of formatted Gregorian day strings starting on January 1st of the given year (default 1970)" [& [start-year date-format]] (let [ gd-format (java.text.SimpleDateFormat. (or date-format "EEE M/d/yyyy")) start-date (java.util.GregorianCalendar. (or start-year 1970) 0 0 0 0) ] (repeatedly (fn [] (.add start-date java.util.Calendar/DAY_OF_YEAR 1) (.format gd-format (.getTime start-date)) )))) To test the function, select the last Sunday of the year by finding all of the Sundays in a year: 54 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data (def y2k (take 366 (gregorian-day-seq 2000))) (last (filter #(.startsWith % "Sun") y2k)) ;; -> "Sun 12/31/2000" See also • Recipe 1.31 for an alternative that utilizes clj-time/Joda Time. • Recipe 1.25 for information on using java.util.Date from Clojure. • Recipe 1.26 to learn about Clojure’s #inst reader literal for date/times. 1.33. Retrieving Dates Relative to One Another by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to calculate a time relative to some other time a la Ruby on Rails' 2.days.from_now. Solution Because relative time is such a complex beast, we suggest using clj-time for calculating relative dates and times. Before starting, add [clj-time "0.6.0"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try clj-time If you’ve used the Ruby on Rails framework then you’re likely accustomed to statements like, 3.days.ago or some_date - 2.years. You’ll be pleased to know that clj-time exposes similar functionality. (require '[clj-time.core :as t]) ;; (it's April 6 at the time of this writing) (-> 1 t/days t/from-now) ;; -> # ;; 3.days.ago (-> 3 t/days t/ago) ;; -> # 1.33. Retrieving Dates Relative to One Another | 55 The clj-time.core functions from-now and ago are just syntactic sugar over plus and minus. ;; (t/plus (t/now) (t/years 1)) ;; -> # ;; some_date - 2.years (def some-date (t/date-time 2053 12 25)) (t/minus some-date (t/years 2)) ;; -> # Discussion Despite how difficult dates and times can sometimes be in Java, clj-time manages to expose a joyful syntax for adding and subtracting from dates. The functions plus, minus, from-now and ago all take a period of time and adjust a DateTime by that amount (be that time “now,” as in from-now or ago, or some provided time.) clj-time.core includes a number of useful period helpers ranging from mil lis to years that produce a time period at a given scale. Depending on your use case, it’s even possible to arrange operation, time period and time in such a manner that they almost read like a sentence. Take (→ 1 t/years t/ from-now) for example. In this case the threading macro → threads each value as an argument to the next producing (t/from-now (t/years 1)). It’s up to you to arrange your function calls as you see fit, but know that it is quite possible to produce readable deep nested-calls like this. See Also • Recipe 1.29 • Recipe 1.31 1.34. Working with Time Zones by Ryan Neufeld Problem You need to gracefully handle times and dates in a number of time zones. 56 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data Solution The JVM’s built-in time and date classes don’t work well with the notion of time zones. For one, Date treats every value as UTC, and Calendar is cumbersome to work with in Clojure (or Java, for that matter.) Use clj-time to properly deal with time zones. Before starting, add [clj-time "0.6.0"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try clj-time (require '[clj-time.core :as t]) ;; My birth-time, in the correct time-zone (def bday (t/from-time-zone (t/date-time 2012 02 18 18) (t/time-zone-for-offset -6))) bday ;; -> # ;; What time was it in Brisbane when I was born? (def australia-bday (t/to-time-zone bday (t/time-zone-for-id "Australia/Brisbane"))) australia-bday ;; -> # ;; Yet there are the same instant in time. (compare bday australia-bday) ;; -> 0 Discussion Unlike Java built-ins, clj-time knows a lot about time zones. Joda Time, the library clj-time wraps, bundles the internationally recognized tz database. This database cap‐ tures the ID and time offsets for nearly every location on the planet. The tz database also captures information about Daylight Saving Time. For example, Los Angeles is UTC-08:00 in the winter, and UTC-07:00 during the summer. This is accurately reflected when using clj-time (def la-tz (t/time-zone-for-id "America/Los_Angeles")) ;; LA is UTC-08:00 in winter (t/from-time-zone (t/date-time 2012 01 01) la-tz) ;; -> # ;; ... and UTC-07:00 in summer (t/from-time-zone (t/date-time 2012 06 01) la-tz) ;; -> # 1.34. Working with Time Zones | 57 The clj-time.core/from-time-zone function takes any DateTime and modifies its time zone to the desired time zone. This is useful in cases where you receive a date, time and time zone separately, and want to combine them an accurate DateTime instance. The clj-time.core/to-time-zone has the same signature as from-time-zone, but re‐ turns a DateTime for the exact same point in time, but from the perspective of another time zone. This is useful for presenting time and date information from disparate sour‐ ces to a user in their preferred time zone. Some times you may only want to deal with machine-local time. The clj- time.local namespace provides a number of functions to that end, including local- now for getting a time in the local time zone, and to-local-date-time, which shifts the perspective of a time to the local time zone. See Also • Recipe 1.30 • Recipe 1.33 1.35. Converting a Unix Timestamp to a Date by Steven Proctor Problem You need to get a Date object from a Unix timestamp. Solution When dealing with data from outside systems, many systems will express a timestamp in Unix time format. Some areas that you may encounter this is dealing with certain data stores, parsing out data from timestamps in log files, or any number of other systems that have to deal with Dates and Times across multiple different timezones and cultures. Fortunately with Clojure’s ability for nice interoperability with Java, you have an easy solution at hand. (defn from-unix-time "Return a Java Date object from a Unix time representation expressed in whole seconds." [unix-time] (java.util.Date. unix-time)) This is how you can use the from-unix-time function: 58 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data (from-unix-time 1366127520000) ;; #inst "2013-04-16T15:52:00.000-00:00" Discussion To get a Java Date object from a Unix time object, all you need to do is construct a new java.util.Date object using Clojure’s Java interop functionality. If you are already using, or wish to use the clj-time library, you can use clj-time to obtain a DateTime object from a Unix timestamp. (require '[clj-time.coerce :as timec]) (defn datetime-from-unix-time "Return a DateTime object from a Unix time representation expressed in whole seconds." [unix-time] (timec/from-long unix-time)) And using the datetime-from-unix-time function, you can see you get a DateTime object back with the correct time: (datetime-from-unix-time 1366127520000) ;; # You may not need to worry about dates and times being expressed as seconds very often, but when you do, isn’t it nice to know how easy it can be to get those timestamps into a date format used by the rest of the system? See Also • Recipe 1.36 • Recipe 1.25 1.36. Converting a Date to a Unix Timestamp by Steven Proctor Problem You need to get a Unix timestamp representation for a Date object. 1.36. Converting a Date to a Unix Timestamp | 59 Solution Many systems will express timestamps in Unix time format, and when you have to interact with these systems, you have to give them date and time information in the format they desire. Fortunately with Clojure’s ability for nice interoperability with Java, you have an easy solution at hand. (defn to-unix-time "Returns a Unix time representation expressed in whole seconds given a java.util.Date." [date] (.getTime date)) This is how you can use the to-unix-time function: (def date (read-string "#inst \"2013-04-16T15:52:00.000-00:00\"")) ;; #'user/date (to-unix-time date) ;; 1366127520000 Discussion When you have a java.util.Date object you can use the Java interop provided by Clojure as an easy way to get the time represented as Unix time. Java’s Date objects have a method getTime which returns the date as a Unix time. If you are already using, or wish to use the clj-time library, you can use clj-time to obtain a Unix time formatted DateTime object if you have a DateTime object. (require '[clj-time.coerce :as timec]) (defn datetime-to-unix-time "Returns a Unix time representation expressed in whole seconds given a DateTime." [datetime] (timec/to-long datetime)) And using the datetime-to-unix-time function, you can see you get a Unix time for‐ mat for a DateTime object: (def datetime (clj-time.core/date-time 2013 04 16 15 52)) ;; #'user/datetime (datetime-to-unix-time datetime) ;; 1366127520000 By using clj-time.coerce all that is needed is to use the function to-long to get a JodaTime DateTime object into a Unix time format. 60 | Chapter 1: Primitive Data Your system may never need to interact with other systems which expect timestamps expressed in Unix time, but if you are designing a system which does, Clojure makes it very easy to express a Date, or DateTime, in Unix time format. See Also • Recipe 1.35 • Recipe 1.25 1.36. Converting a Date to a Unix Timestamp | 61 CHAPTER 2 Composite Data 2.0. Introduction Now that we’ve got primitives out of the way, we need to start doing something with them. Single atomic values are great and all, but things get much more interesting when we start globbing them all together. As you’ll see soon enough, data manipulation is one of Clojure’s strong suits. What makes Clojure so good at manipulating collections? It comes down to three things: immutability, persistence and the sequence abstraction. Every one of Clojure’s built-in collection types have these properties and are thus unified in their API’s appearance and behavior. As the great Alan J. Perlis put it: It is better to have 100 functions operate on one data structure than to have 10 functions operate on 10 data structures. — Alan J. Perlis Early Computer Science Pioneer This chapter introduces Clojure collections and where/how to use them. Finally, we wrap things up by showing you how to build your own feature-complete types that look and behave just like the rest of Clojure’s collections, by leveraging Clojure’s capacity for interface polymorphism. Immutability Immutability means that a Clojure data structure, once created, can never change. You can only “modify” an immutable data structure by creating a new data structure which is a copy of the old, with the desired changes in place. 63 Immutability means that Clojure data structures, however deeply nested, are simple values, just like the number 3 or the character \z. It doesn’t make sense to speak of “changing” the value of 3 - it just is. If you “change” it by, say, incrementing it, you don’t modify 3 itself. Instead, you end up with an entirely new and different value, 4. Clojure extends this notion of value to all data structures. In Clojure, any action which in another language would perform any kind of update on a data structure will instead return an entirely new one. You can continue to pass around and use both the old and the new versions with confidence, knowing that nothing you can do will cause any unintended change elsewhere in your program. This feature is extremely important in concurrent and parallel programming, where unexpected mutation is the source of a large class of bugs. With immutable data, any number of threads can read from the same data without any worrying about locks or race conditions - it’s always safe to read something that can’t change. “Clone” operations are not only free, but unnecessary. Persistence But, you may ask, how can that possibly be efficient? Surely it is impractical to do a full copy of an object every time you need to add something? Yes, it would be, except for the feature of persistence. Persistence means that Clojure’s data structures, although logically immutable, can still share pieces of their internal structure for efficiency in both time and space. Essentially, updated versions of immut‐ able data only need to store the deltas from pervious versions, rather than doing a full deep copy. To make it performant, all of this uses some extremely clever algorithms, of course - see the book “Purely Functional Data Structures” by Chris Okasaki for a detailed description of how they work. The Sequence Abstraction From vectors, maps, sets and lists to strings and streams, every last one of Clojure’s collections behave in a similar, predictable fashion; simple tools for a more civilized age. This is on account of Clojure’s sequence abstraction. The wide-array of collection manipulating functions in Clojure are all implemented in terms of one simple abstraction; every collection can be treated as a sequence of values. By implementing first, rest and cons any data structure—even ones you build your‐ self—can participate in the ISeq interface. Then, you can use Clojure’s huge library of functions that can operate on sequences, with any of the data structures. All of functional programming’s best-beloved functions (map, reduce, filter, etc) will work interchangably on any data structure. In essence, 64 | Chapter 2: Composite Data the sequence abstraction allows all the expressiveness of traditional list-based LISP programming without forcing you to actually use lists Instead, use whatever type is most efficient for the task, knowing that you can consume them all in the same way when it makes sense to do so. 2.1. Creating a List by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to create a list data structure in your source code. Solution There are two basic ways to specifically construct a list (a clojure.lang.Persistent List.) You can use parens in combination with a single quote to indicate that the list should only be read as a data structure, not immediately evaluated. '(1 :2 "3") ;; -> (1 :2 "3") Or, more commonly, you can use the list function, which takes a variadic number of arguments and constructs a list from them. (list 1 :2 "3") ;; -> (1 :2 "3") Discussion Typically, between these two approaches, using the list function is the better choice. The problem with constructing quoted lists is that the quote also prevents evaluation of everything inside the list, which means that symbols will be returned as literal sym‐ bols, instead of resolving vars or calling functions. list, however, will eval its arguments in the normal way before constructing the list, and is usually what is desired for non- macro code. (def x 2) '(1 x) ;; -> (1 x) (list 1 x) ;; -> (1 2) 2.1. Creating a List | 65 That said, '() is the idiomatic way to create an empty list - it is more terse, and the concern about evaling its contents is irrelevant when it’s empty. Lists versus Vectors Clojure includes both List and Vector types. Both are sequential data structures. How‐ ever, for most purposes, vectors are a better fit, and more commonly used in idiomatic Clojure. There are a couple reasons for this. Vectors have a cleaner literal syntax than lists, and are just as space-efficient and performant. In addition, vectors support near-constant lookup time by index (O(log32 n)), as opposed to lists, which require linear time (O(n)). In general, the only reason to explicitly choose a list over a vector is if you need a data structure which supports efficient insertions at the beginning, which lists do; vectors are most efficient when appending items to the end. See Also • Recipe 2.2 • Recipe 2.6 2.2. Creating a List From an Existing Data Structure by Luke VanderHart Problem You have an existing sequential data structure which you would like to convert into a list as its concrete data type. Solution The easiest solution is: don’t. Having a concrete list provides little or no advantage over simply using the sequence abstraction directly on your existing data, and for large data structures, conversion can be expensive. If you do know that you need an explicit conversion of the concrete data structure, there are two ways to do it. First, you could use the apply function to call the list function, passing it your existing data structure as its arguments. 66 | Chapter 2: Composite Data (apply list [1 2 3 4 5]) ;; -> (1 2 3 4 5) Alternatively, you could use the into function to repeatedly conjoin elements from your original data on to a list. Note, however, that this approach has the effect of reversing the order of the original collection. (into '() [1 2 3 4 5]) ;; -> (5 4 3 2 1) Discussion These two approaches are both viable choices. However, what actually happens in each case is very different. When using apply, you are actually invoking the list function with however many arguments are in the data structure. This may sound strange, particularly if the data structure contains millions of items. What does it mean to invoke a function with a million arguments? How does that even work, given that the JVM limits methods to 255 arguments (JVM class file specification). As it turns out, functions with variadic arguments (such as list) are handled in a somewhat special way: the argument list is passed in as a sequence. apply knows this, and passes this sequence view of the original structure directly through to the receiving function. This is why it works; there is never actually a JVM method invocation with a million arguments. into works quite differently; it takes two arguments, the first being a data structure and the second being a sequence. It then repeatedly conjoins items from the sequence onto the data structure provided using the conj function (discussed in greater detail else‐ where). This is why the sequence is reversed; items are always pulled from the front of the sequence, but conj on a list prepends the element being added. Therefore, the first element in the input sequence will end up being the last item in the list, and so on. So why ever choose into over apply, given that it reverses the order? Speed. into utilizes Clojure transients, which provides a considerable performance improvement. On the author’s machine, converting a million item vector to a list using apply took an average of 750 milliseconds, while using into took about half that time, for an average of 350 milliseconds. Of course, the list was in reverse order, and reversing either the input or the output negates the speed advantage. In the end, into is only advantageous in sit‐ uations where a reversed order is acceptable. See Also • Recipe 2.1 2.2. Creating a List From an Existing Data Structure | 67 2.3. “Adding” an Item to a List by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to add an item to a list; or, putting it in functional terms, you want to derive a new list from an existing list which contains an additional item. Solution Use the conj function. conj is used to add an item or items to a logical collection, and is polymorphic, meaning it works on multiple concrete data types, including lists. (conj (list 1 2 3) 4) ;; -> (4 1 2 3) Adding multiple items at once: (conj (list 1 2 3) 4 5) ;; -> (5 4 1 2 3) Discussion The behavior of conj may vary slightly depending on the concrete type. It always “adds” an item to an immutable collection by returning a new collection containing the new item, but may add the item to different places in the collection depending on what is most efficient for the particular type. In the case of lists, conj will always add the item at the beginning of the list, since a linked list data structure supports constant-time insertion only at the beginning. conj versus cons If you are familiar with Common Lisp or Scheme, you were probably expecting to see the cons function used, instead of conj. Clojure does have a cons function, but it has a slightly different purpose. While conj will return a new concrete clojure.lang.PersistentList (when used on a list), cons will always construct a new sequence, where the item added is the first and the collection is the rest. This distinction is subtle, especially since a clojure.lang.PersistentList and a se‐ quence constructed using cons are both types of persistent linked lists, algorithmically speaking. 68 | Chapter 2: Composite Data The best way to think about it is that conj is a concrete data structure operation, which will not change the concrete type of the data structure it is applied to, while cons is a sequence operation and only guarantees that it will return a sequence: in fact, it returns a cons cell (clojure.lang.Cons) which implements the sequence interface, no matter what type of seq-able collection you gave it to start with. Unlike conj, cons is also guaranteed to return a sequence with the item prepended to the beginning no matter what the collection type is. See Also • Recipe 2.7 2.4. “Removing” an Item From a List by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to obtain a list without a particular item in it, removing an item from an original list. Solution Removing the first item from a list is easily accomplished using one of two functions, rest or pop. Both work identically when used on a non-empty list. (pop '(1 2 3)) ;; -> (2 3) (rest '(1 2 3)) ;; -> (2 3) Discussion rest is actually a sequence function, used to obtain the tail of a sequence. Since Clojure lists implement the sequence interface directly, using rest on a list will always return another (possibly empty) list. pop is similar to conj in that it operates on concrete data structures rather than the sequence interface. Like conj, it is polymorphic, and also like conj, the position it re‐ moves the item from depends on what’s most efficient for the concrete type. 2.4. “Removing” an Item From a List | 69 When used on an empty list, the behavior does differ: pop will throw an exception, while rest will return an empty list. (pop '()) ;; -> IllegalStateException Can't pop empty list ... (rest '()) ;; -> () Lists do not support removing items except at the first position. If you need to remove an item in the middle or at the end of a list, you’ll have to do so using the sequence manipulation functions, then convert the result back into a concrete list (if you abso‐ lutely need it to be a list, for some reason). See Also • Recipe 2.8 2.5. Test For a List by Steve Miner Problem You want to test if a value is a list. Solution The list? function may seem like the obvious choice, but in most cases it’s better to use the more general seq? function as your test. Discussion The list? function specifically tests if the argument implements clojure.lang.IPer sistentList, but in most cases you really want to know if the value is a seq (implements clojure.lang.ISeq), which is a more general abstraction than a list. Not everything that prints as a list (in parentheses) actually satisfies the list? test. In practice, you’ll often receive Cons and LazySeq values when manipulating lists. By fo‐ cusing on the fundamental seq abstraction, you don’t need to worry about the details of those concrete implementations. ;; A list constructed via list satisfies both list? and seq? (list? (list 1 2 3)) ;; -> true (seq? (list 1 2 3)) 70 | Chapter 2: Composite Data ;; -> true ;; cons, however *looks* like a list, but is actually a Cons... (list? (cons 1 '(2 3))) ;; -> false (type (cons 1 '(2 3))) ;; -> clojure.lang.Cons (seq? (cons 1 '(2 3))) ;; -> true ;; range's lazy return value is a seq, but not a list (list? (range 3)) ;; -> false (seq? (range 3)) ;; -> true (type (range 3)) ;; -> clojure.lang.LazySeq It’s almost always better to use seq? instead of list?. See Also • Recipe 2.1 • Recipe 2.3 • Recipe 2.26 2.6. Creating a Vector by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to create a vector data structure either as a literal, or from an existing data structure. Solution By far, the easiest way to create a vector is using the literal vector notation of square brackets. However, it is also possible to use the vector function, which creates a vector of its arguments. [1 :2 "3"] ;; -> [1 :2 "3"] (vector 1 :2 "3") ;; -> [1 :2 "3"] 2.6. Creating a Vector | 71 To construct a vector from an existing data structure, you can use the vec function, which takes any collection and returns a vector containing the same items. (vec '(1 :2 "3")) ;; -> [1 :2 "3"] Alternatively, you can use the into function, which takes two collections and repeatedly invokes conj on the first with items from the second. (into [] '(1 :2 "3")) ;; -> [1 :2 "3"] Discussion There is rarely any reason to use the vector function over the literal vector syntax. Unlike lists, vectors are not evaluated as function calls (or anything else) in Clojure, so quoting is not a concern as it is with list literals. Oddly enough, when constructing a vector from an existing collection, using the into approach is currently about 30% more performant on large collections compared to vec due to its use of transients to speed things up. If you’re converting large collections and speed matters, consider using into. Otherwise, vec is usually more readable. See also • Recipe 2.1 • Recipe 2.2 2.7. “Adding” an Item to a Vector by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to add an item to a vector, yielding a new vector containing the item. Solution When used on a vector, the conj function returns a vector with one or more items appended to the end. (conj [1 2 3] 4) ;; -> [1 2 3 4] (conj [1 2 3] 4 5) ;; -> [1 2 3 4 5] 72 | Chapter 2: Composite Data Discussion Vectors do not support adding new items anywhere aside from the end - if you need to insert an item in the middle, you will have to use a sequence manipulation function and convert back to a vector (if necessary) when you’re done. Since vectors are associative (mapping integer indices to values), you can also use the assoc function with an index one greater than the current length of the vector to append an item. (assoc [:a :b :c] 3 :x) [:a :b :c :x] However, this approach is somewhat more fragile than conj. If the index you provide is too small, you might simply “overwrite” an earlier value in the vector, and if it’s greater than 1 plus the vector’s current length, it will throw an IndexOutOfBoundsException. Still, this technique is worth remembering. If you have code that is assoc-ing to a vector already, you can use this technique to produce new vectors with updated values. See Also • Recipe 2.6 • Recipe 2.3 2.8. “Removing” an Item From a Vector by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to remove an item from a vector, obtaining a new vector without the item. Solution To efficiently remove an item from the end of a vector, use the pop function, which takes a vector and returns a new vector without the last item. (pop [1 2 3 4]) ;; -> [1 2 3] Discussion Although there is no operation designed specifically to remove items from the beginning of a vector, as pop does from the end, there is a function - subvec - that can be used to efficiently remove any number of items from the beginning or end of a vector. Given a 2.8. “Removing” an Item From a Vector | 73 vector, a start index and an (optional) end index, it will return a vector from the start (inclusive) to end (exclusive) indexes. The following example drops a single item from the beginning of a vector, you can use subvec like so: (subvec [:a :b :c :d] 1) ;; -> [:b :c :d] Or, to remove items from the beginning and the end of a vector, pass an end index to subvec as well: (subvec [:a :b :c :d] 1 3) ;; -> [:b :c] Because subvec exploits the internal representation of a vector to create a sub-vector that shares internal structure with the original, it is extremely efficient and runs in constant time. It is the only way to efficiently remove items from the beginning of a vector. While it is certainly also possible to use a function like rest or drop on a vector, these are technically sequence operations, not vector operations. The value they return is only guaranteed to be a sequence, not a concrete vector, and as such will not support the same features or performance guarantees that vectors do. Of course, you can convert any sequence back into a concrete vector using vec or into [], but this can be an expensive operation for large vectors. See also • Recipe 2.6 • Recipe 2.4 2.9. Getting the Value at an Index by Luke VanderHart Problem You have a vector, and you want to retrieve the value which the vector contains at a particular location (index). Solution There are several ways to do this. 74 | Chapter 2: Composite Data Using nth The nth function, which works on all sequences, is special cased to provide constant- time performance when used with indexed collections such as vectors. (nth [:a :b :c :d] 2) ;; -> :c If given an index greater than the size of the vector, nth will throw an exception unless you pass it an optional third argument, which will be returned if the provided index is out-of-bounds. (nth [:a :b :c] 4) ;; -> IndexOutOfBoundsException (nth [:a :b :c] 4 :not-found) ;; -> :not-found Using vectors as functions of their indices Vectors are themselves functions which, when called with an integer argument, will return the value at that index. (def v [:a :b :c]) (v 2) ;; -> :c Using an out-of-range index when invoking a vector as a function will result in an IndexOutOfBoundsException. Using get Because vectors support the associative interface with integer indexes as keys, you can also use the get function to retrieve values by index. (get [:a :b :c] 2) ;; -> :c Unlike nth, when you pass an out-of-range index to get, it will return nil, not throw an exception. Unless, that is, you provide a default value to be returned if the key (the index, in this case) is not found. (get [:a :b :c] 5) ;; -> :nil (get [:a :b :c] 5 :not-found) ;; -> :not-found Discussion Which technique should you use? All work equally well, but the choice does emphasize the way in which you’re looking at your vector. nth focuses on its sequential nature, 2.9. Getting the Value at an Index | 75 whereas get emphasizes its indexed, associative quality. Using the vector as a function is also consistent with the way all associative collections in Clojure act as functions of their keys. Ultimately, when making a choice like this, you should consider: • What would make the code most evident? • What is the nature of the data in this case? For example, is it most fundamentally a sequence and only coincidentally a vector (implying nth), or fundamentally a cor‐ relation of values to indexes (implying get)? • What is the failure mode of the proposed technique? For example, would a nil return value or an exception be preferable? See also • Recipe 2.16 2.10. Setting the Value at an Index by Luke VanderHart Problem Given a vector, you would like to obtain a new vector with a different value at a particular index. Solution Use assoc to set the value at a particular index. (assoc [:a :b :c ] 1 :x) ;; -> [:a :x :c] assoc can also be used to set multiple indexes at the same time, by providing additional index/value pairs. (assoc [:a :b :c ] 1 :x 2 :y) ;; -> [:a :x :y] Discussion As you may have noticed, assoc is the same function used to set the value of keys in a map. This is because vectors, like maps, are associative and implement the same interface (clojure.lang.Associative), which is what assoc uses under the hood. 76 | Chapter 2: Composite Data Unlike maps, however, the keys used when using assoc on a vector must be integer indexes within the range of the vector. Attempting to use a non-integer key will cause an IllegalArgumentException, and attempting to assoc an index greater than one more than the size of the vector will throw a IndexOutOfBoundsException. Note that it is possible to assoc to an index 1 greater than the current size of the vector, this will have the result of appending the item to the end. (see Recipe 2.7). See also • Recipe 2.7 • Recipe 2.18 2.11. Creating a Set by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to create an unordered collection of distinct objects, which can be tested for membership quickly. Solution Use a set literal to create a set of objects. #{:a :b :c} ;; -> #{:a :c :b} ;; Duplicate elements in set literals are an error #{:x :y :z :z :z} ;; -> IllegalArgumentException Duplicate key: :y :z ... Use hash-set to create a set from arguments. (hash-set :a :b :c) ;; -> #{:a :c :b} (apply hash-set :a [:b :c]) ;; -> #{:a :c :b} Use set to create a set from another collection. (set "hello") ;; -> #{\e \h \l \o} Alternatively, use into with a set to create a new set. 2.11. Creating a Set | 77 (into #{} [:a :b :c :a]) ;; -> #{:a :b :c} (into #{:a :b} [:b :c :d]) ;; -> #{:a :b :c :d} Set Construction Performance At the time of writing, the into technique is about three times faster than set for large collections of objects. Use it whenever you’re work‐ ing with large sets where performance is a concern. user=> (def largeseq (doall (range 1e5))) #'user/largeseq user=> (time (dotimes [_ 100] (set largeseq))) "Elapsed time: 5594.961 msecs" nil user=> (time (dotimes [_ 100] (into #{} largeseq))) "Elapsed time: 1329.66 msecs" nil Create a sorted set with sorted-set. (sorted-set 99 4 32 7) ;; -> #{4 7 32 99} (into (sorted-set) "the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog") ;; -> #{\space \a \b \c \d \e \f \g \h \i \j \k \l \m \n \o \p \q \r \s \t \u \v \w \x \y \z} Discussion Sets are very useful data structures. They are commonly used when you have a collection of values but you are only concerned with the distinct values. Lookup of an element in a set is typically O(1). The techniques above all construct hash sets; sets which are unordered and use a hash table as their internal representation. Clojure also supports creating sorted sets, which maintain the order of their elements. Sets created with sorted-set keep their elements in ascending order using compare. This is useful when treating the set as a seq. (def alphabet (into (sorted-set) "qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm")) (last alphabet) ;; -> \z (second (disj alphabet \b)) ;; -> \c 78 | Chapter 2: Composite Data All of the elements in a sorted set must be comparable against one another, e.g. you cannot have a sorted set that contains both strings and numbers. Attempting to add an uncomparable value will result in a runtime error. Adding or removing objects in a sorted set will always return another sorted set. If the values you want to store don’t have a natural sort order (or you don’t want to use their natural ordering), you can specify a custom comparator using sorted-set-by. The comparator used to create the set is preserved when adding or removing objects. (def descending-set (sorted-set-by > 1 2 3)) (into descending-set [-1 4]) ;; -> #{4 3 2 1 -1} There are some performance trade-offs to consider when choosing between hash sets and sorted sets. Hash sets are based on hash tables, which offer constant time insert and lookup in most cases. However, they do require some degree of memory overhead. Sorted sets, based on a balanced red-black binary tree, are more memory-efficient but slower for lookup and insertion. See also • Recipe 2.12 • Recipe 2.6 2.12. Adding and Removing Items From Sets by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to obtain a new set with items added or removed. Solution The conj function supports sets, just as it does lists, vectors and maps. Use it to add an item or items to a set: just pass it the set and any number of items to add. (conj #{:a :b :c} :d) ;; -> #{:a :c :b :d} (conj #{:a :b :c} :d :e) ;; -> #{:a :c :b :d :e} 2.12. Adding and Removing Items From Sets | 79 To remove one or more items, use the disj function, which is specific to sets. It takes a set and one or more keys to remove. (disj #{:a :b :c} :b) ;; -> #{:a :c} (disj #{:a :b :c} :b :c) ;; -> #{:a} Discussion Since sets are unordered, there is no concept of “where” items are added or removed; either a set contains an item, or it doesn’t. Note that both conj and disj return a set of the same concrete type as the original. A hash set will remain a hash set, a sorted set will remain a sorted set. Also worth noting is that these operations are simply no-ops if the set already does or does not contain the item being added or removed. conj returns the same set if it already contains the item, just as disj does if the specified item was already absent. If you’re adding or removing large numbers of items from sets, you should also consider using the dedicated set manipulation functions from the clojure.set namespace, par‐ ticularly clojure.set/union, which can be used to add the items of multiple set to‐ gether, and clojure.set/difference, which can be used to obtain a set of items not contained in another set. These are typically a far more natural expression of set oper‐ ations than many calls to conj or disj, or invoking them with large numbers of argu‐ ments. See also • Recipe 2.3 • Recipe 2.7 • Recipe 2.14 2.13. Testing Set Membership by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to check if an item is a member of a set. 80 | Chapter 2: Composite Data Solution The easiest way to check a single item is with the contains? function, which takes a set and an item and returns true if the item is a member of the set. (contains? #{:red :white :green} :blue) ;; -> false (contains? #{:red :white :green} :green) ;; -> true The get function also works with sets and does basically the same thing, except instead of returning true or false, it returns the value itself if it is a member, or nil if it is not. (get #{:red :white :green} :blue) ;; -> nil (get #{:red :white :green} :green) ;; -> :green Finally, sets are also functions. When you invoke them with a single argument, they work just like get, returning the argument if it is a member, and nil otherwise. (def my-set #{:red :white :green}) (my-set :blue) ;; -> nil (my-set :green) ;; -> :green Note as well that keywords behave in the same manner for sets as they do with maps: thus, the following is equivalent to having used get: (:blue #{:red :white :green}) ;; -> nil (:green #{:red :white :green}) ;; -> :green Discussion The choice between contains? and get is mainly an aesthetic one. However, if your set might contain nil as an actual value you care about, you’ll definitely need to use con tains?, since a nil return from get wouldn’t tell you anything in that case. The ability to use a set as a function is interesting, but it’s especially useful when you want to use it as a predicate function on a sequence operation. For example, it’s fairly common to want to filter a sequence to only contain items in a set. In this case, using the set itself is both easy and idiomatic. 2.13. Testing Set Membership | 81 (take 10 (filter #{1 2 3} (repeatedly #(rand-int 10)))) ;; -> (2 1 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 1) This snippet first creates an infinite lazy sequence consisting of random numbers be‐ tween one and ten, using repeatedly to call rand-int (wrapped in an anonymous function) over and over. Then, it feeds this sequence through a filter, with a set of the numbers 1-3 as the filter predicate. The result is another infinite lazy sequence, but containing only members of the pred‐ icate set. This example is contrived. However, using sets as a predicate function is an extremely useful technique that that pops up quite frequently in most Clojure projects. See also • Recipe 2.16 • Recipe 2.14 2.14. Using Set Operations by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to perform common operations on sets, such as taking the union, intersection or difference of two sets. Or, you want to test if one set is a subset or superset of another. Solution All these functions are available in the clojure.set namespace, which is built in to Clojure. union takes any number of sets as arguments, and returns a set containing their union (a set containing all the elements from all the sets). (clojure.set/union #{:red :white} #{:white :blue} #{:blue :green}) ;; -> #{:white :red :blue :green} intersection also takes any number of sets as args, and returns their intersection (a set consisting only of the items shared by all the argument sets.) 82 | Chapter 2: Composite Data (clojure.set/intersection #{:red :white :blue} #{:red :blue :green} #{:yellow :blue :red}) ;; -> #{:red :blue} difference takes a set as its first argument, and returns it without elements from the sets given in the additional arguments. (clojure.set/difference #{:red :white :blue :yellow} #{:red :blue} #{:white}) ;; -> #{:yellow} subset? returns true if and only if the first argument is a subset of the second (that is, if every member of the first set is also a member of the second.) (clojure.set/subset? #{:blue :white} #{:red :white :blue}) ;; -> true (clojure.set/subset? #{:blue :black} #{:red :white :blue}) ;; -> false superset? works the same way, except returning true only if the first set is a superset of the second. As you may have noticed, superset? is actually identical to subset?, only with the order of the arguments reversed. Discussion In general, you should try to use these set manipulation functions wherever they are applicable. Sets represent a sizable portion of the data most developers work with day to day, whether they are recognized and explicitly modeled as sets or not. There are a large number of bugs that can be caused by assumptions regarding the behaviors of collections. In programming, the type of data structure used for a given purpose is actually a communication, from the initial writer of the code to future pro‐ grammers, that tells them a number of things about the nature of the collection. Sets are unordered, unique collections - they emphasize that the important fact is whether an item is a member of the set, not the order or number of occurrences. If your data does represent a logical set, then model them using set data structures, and try to think about manipulating them in terms of set operations. In many cases, you will find that this makes your program substantially easier to reason about, and makes it more self-documenting regarding the source and intended use of the data it contains. 2.14. Using Set Operations | 83 See Also • Recipe 2.13 • Recipe 2.26 2.15. Creating a Map by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to create an association which maps keys to values. You possibly want to maintain a specific ordering of keys. Solution Use map literals (curly braces) with alternating keys and values to create simple maps. {:name "" :class :barbarian :race :half-orc :level 20 :skills [:bashing :hacking :smashing]} Keys and values can be any type. Commas may be used to delimit key-value pairs where the structure would be hard to discern at a glance. {1 1, 8 64, 2 4, 9 81} In Clojure, commas are whitespace, which means that they can be used anywhere in a form with no effect on the value; it is just one way to make your code easier to read. Create an empty, unsorted map with a pair of braces: {}. Create specific types of maps with map constructor functions. array-map, hash-map, and sorted-map each return a map of the corresponding type. (array-map) ;; -> {} (sorted-map :key1 "val1" :key2 "val2") ;; -> {:key1 "val1" :key2 "val2"} If a key occurs multiple times in the argument list, the last value will be that used in the final return map. 84 | Chapter 2: Composite Data Use sorted-map-by to create a sorted map using a custom comparator. (sorted-map-by #(< (count %1) (count %2)) "pigs" 14 "horses" 2 "elephants" 1 "manatees" 3) ;; -> {"pigs" 14, "horses" 2, "manatees" 3, "elephants" 1} Discussion Clojure maps can have one of three distinct concrete implementations. • Array maps, clojure.lang.PersistentArrayMap. These are backed by a simple array. These are efficient for very small maps, but not for larger sizes. • Hash maps, clojure.lang.PersistentHashMap. These are backed by a hash table data structure. Hash tables support near constant-time lookup and insertion, but also require a certain amount of overhead space, using up slightly more heap space. • Sorted maps, clojure.lang.PersistentTreeMap. These are backed by a balanced red-black binary tree. They are more space efficient than hash maps, but have slower insertion and access times. Array maps are the default implementation for small maps (under ten entries at the time of writing), and hash maps are the default for larger ones. Sorted maps can only be created by explicitly invoking the sorted-map or sorted-map-by functions. Using assoc or conj on a sorted map will always yield another sorted map. However, assoc-ing on to an array map will yield a hash map once it reaches a certain size. The inverse is not true; using dissoc on a hash map will not yield an array map, even if it becomes very small. See also • Recipe 2.18 • Recipe 2.11 • Recipe 1.29 and Recipe 1.17 to see more uses for compare • Recipe 2.24 2.16. Retrieving Values From a Map by Luke VanderHart 2.16. Retrieving Values From a Map | 85 Problem You want to retrieve the value stored at a particular key in a map. Solution As with sets, there are several ways to retrieve the value of a key. The most straightforward way is to use the get function, which, given a map and a key, returns the value stored at the key or nil if the map does not contain the key. (get {:name "Kvothe" :class "Bard"} :name) ;; -> "Kvothe" (get {:name "Kvothe" :class "Bard"} :race) ;; -> nil If desired, you can also pass a third argument to be used as the default return value instead of nil if a map doesn’t contain the key. (get {:name "Kvothe" :class "Bard"} :race "Human") ;; -> "Human" If your map uses keywords as keys, you can use the keyword itself as a function. Key‐ words implement the IFn interface, and when invoked with a map as an argument, they will look themselves up in the map, returning the value if it is present or nil if not. You can also pass a second argument which will be used as a default return value in the case of a missing key, just as you can with get. (:name {:name "Marcus" :class "Paladin"}) ;; -> "Marcus" (:race {:name "Marcus" :class "Paladin"} "Human") ;; -> "Human" Finally, the third basic way to look up a value in the map is to use the map itself as a function, passing the key to be retrieved as the argument. Like get and keyword func‐ tions, it is also possible to pass a second argument for use as a default value if the key is not found; otherwise nil is returned. (def character {:name "Brock" :class "Barbarian"}) (character :name) ;; -> "Brock" (character :race) ;; -> nil (character :race "Human") ;; -> "Human" 86 | Chapter 2: Composite Data There is a convenience function for looking up items in nested maps: get-in. Instead of passing a single key, you can pass a sequence of keys, and they will be successively looked up in a nested structure, as if repeatedly calling get on each level of the nested data structure. nil is returned if any key is missing. (get-in {:name "Marcus" :weapon {:type :greatsword :damage "2d6"}} [:weapon :damage]) ;; -> "2d6" (get-in {:name "Marcus"} [:weapon :damage]) ;; -> nil get-in also takes an optional default value, which will be returned if any key in the nested hierarchy is missing. (get-in {:name "Marcus"} [:weapon :damage] "1d2 (fists)") ;; -> "1d2 (fists)" Note that get-in works with any associative data structure, not just maps. This means that it can be combined to work with, for example, indices of vectors. (get-in [{:name "Marcus" :class "Paladin"} {:name "Kvothe" :class "Bard"} {:name "Felter" :class "Druid"}] [1 :class]) ;; -> "Bard" Discussion Which technique of the three discussed above is the best to use? All have identical semantics, but in idiomatic Clojure they convey different implications about the sce‐ nario in which they are used. Typically, keyword-as-a-function lookup is used when maps are being used as “objects” and the keys as “fields”, where the map contains a relatively small, well-known set of keys, and when there is a reasonable expectation that the key will actually be present. The get function or map-as-a-function lookup techniques, on the other hand, are more frequently used with large maps where the set of possible keys is more open-ended. There is less motivation for choosing between these two; the only difference to be aware of is that when the map provided is nil for some reason, using it in function position will throw an exception, while applying get to nil will simply return nil. It is interesting to note, as well, that the ability to use a map itself as a function is not just an arbitrary convenience. In the technical sense of the word “function”, maps are functions of keys to values. Consider the following function definition and map: 2.16. Retrieving Values From a Map | 87 (defn square [x] (* x x)) (def square {1 1, 2 4, 3 9, 4 16, 5 25}) Using an invocation of the form (square 3), the caller can actually be agnostic as to whether square is a “real” function or a map. Of course, the normally-defined function has a number of advantages in this case; for one, it has an unlimited domain instead of just the keys enumerated. And the multiplication function is fairly fast, so precomputing results is not a win. But in some cases, for functions that do have a more naturally- constrained domain and which are more expensive to compute, being able to use a map implementation of a function can be a real boon to performance. Because all of the different techniques for retrieving values from a map return nil if the key is not present, special handling is required if you need to differentiate the case in which a key does exist in a map with a value of nil from the case in which the key does not exist at all. The easiest way to do this is to always provide a default value to be returned in the case of a missing key. To be absolutely sure that you can differentiate the default value from any possible value the map might possibly contain, you can use a namespace-qualified keyword (e.g, ::not-found) It is also possible to use the contains? function, which takes a collection and a key, and returns true if and only if the collection has a specific entry for that key, even if the value is nil. The meaning of contains? The exact behavior of the contains? function is a frequent topic for confusion, especially since several other languages have a function with a similar name that does something different. In Clojure, contains? is not a search function; it does not inspect a collection to see if the item is present. Rather, it is a lookup function, and only works on associative or indexed collections. In other languages, it is frequently named containsKey or some‐ thing similar. This means it works as one would expect on maps and sets, returning true if the specified key is a valid key or member in the collection. But for vectors, it will return true only if passed an integer between zero and the maximum index of the vector. And it will throw an exception if used at all with a list or a sequence. See also • Recipe 2.18 88 | Chapter 2: Composite Data • Recipe 2.17 • Recipe 2.20 2.17. Retrieving Multiple Keys From a Map Simultaneously by Leonardo Borges Problem You want to retrieve multiple values from a map at one time. Solution Use vals and select-keys when the order of returned values is not important. ;; How many red and green beans are there? (def beans {:red 10 :blue 3 :green 1}) (reduce + (vals (select-keys beans [:red :green]))) ;; -> 11 Use juxt when order matters. ;; What are the red and green bean totals? ((juxt :red :green) beans) ;; -> [10 1] Discussion juxt and the combination of vals and select-keys are both apt tools for retrieving multiple keys from a map. There are subtleties to their behavior that are important to understand. At first glance the juxt approach seems to be the clear winner of the two. The juxt approach only goes so far; the approach falls apart when any of the keys you wish to retrieve is not a keyword (more specifically, not a function.) This is because juxt merely juxtaposes the return values of multiple functions. Since keywords are functions, it’s possible to juxt them and retrieve a strongly-ordered list of values. If the keys in the beans map were strings, it would not be possible to retrieve their values with juxt. ((juxt "a" "b") beans) ;; -> ClassCastException java.lang.String cannot be cast to clojure.lang.IFn ... 2.17. Retrieving Multiple Keys From a Map Simultaneously | 89 select-keys, on the other hand, is capable of pulling values for any number of arbitrary keys. The select-keys function takes a map and sequence of keys and returns a new map populated with only those keys. (def weird-map {"a" 1, {:foo :bar} :baz, 13 31}) (select-keys weird-map ["a" {:foo :bar}]) ;; -> {{:foo :bar} :baz, "a" 1} (vals {{:foo :bar} :baz, "a" 1}) ;; -> (1 :baz) Since maps are not ordered, it is not safe to assume that the ordering of keys and values is identical (even if you stumble upon an example where it is.) In cases where you’re pulling multiple values from non-keyword maps it is probably easiest to wrap that in‐ teraction up via juxt. (def a-str-then-foo-bar-map (juxt #(get % "a") #(get % {:foo :bar}))) (a-str-then-foo-bar-map weird-map) ;; -> [1 :baz] You’ll avoid weird maps now, won’t you? See also • Recipe 2.16 • Recipe 2.19 2.18. Setting Keys in a Map by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to “change” a map by adding, setting or removing keys. Solution The most basic way to change a map is using the assoc function. Given a map and any number of additional key/value pairs as arguments, it will return an updated map con‐ taining the respective keys and values. 90 | Chapter 2: Composite Data (def villain {:honorific "Dr." :name "Mayhem"}) (assoc villain :occupation "Mad Scientist" :status :at-large) ;; -> {:honorific "Dr.", :name "Mayhem", ;; :occupation "Mad Scientist", :status :at-large} If used on a map which already contains a key, the assoc function will return an updated map with the newly specified value for the key. (def villain {:honorific "Dr.", :name "Mayhem", :occupation "Mad Scientist", :status :at-large}) (assoc villain :status :deceased) ;; -> {:honorific "Dr.", :name "Mayhem", ;; :occupation "Mad Scientist", :status :deceased} To remove keys, use the dissoc function, which given a map and any number of keys, returns a map absent those keys. (def villain {:honorific "Dr.", :name "Mayhem", :occupation "Mad Scientist", :status :deceased}) (dissoc villain :occupation :honorific) ;; -> {:name "Mayhem", :status :deceased} Discussion It’s fairly common to have maps contained in other maps. If it is necessary to update a deeply nested value, nested calls to assoc quickly become inconvenient, especially since they need to be “inside-out”. Consider the following data structure: (def book {:title "Clojure Cookbook" :author {:name "Ryan Neufeld" :residence {:country "USA"}}}) If Ryan were to move back to his native land of Canada, fully updating the map repre‐ senting this book using only assoc would look something like the following: (assoc book :author (assoc (:author book) :residence (assoc (:residence (:author book)) :country "Canada"))) Obviously, this is inconvenient, and difficult to read. The assoc-in function removes this inconvenience, allowing you to specify a key path instead of a sole key. Instead of changing a value one key deep, a key path lists a sequence of keys, applied recursively to change a deeply nested value. (assoc-in book [:author :residence :country] "Canada") ;; -> {:author {:name "Ryan Neufeld" ;; :residence {:country "Canada"}} ;; :title "Clojure Cookbook"} 2.18. Setting Keys in a Map | 91 The sample above first looks up the map associated with the :residence key in the nested data structure, then associates "Canada" with the :country key. Finally, the entire data structure is returned. What if you needed to update a value based on its previous value, instead of just chang‐ ing it? Fortunately, Clojure provides update-in expressly for this purpose. Instead of taking a new value, update-in takes an update function. This function is invoked with the value retrieved at key path and any trailing arguments passed to update-in. It’s a perculiar function to wrap your head around at first, perhaps it is best to illustrate with an example: (def website {:clojure-cookbook {:hits 1236}}) ;; Register 101 new hits to the Cookbook website (update-in website ; [:clojure-cookbook :hits] ; + ; 101) ; ;; -> {:clojure-cookbook {:hits 1337}} The map The key path The update function, + Additional arguments to + update-in will also actually create maps for any of the keys in the vector that don’t exist. This means it can be used to create structure as well as update values. (update-in {} [:author :residence] assoc :country "USA") ;; -> {:author {:residence {:country "USA"}}} Even though the starting map is empty, two empty maps are created for the values of the :author and :residence keys, meaning the assoc will be applied to a new, empty map. Treating Clojure’s state constructs like maps One other common use case for maps is as the values of one of Clojure’s state constructs; atoms, refs or agents. Clojure maps themselves are immutable values; in a very literal sense, if you “add” a key to a map, it is no longer the same value any more. But sometimes, it is necessary to preserve a logical identity for different values across time. That’s when to use one of the state management tools. To update the value of a piece of state (ref, atom or agent) you invoke its specific state transition function (alter, swap!, or send, respectively.) State transition functions share 92 | Chapter 2: Composite Data a common form; they take the reference as the first argument, the function to apply to the value as the second argument, and any arguments to the function as additional arguments. So, for example, to deeply update an item contained in a map referenced by an atom, you can invoke the swap! function (the state transition function for atoms), passing it your atom and the update-in function, along with the list of keys and the function to use to update the value. (def retail-data (atom {:customers [{:id 123 :name "Luke"} {:id 321 :name "Ryan"}] :orders [{:sku "Q2M9" :customer 123 :qty 4} {:sku "43XP" :customer 321 :qty 1}]})) (swap! retail-data update-in [:orders] conj {:sku "9QED" :customer 321 :qty 2}) This will add a new order map to the list of orders contained in the map contained in the retail-data atom. Although such triple-combos are not terribly common, they illustrate the general con‐ sistency of functions which take other functions and arguments, and how they can be combined arbitrarily deeply. In this case, what starts with a single call to swap! ends up also updating a map and conjoining to a vector in the same form. See also • Recipe 2.22 • Recipe 2.20 • Recipe 2.23 2.19. Using Composite Values as Map Keys by Luke VanderHart Problem You’d like to use a value that isn’t a simple primitive type as a lookup key in a map. For example: • You’d like to use geographic or Cartesian coordinates as map keys. • You’d like to associate values with functions. 2.19. Using Composite Values as Map Keys | 93 Solution Because of its robust identity semantics on composite values, Clojure fully supports using any immutable value as a map key. More importantly, doing so is reasonably efficient. For example, consider the data structure to represent a chess board, an 8x8 grid where each position can have one of 6 possible types of piece. Rows are represented by the numbers 1-8, and columns by the letters a-h. In Clojure, you can represent this directly as a map: (def chessboard {[:a 5] [:white :king] [:a 4] [:white :pawn] [:d 4] [:black :king]}) Moving a piece then, requires two operations: +dissoc+ing the old position for a piece, and +assoc+ing the new position. (defn move "Given a map representing a chess board, move the piece at src to dest" [board source dest] (-> board (dissoc source) (assoc dest (board source)))) (move chessboard [:a 5] [:a 4]) ;; -> {[:d 4] [:black :king] ;; [:a 4] [:white :king]} As another example of “non-traditional” map keys, consider the situation where you have a set of functions, and you want to be able to assign them each a “weighting” and multiply the return value by the corresponding weight whenever the function is called. An easy way to do this is to store the functions and weights in a map, with the functions as keys. TODO: This sample for apply-weighted is a little convoluted. (def plus-two (partial + 2)) (def plus-three (partial + 3)) (def weight-map {plus-two 1.0 plus-three 0.8}) Then, you can use a simple wrapper function to apply the functions with the weights applied: (defn apply-weighted "Given a weight map, a function and args, applies the function to the args, multiplying the result by the weighting for the function. If the weight map does not specify a weight for the function, a default of 1.0 is used." 94 | Chapter 2: Composite Data [weight-map f & args] (* (get weight-map f 1.0) (apply f args))) (apply-weighted weight-map plus-two 2) ;; -> 4.0 (apply-weighted weight-map plus-three 1) ;; -> 3.2 Discussion A more traditional way to model the chess game would be with a two-dimensional array, or, in Clojure’s case, with a vector of vectors. This is certainly a reasonable thing to do, and is (possibly) slightly more performant. However, it is a less clean model of the actual problem domain. It requires a translation, for example, from Chess’s row/column numbers and letters to zero-indexed indices. Using a map lets you store the positions directly, in native Chess terminology. Similarly, there are alternative implementations for the function-weighting example. It could be implemented using a cond statement with all the functions and weights enu‐ merated, or by replacing the functions altogether with a protocol method which could then have varying implementations with different weights. However, storing the functions and weights in a map has the benefit of making it obvious at a glance what the weightings for particular functions are. More importantly, it is possible to store multiple different sets of weights, and switch between different weight schemes dynamically at runtime. See also • Recipe 2.18 • Recipe 2.16 2.20. Maps as Sequences (and Vice Versa) by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to treat the contents of a map as a sequence of entries. Alternatively, you want to convert a sequence of entries back into a map. 2.20. Maps as Sequences (and Vice Versa) | 95 Solution To obtain a sequence view of a map, simply call seq on it. Note that most sequence- processing functions call seq on their arguments themselves, so it’s usually not necessary to do this explicitly. (seq {:a 1, :b 2, :c 3, :d 4}) ;; -> ([:a 1] [:c 3] [:b 2] [:d 4]) This creates a sequence of key-value pairs, which you can then process as you would any sequence. To create a map from a sequence, you can exploit the fact that conj, when applied to a map, can take a two-element vector as a key-value pair and use it to add the respective key and value on to the map. (def m {:a 1, :b 2}) (conj m [:c 3]) ;; -> {:a 1, :b 2, :c 3} Because the into function uses repeated applications of conj to add items from one sequence onto a collection, this means it can be used to transform a sequence of pairs into a single map. (into {} [[:a 1] [:b 2] [:c 3]]) ;; -> {:a 1, :b 2, :c 3} It is also possible to construct a map from two sequences; one containing keys, and one containing values. This is the purpose of the zipmap function. Given two sequences, it will return a single map with keys from the first argument sequence and values from the second. (zipmap [:a :b :c] [1 2 3]) ;; -> {:c 3, :b 2, :a 1} If one of these sequences passed to zipmap is shorter than the other, the extra values will be ignored, and the output map will only contain entries up to the length of the shortest sequence. Discussion When obtaining a sequence view of a hash map, the map entries will be returned in an arbitrary or undefined order. Conveniently, this order (although arbitrary) is guaran‐ teed to be consistent if the same map is turned into a sequence multiple times. When using a sorted map, the entries will be returned according to their sort order in the map. For example: (seq (hash-map :a 1, :b 2, :c 3, :d 4)) ;; -> ([:a 1] [:c 3] [:b 2] [:d 4]) 96 | Chapter 2: Composite Data (seq (sorted-map :a 1, :b 2, :c 3, :d 4)) ;; -> ([:a 1] [:b 2] [:c 3] [:d 4]) There is another interesting fact about the entry values in this sequence. They are printed as vectors, and they are vectors insofar as they implement the full vector interface. However, their concrete type is not actually clojure.lang.PersistentVector; rather, they are a different kind of vector called a map entry, which is not only a vector but also supports the clojure.lang.MapEntry interface. The MapEntry interface provides key and val functions which can be used to retrieve the key and value of an entry. (def entry (first {:a 1 :b 2})) (class entry) ;; -> clojure.lang.MapEntry (key entry) ;; -> :a (val entry) ;; -> :1 These functions should be preferred to using the first and second functions on map entries when processing maps as sequences, since they preserve the semantic of key/ value pairs, making the code easier to read. See also • Recipe 2.21 2.21. Applying Functions to Maps by Luke VanderHart Problem You’d like to apply a transformation function to the keys or the values of a map. Solution Use one of these simple general-purpose functions, modified to suit any needs you have. (defn map-keys "Given a map and a function, returns the map resulting from applying the function to each key." [m f] (zipmap (map f (keys m)) (vals m))) 2.21. Applying Functions to Maps | 97 (map-keys {"a" 1 "b" 2} keyword) ;; -> {:b 2, :a 1} (defn map-vals "Given a map and a function, returns the map resulting from applying the function to each value." [m f] (zipmap (keys m) (map f (vals m)))) (map-vals {:a 1, :b 1} inc) ;; -> {:b 2, :a 2} (defn map-kv "Given a map and a function of two arguments, returns the map resulting from applying the function to each of its entries. The provided function must return a pair (a two-element sequence.)" [m f] (into {} (map (fn [[k v]] (f k v)) m))) (map-kv {"a" 1 "b" 1} (fn [k v] [(keyword k) (inc v)])) ;; -> {:a 2, :b 2} Discussion map-keys and map-vals are extremely straightforward. They each start by breaking the map, m, down into a sequence of keys and a sequence of values using the keys and vals functions, which return a sequence of the keys or values of a map, respectively. Then, they use the map function to transform either the sequence of keys or the sequence of vals. Finally, the zipmap function is used to recombine the key and value sequences into a single map, with the updates in place. map-kv works a bit differently. It starts by converting the map into a sequence of map entries, then uses map to apply them to an anonymous function which destructures the key and value, and then passes the key and value to the caller-provided function. Finally, it uses into to repeatedly conjoin the resulting pairs onto an empty map, returning a new map consisting of the transformed keys and values. The following example is identical, but does not use destructuring, so the high-level structure is a bit more clear: (defn map-kv [m f] (into {} (map (fn [entry] (f (key entry) (val entry))) m))) It is easy to see that these three functions are all riffs on the standard map function, applied to map data structures. What about the other staple of functional programming, reduce? 98 | Chapter 2: Composite Data Clojure already has a reduce-kv function built in, added in version 1.4. reduce-kv takes three arguments; a function, an initial value, and an associative col‐ lection. The provided function must also take three arguments. reduce-kv reduces the provided collection by first applying the function to the initial value, the first key and its corresponding value from the map. The resulting value is then re-applied along with the second key and value, the resulting value with the third key and value, and so on. The following example uses reduce-kv to obtain the sum of all the values in a map. (reduce-kv (fn [agg _ val] (+ agg val)) 0 {:a 1 :b 2 :c 3}) ;; -> 6 Note that an underscore (_) is used instead of key in the function argument declaration; this is idiomatic in Clojure to name any argument that isn’t actually used in the body. It’s also possible to define map-kv using reduce-kv: (defn map-kv [m f] (reduce-kv (fn [agg k v] (conj agg (f k v))) {} m)) Which could be used in this example: (map-kv {:one 1 :two 2 :three 3} #(vector (-> %1 str (subs 1)) (inc %2))) ;; -> {"one" 2, "three" 4, "two" 3} See also • Recipe 2.20 2.22. Keeping Multiple Values for a Key by Luke VanderHart Problem Normally, maps are strictly one value per key; if you assoc an existing key, the old value is replaced. However, sometimes it would be useful to have a map-like interface (a “multimap”) which is capable of storing multiple values for the same key. You would like to create a map-like data structure that implements a multimap-like interfae in Clojure. 2.22. Keeping Multiple Values for a Key | 99 Solution To introduce such a capability on top of normal maps, create and extend a protocol MultiAssociative that defines this behavior. (defprotocol MultiAssociative "An associative structure that can contain multiple values for a key" (insert [m key value] "Insert a value into a MultiAssociative") (delete [m key value] "Remove a value from a MultiAssociative") (get-all [m key] "Returns a set of all values stored at key in a MultiAssociative. Returns the empty set if there are no values.")) (defn- value-set? "Helper predicate that returns true if the value is a set which represents multiple values in a MultiAssociative" [v] (and (set? v) (::multi-value (meta v)))) (defn value-set "Given any number of items as arguments, returns a set representing multiple values in a MultiAssociative. If there is only one item, simply returns the item" [& items] (if (= 1 (count items)) (first items) (with-meta (set items) {::multi-value true}))) (extend-protocol MultiAssociative clojure.lang.Associative (insert [this key value] (let [v (get this key)] (assoc this key (cond (nil? v) value (value-set? v) (conj v value) :else (value-set v value))))) (delete [this key value] (let [v (get this key)] (if (value-set? v) (assoc this key (apply value-set (disj v value))) (if (= v value) (dissoc this key) this)))) (get-all [this key] (let [v (get this key)] (cond (value-set? v) v (nil? v) #{} :else #{v})))) And, of course, corresponding unit tests (using clojure.test.) 100 | Chapter 2: Composite Data (require '[clojure.test :refer :all]) (deftest test-insert (testing "inserting to a new key" (is (= {:k :v} (insert {} :k :v)))) (testing "inserting to an existing key (single existing item)" (let [m (insert {} :k :v1)] (is (= {:k #{:v1 :v2}} (insert m :k :v2))))) (testing "inserting to an existing key (multiple existing items)" (let [m (insert (insert {} :k :v1) :k :v2)] (is (= {:k #{:v1 :v2 :v3}} (insert m :k :v3)))))) (deftest test-delete (testing "deleting a non-present key" (is (= {:k :v} (delete {:k :v} :nosuch :nada)))) (testing "deleting a non-present value" (is (= {:k :v} (delete {:k :v} :k :nada)))) (testing "deleting a single value" (is (= {} (delete {:k :v} :k :v)))) (testing "deleting one of two values" (let [m (insert (insert {} :k :v1) :k :v2)] (is (= {:k :v1} (delete m :k :v2))))) (testing "deleting one of several values" (let [m (insert (insert (insert {} :k :v1) :k :v2) :k :v3)] (is (= {:k #{:v1 :v2}} (delete m :k :v3)))))) (deftest test-get-all (testing "get a non-present key" (is (= #{} (get-all {} :nosuch)))) (testing "get a single value" (is (= #{:v} (get-all {:k :v} :k)))) (testing "get multiple values" (is (= #{:v1 :v2} (get-all (insert (insert {} :k :v1) :k :v2) :k))))) (run-tests) ;; -> {:type :summary, :pass 11, :test 3, :error 0, :fail 0} Discussion First, this code defines a protocol to implement the set of functions that comprise the multimap behavior. A protocol is a great choice in this situation; it ties together several methods that perform related operations on the same object, and it allows for multiple concrete implementations. In this case, there are three methods required to implement the desired functionality. Note that it does not override or re-implement any of the core map methods (assoc, dissoc etc.). The semantics of the new behavior are simply different from regular maps, and Clojure defines very strong semantics around core functions. Breaking or overrid‐ 2.22. Keeping Multiple Values for a Key | 101 ing these expectations is always a bad idea, especially when using a distinct set of func‐ tions makes it clear when multimap functionality is being used. The concrete implementation of MultiAssociative extends the protocol to the clo jure.lang.Associative interface. It would certainly be possible to implement it on something more targeted, such as IPersistentSet, but since it only requires something associative for the implementation, it’s best not to be too specific. Coding against clo jure.lang.Associative also gives several additional capabilities for free; for example, there is now automatically a “multivector” as well, that can store multiple values at each index (provided they are added using insert.) Reading the code, you’ll notice that a good deal of the actual logic is devoted to making sure that single values are stored plainly, while multiple values are wrapped in a set. This is maintained both when inserting and deleting items, requiring the functions to run a check on what type the value is and wrap or unwrap accordingly. Similarly, get-all needs to wrap single values in a set before returning, since it specifies that it must return a set. This is a design decision that has several benefits and tradeoffs. The alternative would be to always wrap the values in a set, even single values. This would make the code a bit simpler, and would eliminate most of the type checking as well as the wrapping and unwrapping of forms. However, the simplicity would come with a price. If values (even single values) were always wrapped in a set, the map being used as a multimap would not be easily usable via the normal map functions; it would contain a lot of odd-looking single-item sets, and if anything were added to it using assoc it would be incompatible with future uses of insert on that key. In essence, the wrapping and unwrapping is to allow any map to be usable via both the standard Associative and the MultiAssociative interfaces, without requiring the user to keep track of which “kind” of a map it is. Values inserted using assoc can be read with get-all, and values inserted using insert can be removed with dissoc. All expectations regarding normal maps should hold. In the case of a normal get on a key with multiple values, a set containing multiple items will be returned; this is probably what the user would expect upon inspecting the data. There is one more feature of this code that deserves commentary: the use of ::multi- value metadata on the sets used to store multiple values, applied and tested using the value-set and value-set? functions. This is to handle the edge case where the intended value for a key is, itself, a set. The code needs a way to disambiguate between sets it creates in order to manage multiple keys for a value, and sets that are simply values provided by users. 102 | Chapter 2: Composite Data This is accomplished by placing metadata on sets created to contain values. A namespace-scoped keyword is used to ensure that it will not collide with any possible existing metadata on values provided by the user. Then, all the code has to do is check if a set has the ::multi-value metadata to know whether it’s a set containing values, or is itself a value. See also • Recipe 3.10 2.23. Combining Maps by Tom Hicks Problem You have two or more maps you wish to combine to produce a single map. Solution Use merge to combine two or more maps with no keys in common. (def arizona-bird-counts {:cactus-wren 8}) (def florida-bird-counts {:gull 20 :pelican 14}) (merge florida-bird-counts arizona-bird-counts) ;; -> {:pelican 14, :cactus-wren 8, :gull 20} Use merge-with when you want more explicit control of the merge strategy for keys that exist in more than one map. (def florida-bird-counts {:gull 20 :pelican 1 :egret 4}) (def california-bird-counts {:gull 12 :pelican 4 :jay 3}) ;; Merge values with + to get their totals (merge-with + california-bird-counts florida-bird-counts) ;; -> {:pelican 5, :egret 4, :gull 32, :jay 3} Discussion In both merge and merge-with, maps are combined from left to right, returning a new immutable map as a result. This functions much like a “left fold.” merge is the simpler function of the pair, always returning the last value it sees for every key. 2.23. Combining Maps | 103 When mappings for the same key exist in more than one map, the latter mapping is used in the result. This can be useful, for example, when you receive new totals through‐ out the day, but only for values that have changed. ;; Favorite ice cream flavor votes throughout the day (def votes-am {:vanilla 3 :chocolate 5}) (def votes-pm {:vanilla 4 :neapoliton 2}) (merge votes-am votes-pm) ;; -> {:vanilla 4, :chocolate 5, :neapoliton 2} merge-with facilitates powerful recipes for map combination by allowing you to control how values are merged. You can imagine merge-with as reduce for maps with common keys. The first argument to merge-with is a merge function that will be invoked for each pair of duplicated values. With careful choice of map value-types, merge-with provides some concise solutions to common problems. For example, by merging with clojure.set/intersection you can find the intersection of “like” and “dislike” sets in a team of programmers: (def Alice {:loves #{:clojure :lisp :scheme} :hates #{:fortran :c :c++}}) (def Bob {:loves #{:clojure :scheme} :hates #{:c :c++ :algol}}) (def Ted {:loves #{:clojure :lisp :scheme} :hates #{:algol :basic :c :c++ :fortran}}) (merge-with clojure.set/intersection Alice Bob Ted) ;; -> {:loves #{:scheme :clojure}, :hates #{:c :c++}} It is also possible to merge nested maps by creating a recursive merge function: (defn deep-merge [& maps] (apply merge-with deep-merge maps)) (deep-merge {:foo {:bar {:baz 1}}} {:foo {:bar {:qux 42}}}) ;; -> {:foo {:bar {:qux 42, :baz 1}}} As you saw in the examples above, merge-with is a versatile tool; we used + to add values of the same key, clojure.set/intersection to find shared values of multiple sets, and a recursive function deep-merge to recursively merge nested maps. merge-with is a very powerful function, indeed. See also • Recipe 2.18 • Recipe 2.22 104 | Chapter 2: Composite Data 2.24. Comparing and Sorting Values by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to compare two values according to some comparison function. Or, you want to sort a collection by comparing all the items in it. Solution Use the clojure.core/compare function to compare two items. They must be compa‐ rable with respect to eachother - for example, a double can be compared to a ratio because they’re both numbers, but a string can’t be compared to a vector. compare returns a negative number if the first argument is less than the second, zero if it is logically equal, and a positive number if it is greater. (compare 5 2) ;; -> 1 (compare 0.5 1) ;; -> -1 (compare 1/4 0.25) ;; -> 0 (compare "brewer" "aardvark") ;; -> 1 To sort an entire collection, pass it to the clojure.core/sort function. Sort applies compare as needed, and returns a sorted sequence. For example, the following code breaks down a string into a sequence of characters (sort calls seq on its argument), then sorts them. The result is concatnated back to a string, for better readability. (apply str (sort "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog")) ;; -> " Tabcddeeeefghhijklmnoooopqrrtuuvwxyz" As seen above, many of Clojure’s data types have a natural comparison order, which is what compare uses. For example, numbers, dates and strings all sort as one would expect, from low to high, based on the well-understood and accepted inherent ordering between them. If you want to sort a data type that does not have a natural ordering, or if you want to override the natural sort (such as sorting a set from high to low), you are not limited to using the built-in comparator function. sort allows you to specify a custom comparison function that can perform any operation you like to determine the relative ordering 2.24. Comparing and Sorting Values | 105 between two items.. This function must take two arguments. It can return values like compare does (that is, a positive integer, a negative integer or zero). Alternatively, it can returns a boolean value (i.e, a predicate function). The predicate function should return true if and only if the first argument is should be sorted before the second argument. This means that you can pass regular Clojure predicates to sort. (sort > [1 4 3 2]) ;; -> (4 3 2 1) (sort > [1 4 3 2]) ;; -> (1 2 3 4) Or, you can write your own, arbitrary comparator. For example, the custom comparator used in the next example cares only about the length of a string, not the contents of it: strings will be sorted as equal if they have the same number of characters, whatever those characters are. (sort #(< (count %1) (count %2)) ["z" "yy" "zzz" "a" "bb" "ccc"]) ;; -> ("z" "a" "yy" "bb" "zzz" "ccc") Discussion Under the hood, Clojure uses Java’s built-in sort mechanism. Java uses a slightly modified merge sort algorithm that is highly performant for the vast majority of cases. It requires n log(n) comparisons in the worst case, and performs at near O(n) when the input is largely sorted already. The sort is also stable, meaning that if two items are equal in terms of the comparator function being used, their relative ordering will remain unchanged after sorting. Although you can use any predicate as a comparison function, or write your own com‐ parison function that returns a positive/negative/zero integer, the actual function must behave properly in order to work. Specifically, it must: • Have a consistent total order for all the members being sorted. If x is sorted before y, and y is sorted before z, then x must always be sorted before z. In other words, there must always be a single fully deterministic sort order for a given collection and comparator, without any contradictions or inconsistencies caused by the com‐ pare function. • Be consistent with the .equals method and Clojure’s = function. If two items are logically equal, then that must be reflected in the compare function. When using the integer return values, the compare function ought to return 0. When using a predicate function, (pred x y) and (pred y x) should return the same thing in the case where x and y are equal. 106 | Chapter 2: Composite Data • Have no side effects. The compare function may be called an arbitrary number of times as the sort is evaluated. Comparators and the JVM Clojure fully participates in Java’s comparison and sorting mechanisms. All Clojure objects which have a natural order implement java.util.Comparable and implement the compareTo method. More importantly, every Clojure function actually implements the java.util.Compa rator interface. This means that you can pass a Clojure function to any Java method that requires an instance of java.util.Comparator, and it will invoke the function with two arguments. This is what allows you to pass arbitrary Clojure functions as the com‐ parator to sort — the function object itself is actually being used as a java Comparator, and invoking the Java .compare method on a Clojure function will actually call it, pass‐ ing it the two values being compared as two arguments. Because predicate functions (those returning a boolean value) do not map exactly to the positive/negative/zero integer return value expected from a java.lang.Compara tor, Clojure itself handles the logical mapping between them. If a function used as a comparator (that is, (pred x y)) returns true, the implementation will return -1, in‐ dicating that x is less than y in the given sort. If not, it will invoke the function again with the arguments reversed. If (pred x y) and (pred y x) are both false, it is assumed that the objects are equal and returns 0. Otherwise, it presumes x is greater than y and returns 1. sort-by Sometimes, you want to sort a collection not by the values themselves, but by some derivative function of the values. For example, say you have the following data, and you’d like to sort alphabetically by name. Unfortunately, maps don’t have a natural sort, so you’ll need to tell Clojure how to sort the data. (def people [{:name "Luke" :role :author } {:name "Ryan" :role :author } {:name "John" :role :reviewer } {:name "Travis" :role :reviewer } {:name "Tom" :role :reviewer } {:name "Meghan" :role :editor }]) One option would be to use a custom comparator, which extracts the :name key and then invokes compare on it: (sort #(compare (:name %1) (:name %2)) people) ;; -> ({:name "John", :role :reviewer} {:name "Luke", :role :author} {:name "Meghan", :role :editor} 2.24. Comparing and Sorting Values | 107 {:name "Ryan", :role :author} {:name "Tom", :role :reviewer} {:name "Travis", :role :reviewer}) However, there’s an easier way. The sort-by function works the same as sort, but takes an additional function keyfn as an argument, to apply to the elements before sorting them. Instead of sorting on the elements themselves, it sorts the result of applying keyfn to the elements. So, passing in :name as the keyfn (remember, keywords are functions that look them‐ selves up in a map), you can call: (sort-by :name people) ;;-> ({:name "John", :role :reviewer} {:name "Luke", :role :author} {:name "Meghan", :role :editor} {:name "Ryan", :role :author} {:name "Tom", :role :reviewer} {:name "Travis", :role :reviewer}) Like sort, sort-by also takes an optional comparator function, that it will used to compare the values extracted by the keyfn. For another example, the following expression uses the str function as a keyfn to sort the numbers from 1 to 20 not on their numeric value, but lexographically as strings (meaning that “2” is greater than “10”, etc.) It also demonstrates using a custom com‐ parator to specify the results in descending order. (sort-by str #(* -1 (compare %1 %2)) (range 1 20)) ;; -> (9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 1) ; descending lexographic order Natural Sort of Data Structures Some compositive data structures can also be compared, if they implement Comparable, are of the same type and contain comparable values. The comparison order is imple‐ mentation dependent. For example, by default, vectors are compared first by their length, then by the result of applying compare to their first value, then their second value if the first is equal, etc. (sort [[2 1] [1] [1 2] [1 1 1] [2]]) ;; -> ([1] [2] [1 2] [2 1] [1 1 1]) Some data structures (such as sets) are not comparable. For example, the fact that a set is defined to be unordered means that a meaningful greater than/less than comparison is not possible in the general case, and so one is not provided. See Also • The API documentation for java.lang.Comparable. 108 | Chapter 2: Composite Data • The API documentation for java.util.Comparator. • Recipe 1.29 • Recipe 1.17 2.25. Removing Duplicate Elements From a Collection by John Cromartie Problem You have a sequence of elements and want to remove any duplicates, while possibly preserving the order of elements. Solution When the sequence of elements you’re working with is of a bounded, reasonable size, use set to coerce the collection into a hash set containing only distinct values. (set [:a :a :g :a :b :g]) ;; -> #{:a :b :g} When the sequence is infinite, or you wish maintain ordering, use distinct to return a lazy sequence of unique values in a collection in the order they appear. (distinct [:a :a :g :a :b :g]) ;; -> (:a :g :b) Discussion There are a number of tradeoffs between these two approaches. For starters, set con‐ sumes the entire sequence to produce a new set collection. Because of this, set cannot be used to filter an infinite sequence. distinct, on the other hand, is designed for consuming lazy sequences. The value of distinct is a lazy view or projection over another sequence, yielding new values the first time they appear. (defn rand-int-seq "Returns an infinite sequence of ints from [0, n)" [n] (repeatedly #(rand-int n))) ;; Taking the set of an infinite sequence will *never* return: ; (set (rand-int-seq 10)) ; don't do it! ;; However, if you limit the seq, set will work: (set (take 10 (rand-int-seq 10))) ;; -> #{0 1 2 3 4 7 8 9} 2.25. Removing Duplicate Elements From a Collection | 109 ;; Distinct works no matter what (take 10 (distinct (rand-int-seq 10))) ;; -> (8 3 4 6 0 5 9 7 1 2) Since distinct produces new values as it sees them, it does maintain ordering. set, on the other hand, returns an unordered set. If distinct is both ordered and lazy over sequences of any length, what is the advantage of set? Speed. Using distinct is by far the slowest, while simply calling set is about 2X faster. See Also • Recipe 2.11 2.26. Determining if a Collection Holds One of Several Values by John Touron Problem You have a collection and want to determine if it holds one of several possible values. Solution Use some, along with a set. (some #{1 2} (range 10)) ;; -> 1 (some #{10} (range 10)) ;; -> nil Discussion Since sets can act like functions, they can be used as predicates, testing whether the argument is a member of the set. This idiom will test each item in a collection, returning either the first match, or nil if a match couldn’t be found. However, a problem arises when nil or false is a member of the set you’re using to test a collection with. Consider the following: (if (some #{nil} [1 2 nil 3]) ::found ::not-found) ;; -> :user/not-found 110 | Chapter 2: Composite Data (if (some #{false} [1 2 false 3]) ::found ::not-found) ;; -> :user/not-found Because the some function returns the value returned from the predicate function, not just true or false, using it with sets that contain nil or false probably isn’t what you want. It will return nil or +false if the item actually is in the set. The simplest solution is to test for nil or false seperately, using the nil? or false? predicate functions built in to Clojure. (if (some nil? [nil false]) ::found ::not-found) ;; -> :user/found (if (some false? [nil false]) ::found ::not-found) ;; -> :user/found Or, to test both at once; (if (some #(or (false? %) (nil? %)) [nil false]) ::found ::not-found) ;; -> :user/found See Also • Recipe 2.13 • Recipe 2.16 2.27. Implementing Custom Data Structures: Red-Black Trees - Part I by Leonardo Borges Problem You want to implement a data structure in Clojure with very specific performance characteristics. 2.27. Implementing Custom Data Structures: Red-Black Trees - Part I | 111 For example, you need fast, efficient in-memory searches across a large, random and ever-changing data set. Solution After identifying that Clojure’s core data structures are not appropriate for your domain, your first step is to determine what data structure is appropriate. For the purpose of this recipe, assume you are trying to choose and implement a data structure appropriate for fast in-memory search of a large, random and ever-changing data set. At first, a binary search tree (BST) seems like a good solution. A BST is most efficient over a sorted data set, however. Adding and removing large amounts of data may unbalance a BST and degenerate its performance to that of a linked list. Red-Black trees (RBT) are similar to BSTs, but are self-balancing. This would be an appropriate data structure for the data set in question. The next step is to implement the data structure itself. The implementation of RBTs relies on pattern matching. Use core.match to simplify the implementation of a RBT. Add [org.clojure/core.match "0.2.0"] to your project’s dependencies, or start a REPL with lein-try: lein try org.clojure/core.match First, implement the core of a RBT, the balance and insert-val functions. By using core.match it is possible to succinctly express the required behaviors based on the shape of the tree. (require '[clojure.core.match :refer [match]]) (defn balance "Ensures the given sub-tree stays balanced by rearranging black nodes which have at least one red child and one red grandchild" [tree] (match [tree] [(:or ;; Left child red with left red grandchild [:black [:red [:red a x b] y c] z d] ;; Left child red with right red grandchild [:black [:red a x [:red b y c]] z d] ;; Right child red with left red grandchild [:black a x [:red [:red b y c] z d]] ;; Right child red with right red grandchild [:black a x [:red b y [:red c z d]]])] [:red [:black a x b] y [:black c z d]] :else tree)) (defn insert-val "Inserts x in tree. 112 | Chapter 2: Composite Data Returns a node with x and no children if tree is nil. Returned tree is balanced. See also `balance`" [tree x] (let [ins (fn ins [tree] (match tree nil [:red nil x nil] [color a y b] (cond (< x y) (balance [color (ins a) y b]) (> x y) (balance [color a y (ins b)]) :else tree))) [_ a y b] (ins tree)] [:black a y b])) With insertion and balance out of the way, the only remaining function to implement is a find-val function for testing if a value is present in a RBT. The easiest way to do this is by breaking down individual tree nodes with match and recursively scanning for the desired value. (defn find-val "Finds value x in tree" [tree x] (match tree nil nil [_ a y b] (cond (< x y) (recur a x) (> x y) (recur b x) :else x))) With all of this in place, it is now possible to create and query a RBT. (def rb-tree (reduce insert-val nil (range 4))) rb-tree ;; -> [:black [:black nil 0 nil] 1 [:black nil 2 [:red nil 3 nil]]] (find-val rb-tree 2) ;; -> 2 (find-val rb-tree 100) ;; -> nil Discussion For anyone who has ever had to implement a Red-Black Tree - or at least attended a class in Computer Science where the algorithm was taught - the implementation of balance might seem extremely short. The reason for this is threefold: • Our Red-Black Tree is persistent: operations on it, such as insert and balance, are not destructive. 2.27. Implementing Custom Data Structures: Red-Black Trees - Part I | 113 • balance and find-val use core.match to codify logic as patterns to match. • Nodes are represented as vectors. The two latter points are related, as you’ll see below. Conveniently enough, core.match allows us to match on the shape and values of a data structure as well as perform structural binding at the same time. For example, the fol‐ lowing tries to match a-vector against two clauses: (def a-vector [1 2 3]) (match a-vector [_ y] (str "Got y: " y) [_ _ z] (str "Got z: " z)) ;; -> "Got z: 3" The first clause matches a two-element vector whereas the second matches a 3-element vector. Given a-vector has exactly three elements, it matches the second clause. In the expression that follows, named values (such as z) are bound to the positions they match. This is why it was convenient to represent nodes as vectors - it makes pattern matching against them a breeze: (def rb-node [:red nil 3 [:black nil 4 nil]]) (match rb-node [:red left value right] (str "Red node with value: " value) [:black left value right] (str "Black node with value: " value)) ;; -> "Red node with value: 3" Assuming this new custom data structure meets your performance criteria, what is left? (You are benchmarking all of your custom data structures, right?) Unlike built-in data structures, this custom data structures doesn’t work with core functions such as map and filter. In the second part of this recipe, Recipe 2.28 we’ll rectify this situation by participating in the core sequence abstraction. See Also • The second part of this recipe, Recipe 2.28, where we add sequence functionality to our RBT. • Red-Black Trees on Wikipedia for a more traditional take on this interesting data structure. • For the functional approach used in this recipe, the book Purely Functional Data Structures is an excellent source. It deals with how to efficiently implement data 114 | Chapter 2: Composite Data structures in a functional setting. The author chose to use ML and Haskell but its concepts are transferable to Clojure, as demonstrated above. 2.28. Implementing Custom Data Structures: Red-Black Trees - Part II originally submitted by Leonardo Borges Problem You want to use Clojure’s core sequence functions (conj, map, filter, etc.) with your own custom data structure. Solution In Part I of this recipe (Recipe 2.27) you implemented all the functions necessary for creating an efficient Red-Black Tree. What’s missing is participation in Clojure’s sequence abstraction. The most important part of participating in sequence abstraction is the ability to expose values of a data structure sequentialy. The built-in tree-seq is well suited for this task. One extra step is needed, however; tree-seq returns a sequence of nodes, not values. The final rb-tree→seq function: (defn- rb-tree->tree-seq "Returns a seq of all nodes in an red-black tree." [rb-tree] (tree-seq sequential? (fn [[_ left _ right]] (remove nil? [left right])) rb-tree)) (defn rb-tree->seq "Convert a red-black tree to a seq of its values." [rb-tree] (map (fn [[_ _ val _]] val) (rb-tree->tree-seq rb-tree))) (rb-tree->seq (-> nil (insert-val 5) (insert-val 2))) ;; -> (5 2) Since RBTs most closely resemble sets, they should adhere well to the IPersistent Set interface. Extend the IPersistentSet and IFn protocols to a new RedBlackTree type, implementing all of the necessary functions. It’s also wise to implement the mul‐ 2.28. Implementing Custom Data Structures: Red-Black Trees - Part II | 115 timethod print-method for RedBlackTree, as the default implementation will fail for RedBlackTree as implemented. (deftype RedBlackTree [tree] clojure.lang.IPersistentSet (cons [self v] (RedBlackTree. (insert-val tree v))) (empty [self] (RedBlackTree. nil)) (equiv [self o] (if (instance? RedBlackTree o) (= tree (.tree o)) false)) (seq [this] (if tree (rb-tree->seq tree))) (get [this n] (find-val tree n)) (contains [this n] (boolean (get this n))) ;; (disjoin [this n] ...) ;; Omitted due to complexity clojure.lang.IFn (invoke [this n] (get this n)) Object (toString [this] (pr-str this))) (defmethod print-method RedBlackTree [o ^ w] (.write w (str "#rbt " (pr-str (.tree o))))) disjoin and the corresponding remove-val functions are left as ex‐ ercises to the reader. It is now possible to use a RedBlackTree instance like any other collection—in particular, instances act like sets. (into (->RedBlackTree nil) (range 2)) ;; -> #rbt [:black nil 0 [:red nil 1 nil]] (def to-ten (into (->RedBlackTree nil) (range 10))) (seq to-ten) ;; -> (3 1 0 2 5 4 7 6 8 9) (get to-ten 9) ;; -> 9 (contains? to-ten 9) ;; -> true (to-ten 9) ;; -> 9 (map inc to-ten) ;; -> (4 2 1 3 6 5 8 7 9 10) 116 | Chapter 2: Composite Data 1. actually, as design would have it Discussion In the end, it doesn’t take a lot to participate in the sequence abstraction. By imple‐ menting a small handful of interface functions, the Red-Black Tree implementation from Recipe 2.27 can participate in a wide-array of sequence-oriented functions; map, filter, reduce, you name it. At its essence, clojure.lang.IPersistentSet is an abstraction of what it means to represent a mathematical set structure; this matches a tree data structure well. A set isn’t a list or sequence though, how is RedBlackTree then said to be participating in the sequence abstraction? In Clojure, types extending the clojure.lang.ISeq interface are true sequences, rep‐ resented as a logical list of head and tail. While IPersistentSet does not inherit from ISeq, it does share a common ancestry with it. Both interfaces extend clo jure.lang.IPersistentCollection and its parent clojure.lang.Seqable. As luck would have it 1, sequence functions rely on collections being Seqable, not ISeq. Since RedBlackTree can be read as a sequence, it is Seqable and can be operated on by all of the sequence functions you know and love. Most of the functions in the IPersistentSet interface are self explanatory, but some deserve further explanation. The function cons is a historical name for constructing a new list by appending a value to an existing list. seq is intended to produce a sequence from a collection, or nil if empty. public interface IPersistentSet extends IPersistentCollection, Counted { public IPersistentSet disjoin(Object key) ; public boolean contains(Object key); public Object get(Object key); } public interface IPersistentCollection extends Seqable { int count(); IPersistentCollection cons(Object o); IPersistentCollection empty(); boolean equiv(Object o); } public interface Seqable { ISeq seq(); } 2.28. Implementing Custom Data Structures: Red-Black Trees - Part II | 117 The most challenging part of any Seqable implementation is actually making a sequence out of the underlying data structure. This would be particularly challenging if you needed to write your own lazy tree-traversal algorithms. Luckily Clojure has a built-in function tree-seq that does precisely this. By leveraging tree-seq to produce a se‐ quence of nodes, it is trivial to write a rb-tree→seq conversion function that lazily traverses a RedBlackTree yielding node-values as it goes. tree-seq accepts three arguments: • branch? - a conditional that returns true if a node is a branch (not a leaf node). For RedBlackTree, sequential? is an adequate check, as every node is a vector. • children - a function that returns all of the children for a given node. • root - the node to begin traversal on. tree-seq performs a depth-first traversal of trees. Given how Red- Black Trees are represented, this will not be an ordered traversal. With a sequence conversion function in hand, it is easy enough to write the seq function. Similarly cons and empty are a breeze, simply utilize the existing tree functions. Equality testing can be a bit more difficult, however. For the sake of simplicity, we chose to implement equality (equiv) between only Red BlackTree instances. Further, the implementation compares a sorted sequence of their elements. In this case, equiv is answering the question “do these trees have the same values?” and not the question “are these the same trees?” It’s an important distinction, one you’ll need to consider carefully when implementing your own data structures. As discussed in Recipe 2.26, one of the big bonuses of sets is their ability to be invoked just like any other function. It’s easy enough to provide this ability to RedBlackTrees too. By implementing the single-arity invoke function of the clojure.lang.IFn inter‐ face, RedBlackTrees can be invoked like any other function (or set, for that matter). (some (rbt [2 3 5 7]) [6]) ;; -> nil ((rbt (range 10)) 3) ;; -> 3 Even with the full IPersistentSet interface implemented, there are still a number of conveniences RedBlackTree is lacking. For one, you need to use the kludgy →RedBlack Tree or RedBlackTree. functions to create a new RedBlackTree and add values to it 118 | Chapter 2: Composite Data manually. By convention, many built-in collections provide convenience functions for populating them (aside from literal tags like [] or {}, of course). It’s easy enough to mirror vec and vector for RedBlackTrees: (defn rbt "Create a new RedBlackTree with the contents of coll." [coll] (into (->RedBlackTree nil) coll)) (defn red-black-tree "Creates a new RedBlackTree containing the args." [& args] (rbt args)) (rbt (range 3)) ;; -> #rbt [:black [:black nil 0 nil] 1 [:black nil 2 nil]] (red-black-tree 7 42) ;; -> #rbt [:black nil 7 [:red nil 42 nil]] You may also have noticed printing is not a concern of the sequence abstraction, al‐ though it is certainly an important consideration to make for developing developer (and machine) friendly data structures. There are two types of printing in Clojure: to String and pr-based printing. The toString function is intended for printing human- readable values at the REPL, while the pr family of functions are meant (more or less) to be readable by the Clojure reader. To provide our own readable representation of RBT we must implement print- method (the heart of pr) for the RedBlackTree type. By writing in a “tagged literal” format (e.g. #rbt) it is possible to configure the reader to ingest and hydrate written values as first-class objects. (require '[clojure.edn :as edn]) ;; Recall ... (defmethod print-method RedBlackTree [o ^ w] (.write w (str "#rbt " (pr-str (.tree o))))) (def rbt-string (pr-str (rbt [1 4 2]))) rbt-string ;; -> "#rbt [:black [:black nil 1 nil] 2 [:black nil 4 nil]]" (edn/read-string rbt-string) ;; -> RuntimeException No reader function for tag rbt ... (edn/read-string {:readers {'rbt ->RedBlackTree}} rbt-string) ;; -> #rbt [:black [:black nil 1 nil] 2 [:black nil 4 nil]] 2.28. Implementing Custom Data Structures: Red-Black Trees - Part II | 119 See Also • The first part of this recipe, >, where we define the initial Red-Black Tree implementation. • Recipe 4.14 and Recipe 4.17 for more information on reading Clojure data. 120 | Chapter 2: Composite Data CHAPTER 3 General Computing 3.0. Introduction There’s a saying in business that “no organization operates in a vacuum.” The same applies to Clojure. For all the cool tools and techniques Clojure offers, there are still a number of activities and techniques that for whatever reason aren’t always on the direct path to shipping software. Some might call them academic, or incidental complexity, but for the time, we call them “life.” This chapter covers some of the topics about Clojure development that don’t quite fill chapters on their own. Topics like: • How to use Clojure’s development ecosystem? • How do abstract concepts (such as polymorphism) apply to Clojure? • What is logic programming, and when might I want to use it? 3.1. Running a Minimal Clojure REPL by John Cromartie Problem You want to play with a Clojure REPL but you don’t want to install additional tools. Solution Obtain the Clojure JAR file by downloading and unzipping a release from http:// Using a terminal, navigate to where you extracted the JAR, and start a Clojure REPL. 121 $ java -cp "clojure-1.5.1.jar" clojure.main You are now running an interactive Clojure REPL (Read-Eval-Print Loop). Type an expression and hit to evaluate it. Press +D to exit. Discussion The fact that Clojure on the JVM is encapsulated in a simple JAR file has some great benefits. For one, it means that Clojure is never really installed. It’s just a dependency like any other Java library. You can easily swap out one version of Clojure for another by replacing a single file. Let’s dissect the java invocation here a bit. -cp "clojure-1.5.1.jar" This sets the Java classpath to include Clojure (and only Clojure, in this example). A full explanation of the classpath is beyond the scope of this recipe, but suffice to say it is a list of places where Java should look to load classes. A full discussion of Classpaths on the JVM can be found at ment/paths.html clojure.main Here we are specifying the class which Java should load and execute the main method. Yes, clojure.main is really a Java class. The reason this doesn’t look like a typical Java invocation is because Clojure namespaces, which are compiled to classes, do not con‐ ventionally use capitalized names like Java classes do. This is the absolute bare-minimum Clojure environment, and is all you need to run Clojure code on any system with Java installed. Of course, for regular use and develop‐ ment, you will most certainly want a more feature-rich solution like Leiningen. In some cases, however, hand-tuning a Java invocation may be the best way to integrate Clojure into your environment. This is particularly useful on servers where deploying a simple JAR file is trivial compared to installing more complex packages. See Also • The Leiningen website. • Recipe 3.6 3.2. Interactive Documentation by John Cromartie 122 | Chapter 3: General Computing Problem From a REPL, you want to read documentation for a function. Solution Print the documentation for a function at the REPL with the doc macro. user=> (doc conj) ------------------------- clojure.core/conj ([coll x] [coll x & xs]) conj[oin]. Returns a new collection with the xs 'added'. (conj nil item) returns (item). The 'addition' may happen at different 'places' depending on the concrete type. Print the source code for a function at the REPL with the source macro. user=> (source reverse) (defn reverse "Returns a seq of the items in coll in reverse order. Not lazy." {:added "1.0" :static true} [coll] (reduce1 conj () coll)) Find functions with documentation matching a given regular expression using find- doc. user=> (find-doc #"defmacro") ------------------------- clojure.core/definline ([name & decl]) Macro Experimental - like defmacro, except defines a named function whose body is the expansion, calls to which may be expanded inline as if it were a macro. Cannot be used with variadic (&) args. ------------------------- clojure.core/defmacro ([name doc-string? attr-map? [params*] body] [name doc-string? attr-map? ([params*] body) + attr-map?]) Macro Like defn, but the resulting function name is declared as a macro and will be used as a macro by the compiler when it is called. Discussion Clojure supports inline documentation of functions (more about that later), along with other metadata, which allows you to introspect things like documentation any time you want. The doc and source macros are just convenience functions for the REPL. 3.2. Interactive Documentation | 123 You can peek under the hood at almost everything in Clojure at any time. The next example may be a bit mind-expanding if you’re not used to this level of introspection at runtime: user=> (source source) (defmacro source "Prints the source code for the given symbol, if it can find it. This requires that the symbol resolve to a Var defined in a namespace for which the .clj is in the classpath. Example: (source filter)" [n] `(println (or (source-fn '~n) (str "Source not found")))) Keeping in mind that source was defined in the clojure.repl namespace, we can peek at how exactly it retrieves the source by evaluating (source clojure.repl/source-fn). In most REPL implementations clojure.repl macros like source and doc are only referred into the user namespace. This means as soon as you switch into another namespace the unqualified clojure.repl macros will no longer be available. You can get around this by namespacing the macros (clojure.repl/doc instead of doc,) or, for extended use, by use‘ing the namespace user=> (ns foo) foo=> (doc +) CompilerException java.lang.RuntimeException: Unable to resolve symbol: doc in this context, compiling:(NO_SOURCE_PATH:1:1) foo=> (use 'clojure.repl) nil foo=> (doc +) ------------------------- clojure.core/+ ([] [x] [x y] [x y & more]) Returns the sum of nums. (+) returns 0. Does not auto-promote longs, will throw on overflow. See also: +' Exploring Clojure in this way is a great way to learn about core functions and advanced Clojure programming techniques. The clojure.core namespace is chock full of high- quality and high-performance code at your fingertips. See Also • clojure.repl API Documentation. • Recipe 3.3 124 | Chapter 3: General Computing 3.3. Exploring Namespaces by John Cromartie Problem You want to know what namespaces are loaded, and what public vars are available inside them. Solution Use loaded-libs to obtain the set of currently-loaded namespaces. e.g., from a REPL: user=> (pprint (loaded-libs)) #{clojure.core.protocols clojure.instant clojure.main clojure.pprint clojure.repl clojure.string clojure.uuid clojure.walk} Use dir from a REPL to print the public vars in a namespace. user=> (dir clojure.instant) parse-timestamp read-instant-calendar read-instant-date read-instant-timestamp validated Use ns-publics to obtain a mapping of symbols to public vars in a namespace. (ns-publics 'clojure.instant) ;; -> {read-instant-calendar #'clojure.instant/read-instant-calendar, ;; read-instant-timestamp #'clojure.instant/read-instant-timestamp, ;; validated #'clojure.instant/validated, ;; read-instant-date #'clojure.instant/read-instant-date, ;; parse-timestamp #'clojure.instant/parse-timestamp} Discussion Namespaces in Clojure are dynamic mappings of symbols to vars. A namespace is not available until it is required by something else, e.g. when starting a REPL or as a de‐ pendency in a ns declaration. Nothing is known about available Clojure libs and name‐ spaces until runtime, which is in contrast to typical Java development (where most everything about a package is known at compile time). The downside of this dynamic nature is that you need to at least know which namespaces to load in order to explore them. 3.3. Exploring Namespaces | 125 See Also • clojure.repl API Documentation. • Recipe 3.2 3.4. Trying a Library Without Explicit Dependencies by Mark Whelan Problem You want to try a library in the REPL without having to modify your project’s depen‐ dencies or create a new project. Solution Use Ryan Neufeld’s lein-try to launch the REPL. Library dependencies will be met automatically. To gain this capability, first make sure you are using Leiningen >= 2.1.3. Then edit your ~/.lein/profiles.clj file, adding [lein-try "0.4.1"] to the :plugins vector of the :user profile: ~/.lein/profiles.clj. {:user {:plugins [[lein-try "0.4.1"]]}} Now you can experience nearly instant gratification with the library of your choice: $ lein try clj-time Retrieving clj-time/clj-time/0.6.0/clj-time-0.6.0.pom from clojars Retrieving clj-time/clj-time/0.6.0/clj-time-0.6.0.jar from clojars nREPL server started on port 58981 on host REPL-y 0.2.1 Clojure 1.5.1 Docs: (doc function-name-here) (find-doc "part-of-name-here") Source: (source function-name-here) Javadoc: (javadoc java-object-or-class-here) Exit: Control+D or (exit) or (quit) user=> Discussion Notice that we did not have to give a version number for the library in the example. The lein-try will automatically grab the most recent released version of libraries. 126 | Chapter 3: General Computing Of course you can specify a library version if you like. Just add the version number afterward: $ lein try clj-time 0.5.1 #... user=> For a quick view of usage options, invoke lein help try: $ lein help try Launch REPL with specified dependencies available. Usage: lein try [io.rkn/conformity "0.2.1"] [com.datomic/datomic-free "0.8.4020.26"] lein try io.rkn/conformity 0.2.1 lein try io.rkn/conformity # This uses the most recent version NOTE: lein-try does not require [] Arguments: ([& args]) As befits a Clojure tool, lein-try is an elegant way to make a task less laborious. Use it to summon powerful libraries from the net at your whim, without having to set them up, and enjoy a wizardly satisfaction from the sudden confluence of new abilities. See Also • The official list of Leiningen Plugins. 3.5. Running Clojure Programs by John Cromartie Problem You want to run a program with a single entry point from Clojure source code. Solution Run a file full of Clojure expressions by passing the filename as an argument to clo jure.main. To follow along with this recipe, you can download a version of clo‐ jure.jar at 3.5. Running Clojure Programs | 127 For example, given a file my_clojure_program.clj with the contents: my_clojure_program.clj. (println "Hi.") Invoke the java command with my_clojure_program.clj as the final argument: $ java -cp clojure.jar clojure.main my_clojure_program.clj Hi. In a more structured project, you’ll probably have files organized in a src/ folder. For example, given a file src/com/example/my_program.clj: src/com/example/my_program.clj. (ns (defn -main [& args] (println "Hey!")) To load and run the -main function, specify the desired namespace with the -m/-- main option and add src to the classpath list (via -cp). $ java -cp clojure.jar:src clojure.main --main Hey! Discussion Although you will spend most of your time evaluating Clojure code in a REPL, it is useful to be able to either run a simple “script” full of Clojure expressions, or to run a more structured Clojure application with a -main entry point. In either case, you have access to any extra command line arguments passed after the script name or the main namespace name. For example, let’s say you have written the following program, in a file called hello.clj. hello.clj. (defn greet [name] (str "Hello, " name "!")) (doseq [name *command-line-args*] (println (greet name))) Invoking this Clojure program directly will yield predictable output. $ java -cp clojure.jar clojure.main hello.clj Alice Bob Hello, Alice! Hello, Bob! 128 | Chapter 3: General Computing This simple script has the side effect of printing output when it is loaded. Most Clojure code is not organized this way. As you will typically want to keep your code in well-organized namespaces, you can provide an entry point through a namespace with a -main function. This allows you to avoid side effects while loading, and you can even tweak and invoke your -main function from the REPL just like any other function during interactive development. Let’s say you’ve moved the above greet function into a foo.util namespace, and your project is structured something like this: ./src/foo/util.clj ./src/foo.clj Your foo namespace requires the foo.util namespace, and provides a -main function, like so: (ns foo (:require foo.util)) (defn -main [& args] (doseq [name args] (println (foo.util/greet name)))) When you invoke Clojure with foo.core as the “main” namespace, it calls the -main function with the provided command line arguments. $ java -cp clojure.jar:src clojure.main --main foo Alice Bob Hello, Alice! Hello, Bob! You’ll also note the addition of :src to the -cp option. This indicates to Java that the classpath for execution not only includes clojure.jar, but also the contents of the src/ directory on disk. See Also • Recipe 3.7 to learn how to cleanly expose multiple options and flags in your command-line applications. • Recipe 3.6 to learn how to run Leiningen projects from the command line. 3.6. Running Programs From the Command-Line by Ryan Neufeld 3.6. Running Programs From the Command-Line | 129 Problem You want to invoke your Clojure application from the command-line. Solution In any Leiningen project, use the lein run command to invoke your application from the command-line. To follow along with this recipe, create a new Leiningen project: $ lein new my-cli Configure which namespace will be the entrypoint to your application by adding a :main key to the project’s project.clj file. project.clj. (defproject my-cli "0.1.0-SNAPSHOT" :description "FIXME: write description" :url "" :license {:name "Eclipse Public License" :url ""} :dependencies [[org.clojure/clojure "1.5.1"]] :main my-cli.core) Finally, add a -main function to the namespace configured in project.clj. src/my-cli/core.clj. (ns my-cli.core) (defn -main [& args] (println "My CLI received arguments:" args)) Now, invoke lein run to run your application. $ lein run My CLI received arguments: nil $ lein run 1 :foo "bar" My CLI received arguments: (1 :foo bar) Discussion As it turns out, invoking your application from the command-line couldn’t be easier. Leiningen’s run command quickly and easily connects your application to the command-line with little fuss. In its base form, lein run will invoke the -main function of whatever namespace you have specified as :main in your project’s project.clj file. For example, setting :main my- cli.core will invoke my-cli.core/-main. Alternatively, you may omit implementing 130 | Chapter 3: General Computing -main and provide :main with the fully qualified name of a function (e.g. my.cli.core/ alt-main); this function will be invoked instead of -main. While the printed arguments in the solution above look like Clojure data, they are in fact regular strings. For simple arguments, you may choose to parse these strings your‐ self, otherwise we suggest using the tools.cli library. See Recipe 3.7 for more infor‐ mation on tools.cli. Although a project can only have one default :main entrypoint, you can invoke other functions from the command-line by setting the -m option to a namespace or function. When setting -m to a namespace (e.g my-cli.core), the -main function of that name‐ space will be invoked. By providing -m with the fully qualified name of a function (e.g. my-cli.core/alt-main), that function will be invoked. There’s no requirement this function be prefixed with a - (indicating it is a Java method), it simple must accept a variable number of arguments (as -main normally does). For example, add a function add-main to my.cli/core: src/my-cli/core.clj. (ns my-cli.core) (defn -main [& args] (println "My CLI received arguments:" args)) (defn add-main [& args] (->> (map #(Integer/parseInt %) args) (reduce + 0) (println "The sum is:"))) Then invoke it from the command-line with the command lein run -m my-cli.core/ add-main. $ lein run -m my-cli.core/add-main 1 2 3 The sum is: 6 See Also • Recipe 3.5 to learn how to run plain Clojure files with java. • Recipe 8.2 to learn how to package an application as an executable JAR. • Recipe 3.7 to learn how to parse command-line arguments using tools.cli. • Recipe 8.4 to learn how to daemonize applications. 3.6. Running Programs From the Command-Line | 131 1. Since tools.cli is so cool this example can run entirely at the REPL. 3.7. Parsing Command-Line Arguments Originally submitted by Nicolas Bessi Problem You want to write command-line tools in Clojure that can parse input arguments. Solution Use the tools.cli library. Before starting, add [org.clojure/tools.cli "0.2.4"] to your project’s dependen‐ cies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try org.clojure/tools.cli Use the function in your project’s -main function entry-point to parse command-line arguments 1. (require '[ :refer [cli]]) (defn -main [& args] (let [[opts args banner] (cli args ["-h" "--help" "Print this help" :default false :flag true])] (when (:help opts) (println banner)))) ;; Simulate entry into the -main at the command-line (-main "-h") ;; *out* ;; Usage: ;; ;; Switches Default Desc ;; -------- ------- ---- ;; -h, --no-help, --help false Print this help Discussion Clojure’s tools.cli is a simple library, with only one function, cli, and a slim data- oriented API for specifying how arguments should be parsed. Handily enough, there isn’t much special about this function; an arguments vector and specifications go in, a map of parsed options, variadic arguments and a help banner come out. It’s really the epitome of good, composable functional programming. 132 | Chapter 3: General Computing To configure how options are parsed, pass any number spec vectors after the args list. To specify a :port parameter, for example, you would provide the spec ["-p" "-- port"]. The "-p" isn’t strictly necessary, but it is customary to provide a single-letter shortcut for command-line options (especially long ones.) In the returned opts map the text of the last option name will be interned to a keyword (less the “--”). For example, "--port" would become :port, and "--super-long-option" would become :super- long-option. TODO: This feature is not working--throws misc. errors when attempted. Optionally, you can pass a string as the first argument before vector specs. Whatever is in this string will be printed above the list of options. You’ve probably seen this to indicate how a command is to be used in a number of other command-line applications. [source,clojure] ---- // TODO: Usage example ---- If you’re a polite command-line application developer, you’ll also include a description for each of your options. Specify this as an optional string following the final argument name. ["-p" "--port" "The incoming port the application will listen on."] Everything after the argument name and description will be interpreted as options in key-value pairs. tools.cli provides the following options: • :default: The default value returned in the absence of user-input. Without spec‐ ifying, the default of default is nil. • :flag: If truthy (not false or nil), indicates an argument behaves like a flag or switch. This argument will not take any value is its input. • parse-fn: The function used to parse an argument’s value. This can be used to turn string values into integers, floats or other datatypes. • assoc-fn: The function used to combine multiple values for a single argument. 3.7. Parsing Command-Line Arguments | 133 Here’s a complete example: (def app-specs [["-n" "--count" :default 5 :parse-fn #(Integer. %) :assoc-fn max] ["-v" "--verbose" :flag true :default true]]) (first (apply cli ["-n" "2" "-n" "50"] app-specs)) ;; -> {:count 50, :verbose true} (first (apply cli ["--no-verbose"] app-specs)) ;; -> {:count 5, :verbose false} When writing flag options, a useful shortcut is to omit the :flag option and add a "[no-]" prefix to the arguments name. cli will interpret this argument spec as includ‐ ing :flag true without having to specify it as such. ["-v" "--[no-]verbose" :default true] One thing the tools.cli library doesn’t provide is a hook into the application con‐ tainer’s launch lifecycle. It is your responsiblity to add a cli call to your -main function and know when to print the help banner. A general pattern for use is to capture the results of cli in a let-block and determine if help needs to be printed. This is also useful for ensuring validity of arguments (especially since there is no :required option.) (def required-opts #{:port}) (defn missing-required? "Returns true if opts is missing any of the required-opts" [opts] (not-every? opts required-opts)) (defn -main [& args] (let [[opts args banner] (cli args ["-h" "--help" "Print this help" :default false :flag true] ["-p" "--port" :parse-fn #(Integer. %)])] (when (or (:help opts) (missing-required? opts)) (println banner)))) As with many applications, you may want to accept a variable number of arguments to your applications; for example, a list of file names. In most cases, you don’t need to do anything special to capture these arguments—just supply them after any other options. These variadic arguments will be returned as the second item in cli’s returned vector. (second (apply cli ["-n" "5" "foo.txt" "bar.txt"] app-specs)) ;; -> ["foo.txt" "bar.txt"] 134 | Chapter 3: General Computing If your variadic arguments look like flags, however, you’ll need another trick. Use -- as an argument to indicate to cli that everything that follows is a variadic argument. This is useful if you’re invoking another program with the options originally passed to your program. (second (apply cli ["-n" "5" "--port" "80"] app-specs)) ;; -> Exception '--port' is not a valid argument ... (second (apply cli ["-n" "5" "--" "--port" "80"] app-specs)) ;; -> ["--port" "80"] Once you’ve finished toying with your application’s option-parsing at the REPL, you’ll probably want to try invoking options via lein run. Just like your application needs to use -- to indicate arguments to pass onto subsequent programs, so too must you use -- to indicate to lein run which arguments are for your program and which are for it. # If app-specs were rigged up to a project... $ lein run -- -n 5 --no-verbose See Also • Recipe 4.1 to learn about input and output streams. • Recipe 3.6 to learn more about invoking applications from the command-line. • Recipe 8.2 to learn how to package an application as an executable JAR file. • For building ncurses-style applications, see clojure-lanterna, a wrapper around the Lanterna terminal output library. 3.8. Creating Custom Project Templates by Travis Vachon Problem You regularly create new, similar projects and want an easy way to generate customized boilerplate. Or, you work on an open source project and want to give users an easy way to get started with your software. Solution Leiningen templates give Clojure programmers an easy way to automatically generate customized project boilerplate with a single shell command. We’ll explore them by creating a template for a simple web service. 3.8. Creating Custom Project Templates | 135 First, generate a new template with lein new template cookbook-sample-template- . Replace github_user with your own GitHub username; you’ll be pub‐ lishing this template to Clojars and it will need a unique name. In the examples we’ll use clojure-cookbook as our GitHub username. $ lein new template cookbook-sample-template-clojure-cookbook Generating fresh 'lein new' template project. $ cd cookbook-sample-template-clojure-cookbook Create a new project file template with the following contents in src/leiningen/new/ /project.clj. src/leiningen/new/cookbook_sample_template_clojure_cookbook/project.clj. (defproject {{ns-name}} "0.1.0" :description "FIXME: write description" :url "" :license {:name "Eclipse Public License" :url ""} :dependencies [[org.clojure/clojure "1.5.1"]]) Since you are creating a template for a web service, you’ll want Clojure’s ring and ring- jetty-adapter to be available by default, add them to the :dependencies section: :dependencies [[org.clojure/clojure "1.5.1"] [ring "1.1.8"] [ring/ring-jetty-adapter "1.2.0"]] Next, open the template definition (src/leiningen/new/.clj) and add project.clj to the list of files to be generated. Add sanitize-ns to the name‐ space’s :require directive to expose a sanitized namespace string. src/leiningen/new/cookbook_sample_template_clojure_cookbook.clj. (ns (:require [ :refer [renderer name-to-path ->files sanitize-ns]] [leiningen.core.main :as main])) ; (def render (renderer "cookbook-sample-template-clojure-cookbook")) (defn cookbook-sample-template-clojure-cookbook "FIXME: write documentation" [name] (let [data {:name name :ns-name (sanitize-ns name) ; :sanitized (name-to-path name)}] (->files data ["project.clj" (render "project.clj" data)] ; ["src/{{sanitized}}/foo.clj" (render "foo.clj" data)]))) Add sanitize-ns to the :require declaration. 136 | Chapter 3: General Computing Expose :ns-name as the sanitized name. Add project.clj to the list of files in the template. A good template gives users a basic skeleton on which to build. Create a new file at src/ leiningen/new//site.clj with some bare-bones web server logic: src/leiningen/new/cookbook_sample_template_clojure_cookbook/site.clj. (ns {{ns-name}}.site "My website! It will rock!" (:require [ring.adapter.jetty :refer [run-jetty]])) (defn handler [request] {:status 200 :headers {"Content-Type" "text/html"} :body "Hello World"}) (defn -main [] (run-jetty handler {:port 3000})) Back in the template’s project.clj file, add a key-value for the :main option to indicate is the core runnable namespace for the project: src/leiningen/new/cookbook_sample_template_clojure_cookbook/project.clj. :main {{ns-name}}.site Go back to your template definition (.clj) and change both foo.clj references to site.clj. Delete the src/leiningen/new//foo.clj file as well. src/leiningen/new/cookbook_sample_template_clojure_cookbook.clj. ;; ... ["src/{{sanitized}}/site.clj" (render "site.clj" data)]))) To test the template locally, change directories to the root of your template project and run: $ lein install $ lein new cookbook-sample-template-clojure-cookbook my-first-website --snapshot $ cd my-first-website $ lein run # ... Leiningen noisily fetching dependencies ... 2013-08-22 16:41:43.337:INFO:oejs.Server:jetty-7.6.8.v20121106 2013-08-22 16:41:43.379:INFO:oejs.AbstractConnector:Started SelectChannelConnector@ If lein prints an error about not being able to find your template you should make sure you’re on the latest version with lein upgrade. To make the template available to other users you’ll need to publish it to Clojars. First, open up the template project’s project.clj and change the version to a release version - by default lein will only use non-SNAPSHOT templates: 3.8. Creating Custom Project Templates | 137 project.clj. (defproject cookbook-sample-template-clojure-cookbook/lein-template "0.1.0" ;; ... Next, visit to create a Clojars account and then deploy from the template project root: $ lein deploy clojars Other users can now create projects using your template name as the first argument to lein new. Leiningen will automatically fetch your project template from Clojars. $ lein new cookbook-sample-template-clojure-cookbook my-second-website Discussion Leiningen uses Clojars as a well known source of templates. When you pass a template name to lein new, it first looks for a template by name in the local Maven repository. If it doesn’t find it there it will look for an appropriately named template on clo If it finds one it will download the template and use it to create the new project. The result is an almost magic-seeming project creation interface which lends itself ex‐ tremely well to getting Clojure programmers going with new technology very quickly. Once a project template has been downloaded, Leiningen will use src/leiningen/new/ .clj to create a new project. This file can be customized extensively to create sophisticated templates that match your needs. We’ll review this file and talk about some of the tools available to the template developer. (ns (:require [ :refer [renderer name-to-path ->files sanitize-ns]])) We first declare a namespace that matches the template name and require some useful functions provided by Leiningen for template development. plates contains a variety of other functions you may find useful, and is worth reviewing before you develop your own templates - problems you encounter during development may already be solved by the library. In this case, name-to-path and sanitize-ns will help us create strings that we’ll substitute into file templates in a number of places. (def render (renderer "cookbook-sample-template-clojure-cookbook")) A new project is generated by loading a set of mustache template files and rendering them in the context of a named set of strings. The renderer function creates a function that looks for mustache templates in a place determined by the name of your template. In this case it will look for templates in src/leiningen/new/cook‐ book_sample_template_clojure_cookbook/. (defn cookbook-sample-template-clojure-cookbook "FIXME: write documentation" [name] 138 | Chapter 3: General Computing Continuing the spirit of “convention over configuration”, Leiningen will search this namespace for a function with the same name as your template. You may execute ar‐ bitrary Clojure code in this function, which means you can make project generation arbitrarily sophisticated. (let [data {:name name :ns-name (sanitize-ns name) :sanitized (name-to-path name)}] This is the data our renderer will use to create your new project files from the templates your provide. In this case we give our templates access to the project name, the name‐ space that will result from that name and a sanitized path based on that name. (->files data ["project.clj" (render "project.clj" data)] ["src/{{sanitized}}/site.clj" (render "site.clj" data)]))) Finally, we pass the →files (pronounced “to files”) function a list of filename/content tuples. The filename determines where in the new project a file will end up. Content is generated using the render function we defined earlier. render accepts a relative path to the template file and the key/value map we created above. Mustache templates are very simple, implementing nothing more than simple key sub‐ stitution. For example, the following snippet is used to generate the ns statement for our new project’s main file, site.clj: (ns {{ns-name}}.site "My website! It will rock!" (:require [ring.adapter.jetty :refer [run-jetty]])) Leiningen templates are a powerful tool for saving Clojure developers from the drudgery of project setup. More importantly, they are an invaluable tool for open source devel‐ opers to showcase their projects and make it incredibly easy for potential users to get started with an unfamiliar piece of software. If you’ve been developing Clojure for a while, or even if you’ve just started, it’s well worth your time to take templates for a spin today! See also • Leiningen template documentation • The source of the namespace. • mustache templates 3.9. Building Functions with Polymorphic Behavior by Ryan Neufeld, originally submitted by David McNeil 3.9. Building Functions with Polymorphic Behavior | 139 Problem You want to create functions whose behavior varies based upon the arguments passed to them. For example, you want to develop a set of flexible geometry functions. Solution The easiest way to implement run-time polymorphism is via hand-rolled map-based dispatch using functions like cond or condp. (defn area "Calculate the area of a shape" [shape] (condp = (:type shape) :triangle (* (:base shape) (:height shape) 1/2) :rectangle (* (:length shape) (:width shape)))) (area {:type :triangle :base 2 :height 4}) ;; -> 4N (area {:type :rectangle :length 2 :width 4}) ;; -> 8 This approach is a little raw, though; area ties together dispatch and multiple shapes’ area implementations, all under one function. Use the defmulti and defmethod macros to define a multimethod, separatating dispatch from implementation, and introducing a measure of extensibility. (defmulti area "Calculate the area of a shape" :type) (defmethod area :rectangle [shape] (* (:length shape) (:width shape))) (area {:type :rectangle :length 2 :width 4}) ;; -> 8 ;; Trying to get the area of a new shape... (area {:type :circle :radius 1}) ;; -> IllegalArgumentException No method in multimethod 'area' for ;; dispatch value: :circle ... (defmethod area :circle [shape] (* (. Math PI) (:radius shape) (:radius shape))) (area {:type :circle :radius 1}) ;; -> 3.141592653589793 140 | Chapter 3: General Computing Better, but things start to fall apart if you want to add new geometric functions like perimeter. With multimethods you’ll need to repeat dispatch logic for each function and write a combinatorial explosion of implementations to suit. It would be better if these functions and their implementations could be grouped and written together. Use Clojure’s protocol facilities to define a protocol interface and extend it with concrete implementations. ;; Define the "shape" of a Shape object (defprotocol Shape (area [s] "Calculate the area of a shape") (perimeter [s] "Calculate the perimeter of a shape")) ;; Define a concrete Shape, the Rectangle (defrecord Rectangle [length width] Shape (area [this] (* length width)) (perimeter [this] (+ (* 2 length) (* 2 width)))) (->Rectangle 2 4) ;; -> #user.Rectangle{:length 2, :width 4} (area (->Rectangle 2 4)) ;; -> 8 Discussion As you’ve seen in this recipe, there are a multitude of different ways to implement poly‐ morphism in Clojure. While the example above settled on protocols as a method for implementing polymorphism, there are no hard and fast rules about which techinique to use. Each approach has its own unique set of trade-offs that need to be considered when introducing polymorphism. The first approach considered was simple map-based polymorphism using condp. In retrospect, it’s not the right choice for building a geometry library in Clojure, but that is not to say it is without its uses. This approach is best used in-the-small; you could use cond to prototype early iterations of a protocol at the REPL, or in places where you aren’t defining new types. It’s important to note, there are techiniques beyond cond for implementing map-based dispatch. One such technique is a dispatch map, generally implemented as a map of keys to functions. Next up are multimethods. Unlike cond-based polymorphism, multimethods separate dispatch from implementation. On account of this, they can be extended after their creation. Multimethods are defined using the defmulti macro, which behaves similarly to defn, but specifies a dispatch function instead of an implementation. 3.9. Building Functions with Polymorphic Behavior | 141 Let’s break down the defmulti declaration for a rather simple multimethod, the area function: (defmulti area ; "Calculate the area of a shape" ; :type) ; The function name for this multimethod A docstring describing the function The dispatch function Using the keyword :type as a dispatch function doesn’t do justice to the flexibility of multimethods; they’re capable of much more. Multimethods allow you to perform ar‐ bitrarily complex introspection of the arguments they are invoked with. When choosing a map-lookup like :type for a dispatch function, you also imply the arity of the function (number of arguments it accepts). Since keywords act as a function on one argument (a map), area is a single-arity function. Other functions will imply different arities. A common pattern with multimethods is to use an anonymous function to make the intended arity of a multimethod more explicit. (defmulti ingest-message "Ingest a message into an application" (fn [app message] ; (:priority message)) ; :default :low) ; (defmethod ingest-message :low [app message] (println (str "Ingesting message " message ", eventually..."))) (defmethod ingest-message :high [app message] (println (str "Ingesting message " message ", now."))) (ingest-message {} {:type :stats :value [1 2 3]}) ;; *out* ;; Ingesting message {:type :stats :value [1 2 3]}, eventually... (ingest-message {} {:type :heartbeat :priority :high}) ;; *out* ;; Ingesting message {:type :heartbeat, :priority :high}, now. ingest-messages accepts two arguments, an app and a message message will be processed differently depending on its priority. In the absence of a :priority key on message, the default priority will be :low. Without specifying, the default dispatch value is :default. 142 | Chapter 3: General Computing 2. That is to say, you cannot enforce a multimethod consumer implements all of the required methods when extending behavior to their own type In all of the examples so far, we’ve always dispatched on a single value. Multimethods also support something called “multiple dispatch,” whereby a function can be dispatched upon any number of factors. By returning a vector rather than a single value in our dispatch, you can make more dynamic decisions. (defmulti convert "Convert a thing from one type to another" (fn [request thing] [(:input-format request) (:output-format request)])) ; (require 'clojure.edn) (defmethod convert [:edn-string :clojure] ; [_ str] (clojure.edn/read-string str)) (require ' (defmethod convert [:clojure :json] ; [_ thing] ( thing)) (convert {:input-format :edn-string :output-format :clojure} "{:foo :bar}") ;; -> {:foo :bar} (convert {:input-format :clojure :output-format :json} {:foo [:bar :baz]}) ;; -> "{\"foo\":[\"bar\",\"baz\"]}" The convert multimethod dispatches on input and output format. An implementation of convert that converts from edn strings to clojure data. Similarly, an implementation that converts from Clojure data to JSON All this power comes at a cost, however; because multimethods are so dynamic, they can be quite slow. Further, there is no good way to group sets of related multimethods into an “all or nothing” package 2. If speed or implementing a complete interface are among your chief concerns, then you will likely be better served by protocols. Clojure’s protocol feature provides extensible polymorphism with fast dispatch akin to Java’s interfaces with one notable difference from multimethods: protocols can only perform single-dispatch (based on type). Protocols are defined using the defprotocol macro, accepting a name, optional doc‐ string and any number of named methods signatures. A method signature is made up 3.9. Building Functions with Polymorphic Behavior | 143 of a few parts; the name, at least one type signature, and an optional docstring. The first argument of any type signature is always the object itself—Clojure dispatches on the type of this argument. Perhaps an example would be the easiest way to dig in to defpro tocol’s syntax. (defprotocol Frobnozzle "Basic methods for any Frobnozzle" (blint [this x] "Blint the frobnozzle with x") ; (crand [this f] [this f x] (str "Crand a frobnozzle with another " ; "optionally incorporating x"))) A function, blint, with a single additional argument x. A multi-arity function, crand, that takes an optional x argument. Once a protocol is defined, there are numerous ways to provide an implementation for it. deftype, defrecord and reify all define a protocol implementation while creating an object. The deftype and defrecord forms create new named types, while reify creates an anonymous type. Each form is used by indicating the protocol being extended, followed by concrete implementations of each of that protocol’s methods. ;; deftype has a similar syntax, but is not really applicable for an ;; immutable shape (defrecord Square [length] Shape ; (area [this] (* length length)) ; (perimeter [this] (* 4 length)) ; ) (perimeter (->Square 1)) ;; -> 4 ;; Calculate the area of a parallelogram without defining a record (area (let [b 2 h 3] (reify Shape (area [this] (* b h)) (perimeter [this] (* 2 (+ b h)))))) ;; -> 6 Indicate the protocol being implemented… and implement all of its methods. 144 | Chapter 3: General Computing Repeat steps one and two for any remaining protocols you wish to implement. The Difference Between a Type and a Record Given types and records share a very similar syntax, it can be hard to understand at face value how each should be used. Chas Emerick explained it best in an appendix to Clojure Programming: Is your class modelling a domain value — thus benefitting from hash map-like func‐ tionality and semantics? Use defrecord. Do you need to define mutable fields? Use deftype. — Chas Emerick Clojure Programming There you have it. For implementing protocols on existing types, you will want to use the extend family of built-in functions (extend, extend-type and extend-protocol). Instead of creating a new type, these functions define implementations for existing types. See Also • The official documentation for Multimethods and Hierarchies, which covers mul‐ timethods in depth. This document also covers hierarchies as they relate to multi‐ methods, a feature not covered in this recipe. • The official documentation for Protocols, which covers protocols in depth, includ‐ ing information on how protocols relate to interfaces. • Recipe 3.10 for examples of using extend and its convenience macros extend- type and extend-protocol. • Recipe 2.28 for a concrete example of implementing a protocol. 3.10. Extending a Built-in Type by David McNeil Problem You need to extend one of the built-in types with your own functions. 3.10. Extending a Built-in Type | 145 Solution Suppose for example you would like to add domain specific functions to the core java.lang.String type. In this example, you will add a first-name and last-name function to String. Define a protocol with the functions you need. The protocol declares the signature of the functions. (defprotocol Person "Represents the name of a person." (first-name [person]) (last-name [person])) Extend the type to the java.lang.String class: (extend-type String Person (first-name [s] (first (clojure.string/split s #" "))) (last-name [s] (second (clojure.string/split s #" ")))) Now we can invoke our functions on Strings. (first-name "john") ;; -> "john" (last-name "john smith") ;; -> "smith" Discussion Why use protocols when multimethods already exist? For one, speed; Protocols dispatch only on the type of their first parameter. Further, protocols allow you to group and name an extension. This makes it much easier to reason about what a group of functions confer about a type and ensures a proper, full implementation. It is good practice to only extend a protocol to a type if you are the author of either the protocol or the type. This will avoid cases where you violate the assumptions of the original authors. If you already had functions to use, then it would make sense to use extend instead of the extend-type form. (defn first-word [s] (first (clojure.string/split s #" "))) (defn second-word [s] (second (clojure.string/split s #" "))) (extend String Person 146 | Chapter 3: General Computing {:first-name first-word :last-name second-word}) See Also •, an excellent explanation of why protocols exist as it relates to the Expression Problem by Jörg W Mittag on StackOverflow. 3.11. Decoupling Consumers and Producers with core.async by Daemian Mack Problem You want to decouple your program’s consumers and producers by introducing explicit queues between them. For example, you are building a web dashboard that fetches Twitter messages. This application must both persist these events to a database and publish them via Server- Sent Events (SSE) to a browser. Solution Introducing explicit queues between components allows them to communicate asyn‐ chronously, making them simpler to manage independently and freeing up computa‐ tional resources. Use the core.async library to introduce and coordinate asynchronous channels. To follow along with this recipe, start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try org.clojure/core.async Consider the following passage illustrating a synchronous approach. (defn database-consumer "Accept messages and persist them to a database." [msg] (println (format "database-consumer received message %s" msg))) (defn sse-consumer "Accept messages and pass them to web browsers via SSE." [msg] (println (format "sse-consumer received message %s" msg))) (defn messages "Fetch messages from Twitter." 3.11. Decoupling Consumers and Producers with core.async | 147 [] (range 4)) (defn message-producer "Produce messages and deliver them to consumers." [& consumers] (doseq [msg (messages) consumer consumers] (consumer msg))) (message-producer database-consumer sse-consumer) ;; *out* ;; database-consumer received message 0 ;; sse -consumer received message 0 ;; database-consumer received message 1 ;; sse-consumer received message 1 ;; database-consumer received message 2 ;; sse-consumer received message 2 ;; database-consumer received message 3 ;; sse-consumer received message 3 Each message received is passed directly to each consumer of message-producer. As implemented, this approach is rather brittle; any slow consumer could cause the entire pipeline to grind to a halt. To make processing asynchronous, introduce explicit queues with clo jure.core.async/chan. Perform work asynchronously by wrapping it in one of core.async’s clojure.core.async/go forms. (require '[clojure.core.async :refer [chan sliding-buffer go go-loop timeout >! ! out msg)))) (producer (database-consumer) (sse-consumer)) ;; *out* ;; database-consumer received data 0 ;; sse-consumer received data 0 ;; database-consumer received data 1 ;; sse-consumer received data 1 ;; database-consumer received data 2 ;; sse-consumer received data 2 ;; database-consumer received data 3 ;; sse-consumer received data 3 Discussion This code is larger than the original implementation. What has this afforded us? The original approach was rigid. It offered no control over consumer latency and was therefore extremely vulnerable to lag. By buffering communication over channels and doing work asynchronously, we’ve created service boundaries around producers and consumers, allowing them to operate as independently as possible. There comes a time in all good programs when components or subsystems must stop communicating directly with one another. — Rich Hickey Clojure core.async Channels Let’s examine one of the new consumers in depth to understand how it has changed. Instead of receiving messages via function invocation, consumers now draw messages from a buffered channel. Where a consumer (e.g. database-consumer) used to consume a single message at a time, it now uses a go-loop to continuously consume messages from its producer. In traditional callback-oriented code, accomplishing something like this would require splitting logic out across numerous functions, introducing “callback hell.” One of the benefits of core.async is that it lets you write code inline, in a more straight-forward style. 3.11. Decoupling Consumers and Producers with core.async | 149 (defn database-consumer "Accept messages and persist them to a database." [] (let [in (chan (sliding-buffer 64))] ; (go-loop [data (! out item)))) ; For each message and channel… take from a timeout channel to simulate a short pause for effect, and put a message onto the channel with >!. 150 | Chapter 3: General Computing Although the operations are asynchronous, they still occur serially. Using unbuffered consumer channels would mean if one of the consumers takes from the channel too slowly, the pipeline would stall; the producer would not be able to put further values onto the channels. See Also • core.async has more advanced facilities for layout and coordination of channels. For more details, see the core.async overview. • Recipe 5.8 to see how to use core.async to communicate over ZeroMQ. 3.12. Make a Parser for Clojure Expressions Using core.match by Chris Frisz Problem You want to parse Clojure expressions, say, from the input to a macro, into a different representation (like maps). For this example, consider a heavily simplified version of Clojure that consists of the following expression types: • A variable represented by a valid Clojure symbol • A fn expression that accepts a single argument and whose body is also a valid expression • Application of a valid expression in the language to another valid expression You can represent this language by the following grammar: Expr = var | (fn [var] Expr) | (Expr Expr) Solution Use core.match to pattern match over the input and return the expression represented as maps of maps. Before starting, add [org.clojure/core.match "0.2.0"] to your project’s dependen‐ cies, or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try org.clojure/core.match 3.12. Make a Parser for Clojure Expressions Using core.match | 151 Now, codify the language’s grammar using clojure.core.match/match. (require '[clojure.core.match :refer (match)]) (defn simple-clojure-parser [expr] (match [expr] [(var :guard symbol?)] {:variable var} [(['fn [arg] body] :seq)] {:closure {:arg arg :body (simple-clojure-parser body)}} [([operator operand] :seq)] {:application {:operator (simple-clojure-parser operator) :operand (simple-clojure-parser operand)}} :else (throw (Exception. (str "invalid expression: " expr))))) (simple-clojure-parser 'a) ;; -> {:variable a} (simple-clojure-parser '(fn [x] x)) ;; -> {:closure {:arg x, :body {:variable x}}} (simple-clojure-parser '((fn [x] x) a)) ;; -> {:application ;; {:operator {:closure {:arg x, :body {:variable x}}} ;; :operand {:variable a}}} ;; fn expression can only have one argument! (simple-clojure-parser '(fn [x y] x)) ;; -> Exception invalid expression: (fn [x y] x) ... Discussion A match statement in core.match is made up of two basic parts. The first part is a vector of vars to be matched. In our example, this is [expr]. This vector isn’t limited to a single entry, it can contain as many items-to-match as you would like. The next part is a variable list of question-answer pairs. A question is a vector representing the shape the vars vector must take. Like cond, an answer is what will be returned should vars satisfy a question. Questions take a variety of forms in core.match. Here are explanations of the samples from above. The first match pattern, [(var :guard symbol?)], matches the variable case of our syntax, binding the matched expression to var. The special :guard form applies the predicate symbol? to var, only returning the answer if symbol? returns true. 152 | Chapter 3: General Computing 3. The match pattern for fn could (and should) include a guard on the arg to ensure that it’s a symbol, but that’s elided it here for brevity. The second pattern, [(['fn [arg] body] :seq)], matches the fn case 3. Note the special ([...] :seq) syntax for matching over lists, used here to represent a fn ex‐ pression. Also notice that to match on the literal fn, it had to be quoted in the match pattern. Interestingly, since the body expression should also be accepted by this parser, it makes a self-recursive call, (simple-clojure-parser body), in the right-hand side of the match pattern. For the third :application pattern, the parser again matches on a list using the ([...] :seq) syntax. Like the body of the fn expression, both the operator and operand expressions should be accepted by the parser, so it make a recursive call for each one. Finally, the parser throws an exception if the given expression doesn’t match any of the three accepted patterns. This gives a somewhat more helpful error message if you ac‐ cidentally hand the parser a malformed expression. Writing your parser this way gives you succinct code that closely resembles the target input. Alternatively, you could write it using conditional expressions (if or cond) and explicitly destructure the input. To illustrate the difference in length and clarity of the code, consider this function that only parses the fn expressions of the Clojure subset: (defn parse-fn [expr] (if (and (list? expr) (= (count expr) 3) (= (nth expr 0) 'fn) (vector? (nth expr 1)) (= (count (nth expr 1)) 1)) {:closure {:arg (nth (nth expr 1) 0) :body (simple-clojure-parser (nth expr 2))}} (throw (Exception. (str "unexpected non-fn expression: " expr))))) Notice how much more code this version needed in order to express the same properties about a fn expression? Not only did the non-match version require more code, but the if test doesn’t resemble the structure of the expression the way the match pattern does. Further, match binds the matched input to the variable names in the match pattern automatically, saving you from having to let-bind them yourself or repeatedly write the same list access code (as shown with (nth expr) in parse-fn above). Needless to say, the match is much easier to read and maintain. 3.12. Make a Parser for Clojure Expressions Using core.match | 153 See Also • The core.match wiki’s Overview page for a more broad view over all of the library’s capabilities. 3.13. Hierarchical Graph Querying with core.logic by Ryan Senior Problem You have a graph-like, hierarchical data structure, serialized as a flat list of nodes that you want to query. For example, you have a graph of movie metadata represented as entity-attribute-value triples. Writing this code with the standard seq functions has proven to be too tedious and error prone. Solution The core.logic library is a Clojure implementation of the miniKanren Domain Spe‐ cific Langauge for logic programming. It’s declarative style is well suited for querying flattened hierarchical data. To follow along with this recipe, start a REPL using lein-try: lein try org.clojure/core.logic The first thing you need is a dataset to query. Consider, for example, that you have represented a graph of movie metadata as a list of tuples: (def movie-graph [;; The "Newmarket Films" studio [:a1 :type :FilmStudio] [:a1 :name "Newmarket Films"] [:a1 :filmsCollection :a2] ;; Collection of films made by Newmarket Films [:a2 :type :FilmCollection] [:a2 :film :a3] [:a2 :film :a6] ;; The movie "Memento" [:a3 :type :Film] [:a3 :name "Memento"] [:a3 :cast :a4] ;; Connects the film to it's cast (actors/director/producer etc) [:a4 :type :FilmCast] [:a4 :director :a5] 154 | Chapter 3: General Computing 4. Oh my! ;; The director of "Memento" [:a5 :type :Person] [:a5 :name "Christopher Nolan"] ;; The movie "The Usual Suspects" [:a6 :type :Film] [:a6 :filmName "The Usual Suspects"] [:a6 :cast :a7] ;; Connects the film to its cast (actors/director/producer etc) [:a7 :type :FilmCast] [:a7 :director :a8] ;; The director of "The Usual Suspects" [:a8 :type :Person] [:a8 :name "Bryan Singer"]]) With all of this data in hand, how would you go about querying it? In an imperative model, you would likely arduously “connect the dots” from node to node using filters, maps and conditionals 4. With core.logic, however, it is possible to connect these dots using declarative logic statements. For example, to answer the question: “which directors have made movies at a given studio,” create a number of dots (logic variables) using clojure.core.logic/fresh and connect (ground) them using clojure.core.logic/membero. Finally, invoke clo jure.core.logic/run* to obtain all of the possible solutions. (require '[clojure.core.logic :as cl]) (defn directors-at "Find all of the directors that have directed at a given studio" [graph studio-name] (cl/run* [director-name] (cl/fresh [studio film-coll film cast director] ;; Relate the original studio-name to a film collection (cl/membero [studio :name studio-name] graph) (cl/membero [studio :type :FilmStudio] graph) (cl/membero [studio :filmsCollection film-coll] graph) ;; Relate any film collections to their individual films (cl/membero [film-coll :type :FilmCollection] graph) (cl/membero [film-coll :film film] graph) ;; Then from film to cast members (cl/membero [film :type :Film] graph) (cl/membero [film :cast cast] graph) 3.13. Hierarchical Graph Querying with core.logic | 155 ;; Grounding to cast members of type :director (cl/membero [cast :type :FilmCast] graph) (cl/membero [cast :director director] graph) ;; Finally, attach to the director-name (cl/membero [director :type :Person] graph) (cl/membero [director :name director-name] graph)))) (directors-at movie-graph "Newmarket Films") ;; -> ("Christopher Nolan" "Bryan Singer") Discussion miniKanren is a Domain Specific Language written in Scheme, intended to give many of the benefits of a logic programming language (such as Prolog) from within Scheme. An implementation of miniKanren was created by David Nolen for Clojure, with a focus on performance. One of the benefits of logic programming languages is their very de‐ clarative style. By using core.logic we are able to say what we are looking for in the graph without saying how core.logic should go about finding it. In general, all core.logic queries begin with one of the library’s run macros; clo jure.core.logic/run returning a finite number of solutions, and clojure.core.log ic/run* returning all of the solutions. The first argument to the run macro is the goal, a variable used to store the result of the query. In the solution above, this was the director-name variable. The rest is the body of the core.logic program. A program is made up logic_variables (created using clo jure.core.logic/fresh) grounded to values or constrained by logic statements. run is a clue that our programming paradigm is changing to logic programming. In a core.logic program, unification is used rather than traditional variable assignment and seqential expression evaluation. Unification uses substitution of values for variables in an attempt to make two expressions syntactically identical. Statements in a core.log ic program can appear in any order. For example, you can use clojure.core.logic/== to unify 1 and q: (cl/run 1 [q] (cl/== 1 q)) ;; -> (1) (cl/run 1 [q] (cl/== q 1)) ;; -> (1) core.logic is also able to unify the contents of lists and vectors, finding the right sub‐ stitution to make both expressions the same: (cl/run 1 [q] (cl/== [1 2 3] 156 | Chapter 3: General Computing [1 2 q])) ;; -> (3) (cl/run 1 [q] (cl/== ["foo" "bar" "baz"] [q "bar" "baz"])) ;; -> ("foo") Technically speaking, unification is a relation, relating the first form with the second form. This is a kind of puzzle for core.logic to solve. In the above example, q is a logic variable and core.logic is charged with binding a value to q such that the left and the right side of the unification (the clojure.core.logic/== relation) are syntactically identical. When there is no binding that satisfies the puzzle, no solution exists: ;; There is no way a single value is both 1 AND 2 (cl/run 1 [q] (cl/== 1 q) (cl/== 2 q)) ;; -> () fresh is one way to create more logic variables: (cl/run 1 [q] (cl/fresh [x y z] (cl/== x 1) (cl/== y 2) (cl/== z 3) (cl/== q [x y z]))) ;; -> ([1 2 3]) Just as clojure.core.logic/== is a relation between two forms, clojure.core.logic/ membero is a relation between an element in a list and the list itself: (cl/run 1 [q] (cl/membero q [1])) ;; -> (1) (cl/run 1 [q] (cl/membero 1 q)) ;; -> ((1 . _0)) The first example is asking for any member of the list [1], which happens to only be 1. The second example is the opposite, any list where 1 is a member. The dot notation indicates an improper tail with _0 in it. This means 1 could be in a list by itself or 1 could be followed by any other sequence of numbers/strings/lists etc. _0 is an unbound vari‐ able, since there was no further restriction on the list, other than 1 being an element. clojure.core.logic/run* is a macro that asks for all possible solu‐ tions. Asking for all of the lists that contain a 1 will not terminate. 3.13. Hierarchical Graph Querying with core.logic | 157 Unification can peek inside structures with clojure.core.logic/membero as well: (cl/run 1 [q] (cl/membero [1 q 3] [[1 2 3] [4 5 6] [7 8 9]])) ;; -> (2) Logic variables live for the duration of the program, making it possible to use the same logic variable in multiple statements: (let [seq-a [["foo" 1 2] ["bar" 3 4] ["baz" 5 6]] seq-b [["foo" 9 8] ["bar" 7 6] ["baz" 5 4]]] (cl/run 1 [q] (cl/fresh [first-item middle-item last-a last-b] (cl/membero [first-item middle-item last-a] seq-a) (cl/membero [first-item middle-item last-b] seq-b) (cl/== q [last-a last-b])))) ;; -> ([6 4]) The example above does not specify first-item, only that it should be the same for seq-a and seq-b. core.logic uses the data provided to bind values to the variable that satisfy the constraints. The same is true with middle-item. Building up from this, we can traverse the graph described in the solution. (cl/run 1 [director-name] (cl/fresh [studio film-coll film cast director] (cl/membero [studio :name "Newmarket Films"] graph) (cl/membero [studio :type :FilmStudio] graph) (cl/membero [studio :filmsCollection film-coll] graph) (cl/membero [film-coll :type :FilmCollection] graph) (cl/membero [film-coll :film film] graph) (cl/membero [film :type :Film] graph) (cl/membero [film :cast cast] graph) (cl/membero [cast :type :FilmCast] graph) (cl/membero [cast :director director] graph) (cl/membero [director :type :Person] graph) (cl/membero [director :name director-name] graph))) ;; -> ("Christopher Nolan") There is one minor difference from the above code and the original solution. Rather than using clojure.core.logic/run*, asking for all solutions, clojure.core.logic/ run 1 was used. The program above has multiple answers to the query for a director at “Newmarket Films”. Asking for more answers will return more with no other code change. 158 | Chapter 3: General Computing Slight modifications to the query above can significantly change the results. Swapping “Newmarket Films” for a new fresh variable will return all directors, for all studios. A macro could also be created to reduce some of the code duplication if desired. One benefit of the relational solution to this problem is being able to generate a graph from the values: (first (cl/run 1 [graph] (cl/fresh [studio film-coll film cast director] (cl/membero [studio :name "Newmarket Films"] graph) (cl/membero [studio :type :FilmStudio] graph) (cl/membero [studio :filmsCollection film-coll] graph) (cl/membero [film-coll :type :FilmCollection] graph) (cl/membero [film-coll :film film] graph) (cl/membero [film :type :Film] graph) (cl/membero [film :cast cast] graph) (cl/membero [cast :type :FilmCast] graph) (cl/membero [cast :director director] graph) (cl/membero [director :type :Person] graph) (cl/membero [director :name "Baz"] graph)))) ;; -> ([_0 :name "Newmarket Films"] [_0 :type :FilmStudio] [_0 :filmsCollection _1] ...) For small graphs, membero is fast enough. Larger graphs will experience performance problems as core.logic will traverse the list many times to find the elements. Using clojure.core.logic/to-stream with some basic indexing can greatly improve the query performance. See Also • The Reasoned Schemer - By Daniel P. Friedman, William E. Byrd and Oleg Kiselyov • The core.logic wiki • • The core.logic repository for examples of using clojure.core.logic/to-stream • core.match, a (non-unification) matching library with some similar ideas, de‐ scribed briefly in Recipe 3.12 3.13. Hierarchical Graph Querying with core.logic | 159 5. There are some additional installation concerns if you are running Overtone on Linux. See the Overtone wiki ( for more detailed installation instructions. 3.14. Playing a Nursery Rhyme by Chris Ford Problem You want to code a nursery rhyme to inspire your children to take up programming. Solution Use Overtone to bring the song to life. Before starting, add [overtone "0.8.1"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try 5: $ lein try overtone To start, define the melody for any old children’s song. (require '[ :as overtone]) (defn note [timing pitch] {:time timing :pitch pitch}) (def melody (let [pitches [0 0 0 1 2 ; Row, row, row your boat, 2 1 2 3 4 ; Gently down the stream, 7 7 7 4 4 4 2 2 2 0 0 0 ; (take 4 (repeat "merrily")) 4 3 2 1 0] ; Life is but a dream! durations [1 1 2/3 1/3 1 2/3 1/3 2/3 1/3 2 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 1/3 2/3 1/3 2] times (reductions + 0 durations)] (map note times pitches))) melody ;; -> ({:time 0, :pitch 0} ; Row, ;; {:time 1, :pitch 0} ; row, ;; {:time 2, :pitch 0} ; row ;; {:time 8/3, :pitch 1} ; your 160 | Chapter 3: General Computing ;; {:time 3N, :pitch 2} ; boat ;; ...) Convert the piece into specific key by transforming each note’s pitch using a function that represents the key. (defn where [k f notes] (map #(update-in % [k] f) notes)) (defn scale [intervals] (fn [degree] (apply + (take degree intervals)))) (def major (scale [2 2 1 2 2 2 1])) (defn from [n] (partial + n)) (def A (from 69)) (->> melody (where :pitch (comp A major))) ;; -> ({:time 0, :pitch 69} ; Row, ;; {:time 1, :pitch 69} ; row, ;; ...) Convert the piece into a specific tempo by transforming each note’s time using a function that represents the tempo. (defn bpm [beats] (fn [beat] (/ (* beat 60 1000) beats))) (->> melody (where :time (comp (from (overtone/now)) (bpm 90)))) ;; -> ({:time 1383316072169, :pitch 0} ;; {:time 4149948218507/3, :pitch 0} ;; ...) Define an instrument and use it to play the melody. The following example synthesized instrument is a simple sine wave, whose amplitude and duration is controlled by an envelope. (require '[ :refer [definst line sin-osc FREE midi->hz at]]) (definst beep [freq 440] (let [envelope (line 1 0 0.5 :action FREE)] (* envelope (sin-osc freq)))) (defn play [notes] (doseq [{ms :time midi :pitch} notes] (at ms (beep (midi->hz midi))))) ;; Make sure your speakers are on... (->> melody (where :pitch (comp A major)) (where :time (comp (from (overtone/now)) (bpm 90))) play) ;; -> 3.14. Playing a Nursery Rhyme | 161 If your nursery rhyme is a round, like “Row, row, row your boat”, you can use it to accompany itself. (defn round [beats notes] (concat notes (->> notes (where :time (from beats))))) (->> melody (round 4) (where :pitch (comp A major)) (where :time (comp (from (overtone/now)) (bpm 90))) play) Discussion A note is a sound of a particular pitch that occurs at a particular time. A song is a series of notes. We can therefore simply represent music in Clojure as a sequence of time/pitch pairs. This representation is structurally very similar to Western music notation, where each dot on a stave has a time and a pitch determined by its horizontal and vertical position. But unlike traditional music notation, the Clojure representation can be manipulated by functional programming techniques. Pieces of Western music, like “Row, row, row your boat” aren’t composed of arbitrary pitches. Within a given melody, the notes are typically confined to a subset of all possible pitches called a “scale.” The approach taken here is to express the pitches by an integer denoting where they appear in the scale, called a “degree”. So, for example, degree 0 signifies the first pitch of the scale and degree 4 signifies the fifth note of the scale. This simplifies the description of the melody, because we don’t have to worry about inadvertently specifying pitches that are outside our chosen scale. They also allow us to vary our chosen scale without having to rewrite the melody. To work with degrees, we need a function that translates a degree into the actual pitch. Since “Row, row, row your boat” is in a major scale, we need a function that represents such a scale. We use the observation that in a major scale, there is a regular pattern of double and single spaces between adjacent pitches (known to musicians as tones and semi-tones). We define a function called major that accepts a degree out outputs the number of semi- tones it represents. Our pitches still aren’t quite right, because they’re relative to the lowest note of the piece. We need to establish a musical reference point that we will use to interpret our degrees. 162 | Chapter 3: General Computing Concert A is conventionally used as a reference point by orchestras, so we use it as our musical zero. In other words, we will put “Row, row, row your boat” into A major. Now a degree of 0 means “A”. Note that we can simply compose together our functions for major and for A to arrive at a composite A major function. We need to do a similar transformation for time. Each note’s time is expressed in beats, but we need it to be in milliseconds. We use the current system time as our temporal reference point, meaning that the piece will start from now (and not at the start of the Unix epoch!). “Row, row, row your boat” is a round, meaning it harmonizes if sung as an accompa‐ niment to itself, offset by a particular number of beats. As an extra flourish, we produce a second version of the melody that starts four beats after the first. We encourage you to experiment with the tune, perhaps by varying the speed or using a different key (hint: a minor key has the following pattern of tones and semitones [2 1 2 2 1 2 2 ]). We also encourage you to think about how this approach to modelling a series of events can be applied to other domains. The idea of expressing a time-series as a sequence and then applying transformations across that series is a simple, flexible and composable way of describing a problem. Music is a wonderful and moving thing. It’s also incredibly well-suited to being modelled in a functional programming language. We hope your children agree. See also • Overtone, a music environment for Clojure. 3.14. Playing a Nursery Rhyme | 163 CHAPTER 4 Local IO 4.0. Introduction We’ve done a lot of work in the last few chapters, but clearly, the rubber has to meet the road somewhere. How did we get all of this data in to our Clojure programs, and more importantly, how do we get it out? This chapter is all about input and output to a local computer—the primary place where most application’s data hits the road, so to speak. There are a variety of modes and mediums for communicating with a local machine. What do we communicate with, in what way, and what format? It’s a little like the classic board game Clue: was it plain-text, in the console, with command-line arguments; or Clojure data, in a file, as configuration data? In this chapter we’ll explore files, formats and applications of both GUI and console flavors, to name a few. While it isn’t possible for us to enumerate every possible combination, it is our hope that this chapter will give you a strong idea of what is possible. Handily enough, most good solutions in Clojure compose; you should have little trouble sticking together any number of recipes in this chapter to suit your needs. Console 4.1. Writing to STDOUT and STDERR by Alan Busby Problem You want to write to STDOUT and STDERR. 165 Solution By default, the print and println functions will print content passed to them to STDOUT. (println "This text will be printed to STDOUT.") ;; *out* ;; This text will be printed to STDOUT.\n (do (print "a") (print "b")) ;; *out* ;; ab Change the binding of *out* to *err* to print to STDERR instead of STDOUT. (binding [*out* *err*] (println "Blew up!")) ;; *err* ;; Blew up!\n Discussion In Clojure, the dynamic binding vars *out* and *err* are bound to your application environment’s built-in STDOUT and STDERR streams, respectively. All of the printing functions in Clojure, print and println utilize the *out* binding as the destination to write to. Consequently, you can re-bind that var to *err* (using binding) to change the destination of print messages from STDOUT to STDERR. Other printing functions include: pr, prn, printf and a handful of others. The bound value of *out* is not restricted to operating system streams; *out* can be any stream-like object. This makes print functions powerful tools, they can be used to write to files, sockets or any other pipes you desire. The built-in function clo is a versatile constructor for output streams. ;; Create a writer to file foo.txt and print to it. (def foo-file ( "foo.txt")) (binding [*out* foo-file] (println "Foo, bar.")) ;; Nothing is printed to *out*. ;; And of course, close the file (.close foo-file) See Also • pr’s documentation and source to get a better idea how *out*-based printing works. 166 | Chapter 4: Local IO 1. •’s documentation for more information on creating writ‐ ers. 4.2. Read a Single Keystroke From the Console by John Jacobsen Problem Console input via stdin is normally buffered by lines; you want to read a single, un‐ buffered keystroke from the console. Solution Use ConsoleReader from the JLine 1 library, a Java library for handling console input. JLine is similar to BSD editline and GNU readline. To follow along with this recipe, create a new library using the command lein new keystroke. Inside project.clj, add [jline "2.11"] to the :dependencies vector. Inside the src/keystroke/core.clj file, use ConsoleReader to read characters from the terminal. src/keystroke/core.clj. (ns keystroke.core (:import [jline.console ConsoleReader])) (defn show-keystroke [] (print "Enter a keystroke: ") (flush) (let [cr (ConsoleReader.) keyint (.readCharacter cr)] (println (format "Got %d ('%c')!" keyint (char keyint))))) Discussion As in most languages, console IO in Java is buffered; flush writes the initial prompt to the standard output stream. However, input is buffered as well by default. The JLine library provides a ConsoleReader object, whose readCharacter method lets you avoid the input buffering. Beware, however, of testing show-keystroke at the REPL: 4.2. Read a Single Keystroke From the Console | 167 $ lein repl user=> (require '[keystroke.core :refer [show-keystroke]]) user=> (show-keystroke) Enter a keystroke: ;; HANGS! In order to connect the console’s input correctly to the REPL, use lein trampoline repl ( below means user types the letter r): $ lein trampoline repl user=> (require '[keystroke.core :refer [show-keystroke]]) user=> (show-keystroke) Enter a keystroke: Got 114 ('r')! nil user=> lein trampoline is necessary because, by default, a Leiningen REPL actually runs the REPL and its associated console I/O in a separate JVM process from your application code. Using the trampoline option forces Leiningen to run your code in the same process as the REPL, “trampolining " control back and forth. Normally this is invisible, but it is a problem when running code that itself is attempting to use the console directly. When running your program outside the REPL (as you typically would be, with a command-line application written in Clojure), this is not an issue. See Also • If you want a richer terminal-based interface similar to what the C curses library provides, the clojure-lanterna library may be a good place to start. 4.3. Executing System Commands by Mark Whelan and Ryan Neufeld Problem You want to send a command to the underlying operating system and get its output. Solution Use the clj-commons-exec library to run shell commands on your local system. To follow along, start a repl using lein-try: $ lein try org.clojars.hozumi/clj-commons-exec "1.0.6" 168 | Chapter 4: Local IO Invoking the clj-commons-exec/exec function with a command will return a promise, eventually delivering a map of the command’s output, exit status, and any errors that occured available via the :out, :exit and :err keys, respectively. (require '[clj-commons-exec :as exec]) (def p (exec/sh ["date"])) (deref p) ;; -> {:exit 0, :out "Sun Dec 1 19:43:49 EST 2013\n", :err nil} If your command requires options or arguments, simply append them to the command vector as strings: @(exec/sh ["ls" "-l" "/etc/passwd"]) ;; -> {:exit 0 :out "-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 4962 May 27 07:54 /etc/passwd\n" :err nil} @(exec/sh ["ls" "-l" "nosuchfile"]) ;; -> {:exit 1 :out nil :err "ls: nosuchfile: No such file or directory\n" :exception #} Discussion Up until this point, we’ve neglected to mention that functionality equivalent to exec/sh already exists in Clojure-proper (as Now that the cat is out of the bag, it must be asked: why use a library over a built-in? Simple: clj-commons- exec is a functional veneer over the excellent Apache Commons Exec library, providing capabilities like “piping” not available in To pipe data through multiple commands, use the clj-commons-exec/sh-pipe func‐ tion. Just as with regular unix pipes, pairs of commands will have their STDOUT and STDIN streams bound to each other. The API of sh-pipe is nearly identically to sh, the only notable exception being you will pass more than one command to sh-pipe. The return value of sh-pipe is a list of promises that fulfill as each sub-command completes execution. (def results (exec/sh-pipe ["cat"] ["wc" "-w"] {:in "Hello, world!"})) results ;; -> (# #) @(last results) ;; -> {:exit 0, :out " 2\n", :err nil} 4.3. Executing System Commands | 169 Like any reasonable shell-process library, clj-commons-exec allows you to configure the environment in which your commands execute. To control the execution environ‐ ment of either sh or sh-pipe, specify options in a map as the final argument to either function. The :dir option controls the path on which a command executes. (println (:out @(exec/sh ["ls"] {:dir "/"}))) ;; *out* Applications Library # ... usr var The :env and :add-env options control the environment variables available to the ex‐ ecuting command. :add-env amends variables to the existing set of environment vari‐ ables, while :env replaces the existing set with a completely new one. Each option is a map of variable names to values, like {"USER" "jeff"}. @(exec/sh ["printenv" "HOME"]) ;; -> {:exit 0, :out "/Users/ryan\n", :err nil} @(exec/sh ["printenv" "HOME"] {:env {}}) ;; -> {:exit 1, :out nil, :err nil, :exception #} @(exec/sh ["printenv" "HOME"] {:env {"HOME" "/Users/jeff"}}) ;; -> {:exit 0, :out "/Users/jeff\n", :err nil} There are a number of other options available in sh and sh-pipe: :watchdog The time in number of seconds to await a commands executing before terminating it. :shutdown A flag indicating that sub-processes should be destroyed when the VM exits. :as-success and :as-successes An integer or sequence of integers that will be considered successful exit codes, respectively. :result-handler-fn A custom function to be used to handle results. If you initiate long-running sub-processes inside of a -main function, your application will hang until those processes complete. If it isn’t desirable forcibly terminate your application by invoking (System/ exit) directly at the end of your -main function. Additionally, set the option :shutdown to true for any sub-processes to ensure you leave your system tidy and free of rogue processes. 170 | Chapter 4: Local IO To check if a sub-process has returned without waiting for it to finish, invoke the realized? function on the promise returned by sh. (This is especially useful for mon‐ itoring the progress of the sequence of promises returned by sh-pipe.) ;; Any old long-running command (def p (exec/sh ["sleep" "5"])) (realized? p) ;; -> false ;; A few seconds later... (realized? p) ;; -> true See Also • If you don’t need piping or clj-common-execs advanced features, consider using Files 4.4. Accessing Resource Files by John Jacobsen with help from John Cromartie and Alex Petrov Problem You want to include a resource file from the classpath in your Clojure project. Solution Place resource files in the resources/ directory at the top level of your Leiningen project. To follow along with this recipe, create a new project with the command lein new people. For example, a file resources/people.edn: resources/people.edn. [{:first-name "John", :last-name "McCarthy", :language "Lisp"} {:first-name "Guido", :last-name "Van Rossum", :language "Python"} {:first-name "Rich", :last-name "Hickey", :language "Clojure"}] Pass the the name of the file (relative to the resources directory) to the clo function to obtain an instance of, which you can then read as you please (for example, using the slurp function). 4.4. Accessing Resource Files | 171 (require '[ :as io] '[clojure.edn :as edn]) (->> "people.edn" io/resource slurp edn/read-string (map :language)) ;; -> ("Lisp" "Python" "Clojure") Discussion Resources are commonly used to store any kind of file that is logically a part of your application, but is not code. Resources are loaded via the Java classpath, just like Clojure code is. Leiningen puts the resources/ directory on the classpath automatically whenever it starts a Java process, and when packaged, the contents of resources/ are copied to the root of any emitted JAR files. You can also specify an alternative (or additional) resource directories using the :resources-paths key in your project.clj. project.clj. :resource-paths ["my-resources" "src/other-resources"] Using classpath based resources is very convenient, but it does have its drawbacks. Be aware that in the context of a web application, any change to resources is likely to require a full redeployment, because they are included wholesale in the JAR or WAR file that will be deployed. Typically, this means it’s best to use resources only for items that really are completely static. For example, though it’s possible to place your appli‐ cation’s configuration files in the resources directory and load them from there, to do so is really to make them part of your application’s source code, which rather defeats the point. You may wish to load that kind of (relatively) frequently changing resource in a known file system location and load from there instead, rather than using the classpath. Also, there are sometimes additional reasons to not serve from the classpath. For ex‐ ample, consider static images on a website. If you place them in your web application’s classpath, then they will be served by your application server container (Jetty, Tomcat, JBoss, etc.) Typically, these applications are optimized for serving dynamic HTML re‐ sources, not larger binary blobs. Serving larger static files is often more suited to the HTTP server level of your architecture than the application server level, and should be delegated to Apache, Nginx or whatever other HTTP server you’re using. Or, you might even want to split them off and serve them via a seperate mechanism entirely, such as a CDN (content delivery network). In either case, it is difficult to set up the HTTP server 172 | Chapter 4: Local IO or CDN to introspect resources inside of your application’s JAR file - it’s usually better to store them elsewhere, from the start. See Also • The Leiningen sample.project.clj, which includes a more detailed description of how the :resource-paths option works. • Recipe 4.14 4.5. Copying Files by Stefan Karlsson Problem You need to copy a file on your local file system. Solution Invoke, passing it the source and destination files. ( ( "./file-to-copy.txt") ( "./my-new-copy.txt")) ;; -> nil If the input file is not found a will be thrown. ( ( "./file-do-not-exist.txt") ( "./my-new-copy.txt")) ;; -> The input argument to copy doesn’t have to be a file; it can be an InputStream, a Reader, a byte array or a string. This makes it easier to copy the data you are working with directly to the output file. ( "some text" ( "./str-test.txt")) ;; -> nil If required, an encoding can be specified by the :encoding option. ( "some text" ( "./str-test.txt") :encoding "UTF-8") 4.5. Copying Files | 173 Discussion Note that if the file already exists, it will be overwritten. If that is not what you want, you can put together a “safe” copy function that will catch any exceptions and optionally overwrite. (defn safe-copy [source-path destination-path & opts] (let [source ( source-path) destination ( destination-path) options (merge {:overwrite false} (apply hash-map opts))] (if (and (.exists source) (or (:overwrite options) (= false (.exists destination)))) (try (= nil ( source destination)) (catch Exception e (str "exception: " (.getMessage e)))) false))) (safe-copy "./file-to-copy.txt" "./my-new-copy.txt") ;; -> true (safe-copy "./file-to-copy.txt" "./my-new-copy.txt") ;; -> false (safe-copy "./file-to-copy.txt" "./my-new-copy.txt" :overwrite true) ;; -> true The safe-copy function take the source and destination file path to copy. It also take a number of key/value pairs as options. These options are then merged with the default values. In this example there is only one option, the :overwrite but with this structure for optional arguments you can easily add your own (such as :encoding if needed). After the options have been processed, the function check if the destination file exists, and if so if it should be overwritten. If all is ok it will then perform the copy inside a try-catch body. Note the equality check against nil for when the file is copied. If you add this you will always get a boolean value from the function. This makes the function more convenient to use, since you can then conditionally check if the operation succeed or not. You can also use with a and a er as well as with streams. (with-open [reader ( "file-to-copy.txt") writer ( "my-new-copy.txt")] ( reader writer)) The same efficiency considerations that apply to reading and writing to a file in regards to selecting input and output sources from File, Reader, Writer or streams should be applied to copy. See Recipe 4.9 for more information. 174 | Chapter 4: Local IO By default a buffer size of 1024 bytes is used when calling copy. That is the amount of data that will be read from the source and written to the destination in one pass. This is done until the complete source has been copied. The buffer size used can be changed with the :buffer-size option. Keeping this number low would cause more file access operations but would keep less data in memory. On the other hand increasing the buffer- size will lower the number of file accesses but will require more data to be loaded into memory. See Also •’s API Documentation. 4.6. Deleting Files or Directories by Stefan Karlsson Problem You need to delete a file from your local file system. Solution Use to delete the file. ( "./file-to-delete.txt") ;; -> true If trying to delete a file that do not exist, a will be thrown. ( "./file-that-do-not-exist.txt") ;; -> Couldn't delete If you do not want delete-file to throw exceptions when the given file could not be deleted for whatever reason, you can add the silently flag set to true to the arguments. ( "./file-that-do-not-exist.txt" true) ;; -> true Discussion For times when you want to do some custom handling of the eventual exceptions thrown, you should put the call to delete-file inside a try-catch body. (try ( "./file-that-do-not-exist.txt") (catch Exception e (str "exception: " (.getMessage e)))) ;; -> "exception: Couldn't delete ./file-that-do-not-exist.txt" 4.6. Deleting Files or Directories | 175 has an .exists property that simply gives you a boolean answer whether a file exists or not. You can put this property together with a try-catch body to get a “safe” delete utility function. This function will first check to see if the file with the path from the argument do exist before trying to delete it. (defn safe-delete [file-path] (if (.exists ( file-path)) (try ( file-path) (catch Exception e (str "exception: " (.getMessage e)))) false)) (safe-delete "./file-that-do-not-exist.txt") ;; -> false (safe-delete "./file-to-delete.txt") ;; -> true The function can also be used to delete directories. Directories must be empty for the deletion to be successful. So any utility function you make to delete a directory must first delete all files in the given directory. ( "./dir-to-delete") ;; -> false (defn delete-directory [directory-path] (let [directory-contents (file-seq ( directory-path)) files-to-delete (filter #(.isFile %) directory-contents)] (doseq [file files-to-delete] (safe-delete (.getPath file))) (safe-delete directory-path))) (delete-directory "./dir-to-delete") ;; -> true The delete-directory function will get a file-seq with the contents of the given path. It will then filter to only get the files of that directory. The next step is to delete all the files and then finish up by deleting the directory itself. Note the call to doall. If you do not call doall the deletion of the files would be lazy and then the files would still exist when the call to delete the actual directory is made, which would then fail. See Also •’s API Documentation. • Recipe 4.7 for more details on using a file-seq to get the files from a directory. 176 | Chapter 4: Local IO 4.7. Listing Files in a Directory originally submitted by Stefan Karlsson Problem Given a directory, you want to access the files inside Solution Call the built-in file-seq function to return a lazy sequence of objects. To follow along with this recipe, create some sample files and folders using these commands (on Linux or Mac): $ mkdir -p next-gen $ touch next-gen/picard.jpg next-gen/locutus.bmp next-gen/data.txt (def tng-dir (file-seq ( "./next-gen"))) tng-dir ;; -> (# ;; # ;; # ;; #) Discussion Sequences are one of Clojure’s more powerful abstractions; treating a directory hierar‐ chy as a squence allows you to leverage functions like map and filter to manipulate files and directories. Consider, for example, the case where you would like to select only files in a directory hierarchy (and not directories). You can define such a function by taking a sequence of files and directories and filtering them by the .isFile property of ob‐ jects. (defn only-files "Filter a sequence of files/directories by the .isFile property of" [file-s] (filter #(.isFile %) file-s)) (only-files tng-dir) ;; -> (# ;; # ;; #) 4.7. Listing Files in a Directory | 177 What if you wanted display the string-names of all those files? Define a names function to map the .getName property over a sequence of files, combining only-files and names to get a list of file names in a directory. (defn names "Return the .getName property of a sequence of files" [file-s] (map #(.getName %) file-s)) (-> tng-dir only-files names) ;; -> ("data.txt" "locutus.bmp" "picard.jpg") See Also • The documentation for the File class for a complete list of properties and methods available on File objects. • Combine these techniques with utility libraries like Google Guava’s Files class or Apache Commons FilenameUtils class to exert even greater leverage over the file sequence abstraction. 4.8. Memory-mapping a File by Alan Busby Problem You want to use memory-mapping to access a large file as though it were fully loaded into memory, without actually loading the whole thing. Solution Use the clj-mmap library, which wraps the memory mapping functionality provided by Java’s NIO library. Before starting, add [clj-mmap "1.1.2"] to your project’s dependen‐ cies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try clj-mmap (require '[clj-mmap :as mmap]) To read the first and last N bytes of UTF-8 encoded text file, use the get-bytes function: (with-open [file (mmap/get-mmap "/path/to/file/file.txt")] (let [n-bytes 10 178 | Chapter 4: Local IO file-size (.size file) first-n-bytes (mmap/get-bytes file 0 n-bytes) last-n-bytes (mmap/get-bytes file (- file-size n-bytes) n-bytes)] [(String. first-n-bytes "UTF-8") (String. last-n-bytes "UTF-8")])) To overwrite the first N bytes of a text file, call put-bytes: (with-open [file (mmap/get-mmap "/path/to/file/file.txt")] (let [bytes-to-write (.getBytes "New text goes here" "UTF-8") file-size (.size file)] (if (> file-size (alength bytes-to-write)) (mmap/put-bytes file bytes-to-write 0)))) Discussion Memory-mapping, or mmap per the POSIX standard, is a method to leverage the op‐ erating system’s virtual memory to perform file IO. By mapping the file into the appli‐ cations memory space, copying between buffers is reduced, and I/O performance is increased. Memory-mapped files are especially useful when working with large files, structured binary data, or text files where Java’s String overhead may be unwelcome. While Clojure makes it simple to work with Java’s NIO primitives directly, NIO makes working with files larger than 2GB especially difficult. clj-mmap wraps this complexity, but at the same time doesn’t expose all the features that NIO does. The NIO Java api is still available via interop, should it be needed. See Also • The mmap Wikipedia article. • The clj-mmap GitHub repository. 4.9. Reading and Writing Text Files by Stefan Karlsson Problem You need to read or write a text file to the local filesystem. Solution Write a string to a file with the built in spit function. 4.9. Reading and Writing Text Files | 179 (spit "stuff.txt" "my stuff") Read the contents of a file with the built in slurp function. (slurp "stuff.txt") ;; -> "all my stuff" If required, an encoding can be specified with the :encoding option. (slurp "stuff.txt" :encoding "UTF-8") ;; -> "all my stuff" Append data to an existing file using the :append true option to spit. (spit "stuff.txt" "even more stuff" :append true) To read a file line-by-line, instead of loading the entire contents into memory at once, use a together with the line-seq function. (with-open [r ( "stuff.txt")] (doseq [line (line-seq r)] (println line))) To write a large amount of data to a file without realizing it all as a string, use a (with-open [w ( "stuff.txt")] (doseq [line some-large-seq-of-strings] (.write w line) (.newLine w))) Discussion When using :append, text will be appended to the end of the file. Use newlines at the end of each line by appending "\n" to the string to be printed. All lines in a text file should end with a newline including the last one. (defn spitn "Append to file with newline" [path text] (spit path (str text "\n") :append true) When used with strings, spit and slurp deal with the entire contents of a file at a time, and close the file after reading or writing. If you need to read or write a lot of data, it is more efficient (in terms of both memory and time) to use a streaming API such as or, since they do not require realizing the contents of the file in memory. When using writers and streams, however, it is important to flush any writes to the underlying stream in order to ensure your data is actually written and resources are cleaned up. The with-open macro flushes and closes the stream specified in its binding after executing its body. 180 | Chapter 4: Local IO Be especially aware that any lazy sequences based on a stream will throw an error if the underlying stream is closed before the sequence is realized. Even when using with-open, it is possible to return an unrealized lazy sequence; the with-open macro has no way of know‐ ing that the stream is still needed, and so will close it anyway, leaving a sequence that cannot be realized. Generally, it is best to not let lazy sequences based on streams escape the scope in which the stream is open. If you do, you must be extremely careful that the resources required for the realization of a lazy sequence are still open as long as the sequence has any readers. Typically, the latter approach involves manually tracking which streams are still open rather than relying on a try/finally or with-open block. See Also • Recipe 4.14 • The documentation for and] and er. 4.10. Using Temporary Files by Alan Busby Problem You want to use a temporary file on the local file system. Solution Use the static method createTempFile of Java’s built-in clas to create a temporary file in the default temporary-file directory of the JVM, with the provided prefix and suffix. (def my-temp-file ( "filename" ".txt")) You can then write to the temporary file like you would to any other instance of (with-open [file ( my-temp-file)] (binding [*out* file] (println "Example output."))) 4.10. Using Temporary Files | 181 Discussion Temporary files are often quite useful to interact with other programs that prefer a file- based API. Using createTempFile is important to ensure that temporary files are placed in an appropriate location on the file system, which can differ based on the operating system being used. To get the full path and filename for the created temporary file: (.getAbsolutePath my-temp-file) You can use the File.deleteOnExit method to mark the temporary file to be deleted automatically when the JVM exits. (.deleteOnExit my-temp-file) Note that the file is not actually deleted until the JVM terminates, and may not be deleted if the process crashes or exits abnormally. It is good practice to delete the temp files immediately when they are no longer being used: (.delete my-temp-file) See Also • The API Documentation. 4.11. Reading and Writing Files at Arbitrary Positions by John Jacobsen Problem You want to read data from a file, or write data to it, at various locations, rather than sequentially. Solution To open a (potentially very large) file for random access, use Java’s RandomAccessFile, and seek to the location you desire. Then, use the various write methods to write data at that location. For example, to make a 1 GB file filled with zeros except the integer 1234 at the end, (import '[ RandomAccessFile]) (doto (RandomAccessFile. "/tmp/longfile" "rw") (.seek (* 1000 1000 1000)) 182 | Chapter 4: Local IO (.writeInt 1234) (.close)) The length of a “normal” Java file object shows that the file is the correct size: (require '[ :refer [file]]) (.length (file "/tmp/longfile")) ;; -> 1000000004 (You can also call length of a RandomAccessFile directly.) Reading the value back from the proper location in Clojure is quite similar to writing. Again we seek a RandomAccessFile. Then use the appropriate read method. (let [raf (RandomAccessFile. "/tmp/longfile" "r") _ (.seek raf (* 1000 1000 1000)) result (.readInt raf)] (.close raf) result) ;; -> 1234 Discussion Files written in this way are populated by zeros by default and may be treated as “sparse files” by the JVM implementation and the underlying operating system, leading to extra efficiency in reading and writing. Examining the file using the Unix od program to do a hex dump from the command line shows that the file consists of zeros with our 1234 at the end: $ od -Ad -tx4 /tmp/longfile 0000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 * 1000000000 d2040000 1000000004 At byte offset 1000000000 can be seen the value d2040000, which is the hex represen‐ tation of a big-endian integer with the value 1234. (Java integers are big-endian by default. This means that the highest order bytes are stored at the lowest addresses.) See Also • Recipe 4.14 for information on reading entire files. • documentation • The Unix od command 4.11. Reading and Writing Files at Arbitrary Positions | 183 4.12. Parallelizing File Processing by Edmund Jackson Problem You want to transform a text file, line-by-line but using all cores and without loading it into memory. Solution A quick win using pmap over a sequence returned by line-seq. (require [' :as 'jio]) (defn pmap-file "Process input-file in a parallel, applying processing-fn to each row outputting into output-file" [processing-fn input-file output-file] (with-open [rdr (jio/reader input-file) wtr (jio/writer output-file)] (let [lines (line-seq rdr)] (dorun (map #(.write wtr %) (pmap processing-fn lines)))))) ;; Example of calling this (def accumulator (atom 0)) (defn- example-row-fn "Trivial example" [row-string] (str row-string "," (swap! accumulator inc) "\n")) ;; Call it (pmap-file example-row-fn "input.txt" "output.txt") Discussion The key functions used in this example (beyond basic Clojure constructs like map or dorun) are line-seq and pmap. line-seq, given an instance of (which reader returns), will return a lazy sequence of strings. Each string is a line in the input file. What constitutes a newline for the purposes of line-splitting is deterimined by the line.separator JVM option, which will be set in a platform-specific way. Specifically, it will be a carriage return character followed by a line feed character in Windows, and a single newline character in Unix-derived systems such as Linux or OS X. 184 | Chapter 4: Local IO pmap functions identically to map, and applies a function to each item in a sequence, returning a lazy sequence of return values. The difference is that as it applies the mapping function, it does so in a separate thread for each item in the collection (up to a certain fixed number of threads related to the number of CPUs on your system.) Threads re‐ alizing the sequence will block if the values are not ready yet. pmap can yield substantial performance improvements by distributing work across multiple CPU cores and performing it concurrently, but it isn’t a magic bullet. Specifi‐ cally, it incurs a certain amount of coordination overhead to schedule the multithreaded operations. Typically, it gives the most benefit when performing very heavyweight op‐ erations, where the mapping function is so computationally expensive that it makes the coordination overhead worth it. For simple functions that complete very quickly (such as basic operations on primitives), the coordination overhead is likely to be much larger than any performance gains, and pmap will actually be much slower than map in that case. The idea is to use pmap to map over the sequence of file rows in parallel. However, you then need to pass each processed row through (map #(.write wtr %) …) in order to ensure the rows are written one-at-a-time (put the write in the processing function to see what happens otherwise!). Finally, as these are lazy sequences we need to realise their side-effects before exiting the with-open block or the file will be closed by the time we wish to evaluate them. This is accomplished by calling dorun. There are couple of caveats here. Firstly, although the row ordering of the output file will match that of the input, the execution order is not guaranteed. Secondly, the process will become IO bound quite quickly as all the writes happen on one thread, so you may not get the speedup you expect unless the processing function is substantial. Finally, pmap is not perfectly efficient at allocating work, so the degree of speedup you see might not correspond exactly to the number of processors on your system, as you might expect. Another drawback to the pmap approach is that the actual reading of the file is serialized, using a single Considerable gains can still be realized if the processing task is expensive compared to reading, but in lightweight tasks the bottleneck is likely to be reading the file itself, in which case parallelizing the processing work will give little to no gains in terms of total runtime (or even make it worse). See Also • Recipe 4.13 for a similar approach which parallelizes reading the file itself using memory mapping (as well as using Clojure Reducers for greater efficiency). 4.12. Parallelizing File Processing | 185 4.13. Parallelizing File Processing with Reducers by Edmund Jackson Problem You want to use Clojure’s reducers on a file to realize parallel processing without loading the file into memory. Solution Use the Iota library in conjunction with the filter, map and fold functions from the Clojure Reducers library in the clojure.core.reducers namespace. To follow along with this recipe, add [iota "1.1.1"] to your project’s dependencies, or start a REPL with lein-try: $ lein try iota To count the words in a very large file, for example: (require '[iota :as io] '[clojure.core.reducers :as r] '[clojure.string :as str]) ;; word counting functions (defn count-map "Returns a map of words to occurence count in the given string" [s] (reduce (fn [m w] (update-in m [w] (fnil (partial inc) 0))) {} (str/split s #" "))) (defn add-maps "Returns a map where each key is the sum of vals of that key in m1 and m2." ([] {}) ;; Necessary base-case for use as combiner in fold ([m1 m2] (reduce (fn [m [k v]] (update-in m [k] (fnil (partial + v) 0))) m1 m2))) ;; Main file processing (defn keyword-count "Returns a map of the word counts" [filename] (->> (iota/seq filename) (r/filter identity) (r/map count-map) (r/fold add-maps))) 186 | Chapter 4: Local IO 2. For more information, see the Java tutorial on Fork/Join and work stealing. Discussion The Iota library creates sequences from files on the local file system. Unlike the purely sequential lazy sequences produced from something like file-seq, the sequences re‐ turned by Iota are optimized for use with Clojure’s reducers library, which uses the Java Fork/Join work stealing framework 2 under the hood to provide efficient parallel pro‐ cessing. The keyword-count function first creates a reducible sequence of lines in the file and filters out blank lines (using the identity function to eliminate nil values from the sequence). Then, it applies the count-map function in parallel, and finally aggregates the results by folding with the add-maps function. r/filter and r/map function exactly the same as their non-reducer counterparts; the only difference is one of performance, and how the Reducers library is able to break down and combine operations. They also return Reducible sequences, that can be uti‐ lized efficiently by other operations from the Reducers library. r/fold is the core function of the Reducers library, and in its basic form is functionally very similar to the built in reduce function. Given a function and a reducible collection, it returns a value that is the result of applying the folding function to each item in the collection and an accumulator value. Unlike normal reduce, however, there is no guaranteed execution order, which is why fold doesn’t take a single “starting” value as an argument. It wouldn’t make sense, given that the computation can “start” in several places at once, concurrently. This means that the function passed to fold (when passed a single function) must also be capable of taking zero arguments - the result of the no-arg invocation of the provided will be used as the seed value for each branch of the computation. If you need more flexibility than this provides, fold allows you to specify both a re duce function and a combine function, as seperate arguments. Exactly what these do is inextricably tied with how Reducers themselves work, so a full explanation is beyond the scope of this recipe. See the documentation for the fold function and the informa‐ tion linked from the reducers page on Clojure’s website for more information. About Reducers Reducers is a parallel execution framework for extremely efficient parallel processing. A full explanation of how reducers work is beyond the scope of this recipe (see the blog post introducing reducers for a comprehensive treatment.) In short, however, reducers provide performance by two means: 4.13. Parallelizing File Processing with Reducers | 187 1. They can compose operations. Wherever logically possible, the reducers framework will collapse composable operations into a single operation. For example, the above code performs a filter and then a map. Clojure’s standard filter and map would realize an intermediate sequence; filter would produce a sequence that would then be fed to map. The reducer versions, however, can compose themselves (if possible) to produce a single map+filter operation that can be applied in one shot. 2. They exploit the internal tree-like data structures of the data being reduced. Reguar sequences are inherently sequential (no surprise), and because their performant operation is to pull items from the beginning one at a time, it’s difficult to efficiently distribute work across their members. However, Reducers is aware of the internal structure of Clojure’s persistent data structures and can leverate that to efficiently distribute worker processes across the data. Under the hood, Iota uses the Java NIO libraries to provide a memory mapped view of the file being processed, that provides efficient random access. Iota is also aware of the Reducers framework, and Iota sequences are structured in such a way that Reducers can effictively distribute worker processes across them. See Also • The iota GitHub repository. • NIO’s documentation. Clojure data + edn 4.14. Reading and Writing Clojure Data by John Cromartie Problem You need to store and retrieve Clojure data structures on disk. Solution Use pr-str and spit to serialize small amounts of data. (spit "data.clj" (pr-str [:a :b :c])) Use read-string and slurp to read small amounts of data. (read-string (slurp "data.clj")) ;; -> [:a :b :c] Use pr to efficiently write large data structures to a stream. 188 | Chapter 4: Local IO (with-open [w ( "data.clj")] (binding [*out* w] (pr large-data-structure))) Use read to efficiently read large data structures from a stream. (with-open [r ( ( "data.clj"))] (binding [*read-eval* false] (read r))) Discussion This is very similar to local-io/read-write-files, I am trying to harmonize the differences --JC The fact that “code is data” in Clojure, and that you have runtime access to the same reader the language uses to load source code from files makes this a relatively simple task. However, while this is often a good way to persist data to disk, you should be aware of a few issues. Reading, Security & EDN The read function is only appropriate for reading data from trusted sources. This is because the Clojure reader is not designed nor guaranteed to be safe or free from side- effects. Binding *read-eval* to false is just a small safeguard. If you need to read Clojure data structures from untrusted sources, i.e. anything you did not write yourself, then see the clojure.edn library. EDN (Extensible Data Notation) is a specification of Clojure’s data structure serialization format with multiple implementations, so it can be used as a transport and persistence format and consumed from programs written in any language, much like XML or JSON. The clojure.edn library is EDNs implementation for Clojure. It works much the same as the Clojure reader and writer, however, it provides additional security guaranteess that the Clojure reader does not, and should always be used for any external or untrusted input. The simple case of slurp and spit becomes unusable when the data is very large, because it creates a very large string in memory all at once. For instance: serializing one million random numbers (created with rand) results in an 18MB file, and consumes much more memory than that while reading or writing. user=> (spit "data.clj" (pr-str (repeatedly 1e6 rand))) OutOfMemoryError Java heap space java.util.Arrays.copyOf ( 4.14. Reading and Writing Clojure Data | 189 3. See Recipe 4.9 for notes on managing streams. But, if you know you are only dealing with a small amount of data, this approach is perfectly suitable. It is a good way to load configuration data and other types of simple structures. Reading and writing from streams is far more efficient, because it buffers input and output, dealing with data a few bytes at a time 3. In addition to reading and writing a single data structure in a file, you can also append additional data structures to the same file and read them back as a sequence later. (spit "data.clj" (prn-str [1 2 3])) (spit "data.clj" (prn-str [:a :b :c]) :append true) ;; data.clj now contains two serialized structures This is useful for appending small amounts of data to a file over time, such as for an event or transaction log. However read-string will not suffice for reading multiple objects from a single string. To read a series of objects from a stream, you must continue to call read until it has reached the end. (defn- read-one [r] (try (read r) (catch java.lang.RuntimeException e (if (= "EOF while reading" (.getMessage e)) ::EOF (throw e))))) (defn read-seq-from-file "Reads a sequence of top-level objects in file at path." [path] (with-open [r ( ( path))] (binding [*read-eval* false] (doall (take-while #(not= ::EOF %) (repeatedly #(read-one r))))))) See Also • Recipe 4.4 • Recipe 4.15 • Recipe 4.17 190 | Chapter 4: Local IO 4.15. Using edn for Configuration Files by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to configure your application using Clojure-like data literals. Solution Use Clojure data structures stored in edn files to define a map that contains configuration items you care about. For example, the edn configuration of an application that needs to know its own host‐ name and connection info for a relational database might look something like this: config.edn. {:hostname "localhost" :database {:host "my.db.server" :port 5432 :name "my-app" :user "root" :password "s00p3rs3cr3t"}} The basic function to read this data into a Clojure map is trivial using the edn reader. (require '[clojure.edn :as edn]) (defn load-config "Given a filename, load & return a config file" [filename] (edn/read-string (slurp filename))) Invoking the newly-defined load-config function will now return a configuration map that you can pass around and use in your application as you would any other map. Discussion As can be seen from the above code, the basic process for obtaining a map containing configuration data is extremely trivial. A more interesting question is what to do with the config map once you have it, and there are two general schools of thought regarding the answer. The first group prioritizes ease of development by making the configuration map am‐ biently available thoughtought the entire application. Usually this involves setting a global var to contain the configuration. However, this is problematic for a number of reasons. First, it becomes more difficult to override the default configuration file in alternate contexts, such as tests, or running 4.15. Using edn for Configuration Files | 191 two differently configured systems in the same JVM. (This can be worked around by using thread-local bindings, but this can lead to messy code fairly rapidly.) More importantly, using a global configuration means that any function that reads the config (most functions, in a sizeable application) cannot be pure. In Clojure, that is a lot to give up. One of the main benefits of pure Clojure code is its local transparency; the behavior of a function can be determined solely by looking at its arguments and its code. If every function reads a global variable, however, this becomes much more dif‐ ficult. The alternative is to explicitly pass around the config everywhere it is needed, like you would every other argument. Since a config file is usually supplied at application start, the config is usually established in the -main function and passed wherever else it is needed. This sounds painful, and indeed it can be somewhat annoying to pass an extra argument to every function. Doing so, however, lends the code a large degree of self- documentation; it becomes extremely evident what parts of the application rely on the config, and what parts do not. It also makes it more straightforward to modify the config at runtime or supply an alternative config in testing scenarios. Using multiple config files A common pattern when configuring an application is to have a number of different classes of configuration items. Some config fields are more or less constants, and don’t vary between instances of the application in the same environment. These are often committed to source control along with the application’s source code. Other config items are fairly constant, but can’t be checked in to source control due to security concerns. Examples of this include database passwords or secure API tokens, and ideally these are put into a seperate config file. Still other configuration fields (such as IP addresses) will often be completely different for every instance of a deployed application, and the desire is to specify those seperately from the more constant config fields. A useful technique to handle this heterogeneity is to use multiple configuration files, each handling a different type of concern, and then merge them into a single configu‐ ration map before passing it on to the application. This typically uses a simple deep- merge function: (defn deep-merge "Deep merge two maps" [& values] (if (every? map? values) (apply merge-with deep-merge values) (last values))) 192 | Chapter 4: Local IO 4. To follow along, create your own project with lein new my-great-app This will merge two maps, merging values as well if they are all maps. If values are not all maps, the second one “wins” and is used in the resulting map. Then, you can rewrite the config loader to accept multiple config files, and merge them together: (defn load-config [& filenames] (reduce deep-merge (map (comp edn/read-string slurp) filenames))) Using it on two seperate edn config files yields a merged map: config-public.edn. {:hostname "localhost" :database {:host "my.db.server" :port 5432 :name "my-app" :user "root"}} config-private.edn. {:database {:password "s3cr3t"}} (load-config "config-public.edn" "config-private.edn") ;; -> {:hostname "localhost", :database {:password "s3cr3t", ;; :host "my.db.server", :port 5432, :name "my-app", :user "root"}} Be aware that any values present in both configuration files will be overridden by the “rightmost” file passed to load-config. Different configurations for different environments If your system runs in multiple environments you may want to vary your configuration based on the current running environment. For example, you may want to connect to a local database while developing your system, but a production database when running your system in production. You can use Leiningen’s profiles feature to achieve this end. By providing different :resource-paths options for each profile in your project’s configuration, you can vary which configuration file is read per environment 4. project.clj. (defproject my-great-app "0.1.0-SNAPSHOT" {;; ... :profiles {:dev {:resource-paths ["resources/dev"]} :prod {:resource-paths ["resources/prod"]}}}) 4.15. Using edn for Configuration Files | 193 With a project configuration similar to the above, you can then create two different configurations with the same base file name: resources/dev/config.edn and resources/ prod/config.edn. resource/dev/config.edn. {:database-host "localhost"} resources/prod/config.edn. {:database-host ""} If you’re following along on your own, add the load-config function to one of your project’s namespaces. src/my_great_app/core.clj. (ns my-great-app.core (:require [clojure.edn :as edn])) (defn load-config "Given a filename, load & return a config file" [filename] (edn/read-string (slurp filename))) Now, the configuration your application loads will depend on which profile your project is running in. # "dev" is one of Leiningen's default profiles $ lein repl user=> (require '[my-great-app.core :refer [load-config]]) user=> (load-config ( "config.edn")) {:database-host "localhost"} user=> (exit) $ lein trampoline with-profile prod repl user=> (require '[my-great-app.core :refer [load-config]]) user=> (load-config ( "config.edn")) {:database-host ""} See Also • Recipe 4.4 • Recipe 4.16 • Recipe 4.17 • Leiningen Profiles 194 | Chapter 4: Local IO 4.16. Emitting Records as edn values submitted by Steve Miner Problem You want to use Clojure records as edn values, but the edn format doesn’t support re‐ cords. Solution You can use the tagged library to read and print records as edn tagged literal values. Before starting, add [com.velisco/tagged "0.3.0"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try com.velisco/tagged To extend Clojure’s built-in print-method multimethod to print records in a “tagged” format, extend print-method for that record with the miner.tagged/pr-tagged- record-on helper function. (require '[miner.tagged :as tag]) (defrecord SimpleRecord [a]) (def forty-two (->SimpleRecord 42)) (pr-str forty-two) ;; -> "#user.SimpleRecord{:a 42}" ;; Sadly, not a proper edn value (defmethod print-method user.SimpleRecord [this w] (tag/pr-tagged-record-on this w)) (pr-str forty-two) ;; -> "#user/SimpleRecord {:a 42}" At this point, you can round-trip your records between pr-str and miner.tagged/ read-string using the edn tagged literal format. (tag/read-string (pr-str forty-two)) ;; -> #user/SimpleRecord {:a 42} (= forty-two (tag/read-string (pr-str forty-two))) ;; -> true The edn reader still doesn’t understand how to parse these tagged values, though. To enable this behavior, use miner.tagged/tagged-default-reader as the :default op‐ tion when reading values with edn. 4.16. Emitting Records as edn values | 195 (require '[clojure.edn :as edn]) (edn/read-string {:default tag/tagged-default-reader} (pr-str {:my-record forty-two})) ;; -> {:my-record #user/SimpleRecord {:a 42}} Discussion The edn format is great, it covers a useful subset of the Clojure datatypes and makes high-fidelity data transfer a breeze, unfortunately it doesn’t support records. This is easy enough to rectify, however; edn is an extensible format by name, we just need to provide tag-style printing (#tag ) and an appropriate reader. The tagged library makes both of these tasks quite easy. As seen in the samples above, Clojure’s default printed value for records is close, but not quite the tagged-format edn expects. Where Clojure prints "#user.SimpleRecord{:a 42}" for a SimpleRecord, what is really needed for edn is a tag-style string like ""#user/ SimpleRecord {:a 42}". The miner.tagged/pr-tagged-record-on function under‐ stands how to write records in this format (to a By extending Clojure’s print-method multimethod with this function you ensure Clojure always prints a re‐ cord in a tagged-format. For reading these values back in, you need to tell the edn reader how to parse your new record tags. By design, the tagged library provides a miner.tagged/tagged-default- reader function that can be used to extend edn to read your record tags. When the edn reader can’t parse a tag it attempts to use a function specified by its :default option to re-hydrate tags. By providing the tagged-default-reader as this :default option you allow the edn reader to properly interpet your tagged record values. See Also • For more information on the :default option, see Recipe 4.17. • edn: extensible data notation 4.17. Handling Unknown Tagged Literals when Reading Clojure Data by Steve Miner Problem You want to read Clojure data (in an edn format) that may contain unknown tagged literals. 196 | Chapter 4: Local IO Solution Use the :default option of either clojure.edn/read or clojure.edn/read-string. (require 'clojure.edn) (defrecord TaggedValue [tag value]) (defn read-preserving-unknown-tags [s] (clojure.edn/read-string {:default ->TaggedValue} s)) (read-preserving-unknown-tags "#my.example/unknown 42") ;; -> #user.TaggedValue{:tag my.example/unknown, :value 42} Discussion The edn format defines a print representation for a significant subset of Clojure data‐ types and offers extensibility through tagged literals. The best way to read edn data is to use clojure.edn/read or clojure.edn/read-string. These functions consume edn-formatted data from a stream or string, respectively, and return hydrated Clojure data. Both functions take an opts map, which allow you to control several options when reading. For tags you know about ahead of time, you can define custom readers by supplying a :readers map. This map can also be used to override the behavior of built- in types as defined by clojure.core/default-data-readers. ;; Creating a custom reader (clojure.edn/read-string {:readers {'inc-this inc}} "#inc-this 1") ;; -> 2 ;; Overriding a built-in reader ;; Before.. (clojure.edn/read-string "#inst \"2013-06-08T01:00:00Z\"") ;; -> #inst "2013-06-08T01:00:00.000-00:00" ;; And after... (clojure.edn/read-string {:readers {'inst str}} "#inst \"2013-06-08T01:00:00Z\"") ;; -> "2013-06-08T01:00:00Z" The :default option, as explored in the solution, is ideal for handling unknown tags. Whenever an unknown tag and value are encountered, the function you provide will be called with two arguments, the tag and its value. When a :default is not provided to read, reading an unknown tag will throw a Runti meException. 4.17. Handling Unknown Tagged Literals when Reading Clojure Data | 197 5. This is actually a feature, they’re functions used by the language to, well, execute code. (clojure.edn/read-string "#blow-up boom") ;; -> RuntimeException No reader function for tag blow-up ... For most applications, reading an unknown tag is an error, so an exception would be appropriate. However, it may sometimes be useful to preserve the “unknowns,” perhaps for a another stage of processing. It’s trivial to leverage the factory function defined by defrecord to capture the unknown reader literal. The order of the arguments for the factory of TaggedValue conveniently matches the specification of the :default data-reader. The TaggedValue record preserves the essential information for later use. Since all of the inbound information has been preserved, you can even print the value again in the original tagged literal format. (defmethod print-method TaggedValue [this ^ w] (.write w "#") (print-method (:tag this) w) (.write w " ") (print-method (:value this) w)) ;; Now, the TaggedValue will `pr` as the original tagged literal (read-preserving-unknown-tags "#my.example/unknown 42") ;; -> #my.example/unknown 42 clojure.core/read The edn reader hasn’t always existed, you know. It used to be that if you wanted to read Clojure data you would use one of the two built-in reader functions, clojure.core/ read and clojure.core/read-string. The purpose of these two functions is to read code or data from trusted sources. Because these functions can execute code 5 you should never (ever) use the clo jure.core readers to read from untrusted sources. This means user data, remote servers (even your own) or pretty much anywhere else for that matter. (We’re being a little extreme, of course, but we want you to be safe.) In the event that you do have a safe environment and absolutely need to evaluate some code, then by all means use the clojure.core readers. These readers do have a different interface for setting options than clojure.edn readers, though; instead of passing an opts you’ll need to change various dynamic bindings to adjust the readers behavior. For example, the *default-data-reader-fn* determines how the core functions deal with 198 | Chapter 4: Local IO 6. The Clojure mailing list thread ANN: NEVER use clojure.core/read or read-string for reading untrusted data talks more about the vulnerabilities with clojure.core readers unknown tags. See also, *data-readers* and *read-eval* for more information. That said, for reading data, it’s generally better to use the edn variants 6. See Also • edn: extensible data notation • Recipe 4.16 • Recipe 4.14 Specific Formats 4.18. Read Properties From a File by Tobias Bayer Problem You need to read a property file and access its key-value pairs. Solution The most straightforward way is to use the built in java.util.Properties class via Java interop. java.util.Properties implements java.util.Map, which can be easily consumed from Clojure, just as any other map is. Here is an example .properties file to load: banana=yellow grannysmith=green Populating an instance of Properties from a file is straightforward, using its load method and passing in an instance of obtained using the clo namespace. (require '[ :refer (reader)]) (def props (java.util.Properties.)) (.load props (reader "")) ;; -> nil 4.18. Read Properties From a File | 199 props ;; -> {"banana" "yellow", "grannysmith" "green"} Instead of using the built-in Properties api via interop, you could also use the proper tea library for simpler, more idiomatic Clojure access to property files. Include the [propertea "1.2.3"] dependency in your project.clj file, or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try propertea 1.2.3 Then read the property file and access its key-value pairs: (require '[propertea.core :refer (read-properties)]) (def props (read-properties "")) props ;; -> {:grannysmith "green, :banana "yellow"} (props :banana) ;; -> "yellow" Discussion Although using java.util.Properties directly is more straightforward and doesn’t require the addition of a dependency, propertea does provide some convenience. It returns an actual immutable Clojure map, instead of just a java.util.Map. Although both are perfectly usable from Clojure, an immutable map is probably preferable if you intend to do any further manipulation or updates on it. More importantly, propertea converts all string keys into keywords, which are more commonly used than strings as the keys of a map in Clojure. Additionally, propertea has several other features, such as the capability to parse values into numbers or booleans, and providing default values. By default, propertea’s read-properties function treats all property values as strings. You can force parsing to other types by specifying the type for a property. intkey=42 booleankey=true (def props (read-properties "" :parse-int [:intkey] :parse-boolean [:booleankey])) (props :intkey) ;; -> 42 200 | Chapter 4: Local IO (class (props :intkey)) ;; -> java.lang.Integer (props :booleankey) ;; -> true (class (props :booleankey)) ;; -> java.lang.Boolean Sometimes the property file might not contain a key value pair and you might want to set a reasonable default value in this case: (def props (read-properties "" :default [:otherkey "awesome"])) (props :otherkey) ;; -> "awesome" You can also be strict on required properties. If an expected property is missing in your properties file, you can throw an exception: (def props (read-properties "" :required [:otherkey])) ;; -> java.lang.RuntimeException: (:otherkey) are required ... See Also • The propertea documentation for more details. • The Properties documentation. 4.19. Reading and Writing Binary Files by John Jacobsen Problem You need to read or write some binary data. Solution Use Java’s BufferedInputStream, BufferedOutputStream and ByteBuffer classes to work directly with binary data. Discussion While reading and writing text files (e.g. via slurp and spit) is easy in pure Clojure, writing binary data requires a little more Java interop. 4.19. Reading and Writing Binary Files | 201 Clojure’s output-stream wraps the BufferedOutputStream Java object. BufferedOut putStream has a write method which accepts Java byte arrays. The following writes 1000 zeros (bytes) to /tmp/zeros: (require '[ :refer [file output-stream input-stream]]) (with-open [out (output-stream (file "/tmp/zeros"))] (.write out (byte-array 1000))) To read the bytes in again, use the corresponding input-stream function, which wraps BufferedInputStream: (with-open [in (input-stream (file "/tmp/zeros"))] (let [buf (byte-array 1000) n (.read in buf)] (println "Read" n "bytes."))) ;;=> Read 1000 bytes. Writing zeros and reading in fixed-length blocks is obviously not very interesting. We want to prepare our byte array with some actual content. A common way to prepare byte arrays is to use a ByteBuffer, filling it with data from various types. Let’s assume we want to write “strings” in the following format: 1. A version number (byte; 66 in our example) 2. A string length (big-endian int) 3. the bytes for the string (in this case, “hello world”) Then the following function will “pack” the bytes into an array using an intermediate ByteBuffer: (import '[java.nio ByteBuffer]) (defn prepare-string [strdata] (let [strlen (count strdata) version 66 buflen (+ 1 4 (count strdata)) bb (ByteBuffer/allocate buflen) buf (byte-array buflen)] (doto bb (.put (.byteValue version)) (.putInt (.intValue strlen)) (.put (.getBytes strdata)) (.flip) ;; Prepare bb for reading (.get buf)) buf)) (prepare-string "hello world") ;;=> # 202 | Chapter 4: Local IO (into [] (prepare-string "hello world")) ;;=> [66 0 0 0 11 104 101 108 108 111 32 119 111 114 108 100] Writing data in this format is then as simple as (with-open [out (output-stream "/tmp/mystring")] (.write out (prepare-string "hello world"))) To get the data back, ByteBuffer provides a way of unpacking multiple types out of a stream (array) of bytes: (defn unpack-buf [n buf] (let [bb (ByteBuffer/allocate n)] (.put bb buf 0 n) ;; Fill ByteBuffer with array contents (.flip bb) ;; Prepare for reading (let [version (.get bb 0)] (.position bb 1) ;; Skip version byte (let [buflen (.getInt bb) strbytes (byte-array buflen)] ;; Prepare buffer to hold string data... (.get bb strbytes) ;; ... and read it. [version buflen (apply str (map char strbytes))])))) (with-open [in (input-stream "/tmp/mystring")] (let [buf (byte-array 1024) n (.read in buf)] (unpack-buf n buf))) ;=> [66 11 "hello world"] Note that for both writing and reading, the flip operation on the ByteBuffer resets the position to the beginning of the buffer to prepare it for reading, and writing, re‐ spectively. See Also • For more details on ByteBuffer, which plays a key role in Java’s NIO library, see the Java NIO documentation, or Ron Hitchens, Java NIO ( product/ • The Clojure library, bytebuffer, which provides a thin, more idiomatic wrapper for ByteBuffer operations. • The more recent Buffy library provides a wrapper over the related Netty ByteBuff‐ ers. • Finally, the Gloss library provides a DSL for reading and writing binary streams of data (whether file-based, or network-based). 4.19. Reading and Writing Binary Files | 203 4.20. Reading and Writing CSV Data by Jason Whitlark Problem You need to read or write CSV data. Solution Use to lazily read CSV from a String or ( "this,is\na,test" ) ;; -> (["this" "is"] ["a" "test"]) (with-open [in-file ( "in-file.csv")] (doall ( in-file))) ;; -> (["this" "is"] ["a" "test"]) Use to write CSV data to (with-open [out-file ( "out.csv")] ( out-file [["this" "is"] ["a" "test"]])) ;; -> nil Discussion The library makes it easy to work with CSV. You need to remember that read-csv is lazy; if you want to force it read data immediately, you’ll need to wrap the call to read-csv in doall. When reading, you can change the separator and quote delimiters, which default to \, and \”, respectively. You must specify the delimiters using chars, not strings, though. (csv/read-csv "this$-is $-\na$test" :separator \$ :quote \-) ;; -> (["this" "is $"] ["a" "test"]) When writing, as with read-csv, you can configure the separator, quote, newline (be‐ tween :lf (default) and :cr+lf), and the quote? predicate function, which takes a collection, and returns true or false to indicate if the string representation needs to be quoted. (with-open [out-file ( "out.csv")] ( out-file [["this" "is"] ["a" "test"]] :separator \$ :quote \-)) ;; -> nil To capture CSV output as a string, use with-out-str and write to out. 204 | Chapter 4: Local IO (with-out-str (csv/write-csv *out* [["this" "is"] ["a" "test"]])) ;; -> "this,is\na,test\n" See Also • The GitHub repository. 4.21. Reading and Writing Compressed Files by John Cromartie Problem You want to read or write a file compressed with Gzip (i.e. a .gz file). Solution Wrap a normal input stream with to get uncom‐ pressed data. (with-open [in ( ( "file.txt.gz"))] (slurp in)) Wrap a normal output stream with to compress data as it is written. (with-open [w (-> "output.gz"] (binding [*out* w] (println "This will be compressed on disk."))) Discussion Gzip, based on the DEFLATE algorithm, is a common compression format on Unix- like systems, and is used extensively for compression on the web. It is a good choice for compressing text in particular, and can see huge reductions for source code, or Clojure or JSON data. Many of Clojure’s IO functions will accept any type of Java stream. The GZIPInput Stream simply “wraps” any other input stream and attempts to decompress the original stream. The output variant behaves similarly. 4.21. Reading and Writing Compressed Files | 205 By wrapping a normal input stream, as returned by, you can pass it to slurp or line-seq (or any other function that takes an input stream) and easily read the entire decompressed contents. You can also leverage this technique to read a large compressed file line-by-line, or to read back Clojure forms written with pr or pr-str. You can also decompress data in a similar way from any other kind of stream, e.g. one backed by a network socket or a byte array. By binding an output stream to *out* we can use println, pr, etc. to output small amounts of data at a time to the stream, which will be compressed on disk when the stream is closed. A nearly identical approach can be used for writing data in the ZIP compression format, using the and classes. See Also • Recipe 4.14 for information on reading Clojure data from files on disk. • The GZIPInputStream API Documentation. 4.22. Working with XML Data by Stefan Karlsson Problem You need to read or write XML data. Solution Pass a file to clojure.xml/parse to get a Clojure map representing the structure of an XML file. For example, when reading the following file: simple.xml. First Second (require '[clojure.xml :as xml]) (clojure.xml/parse ( "simple.xml")) 206 | Chapter 4: Local IO ;; -> {:tag :simple, :attrs nil, :content [ ;; {:tag :item, :attrs {:id "1"}, :content ["First"]} ;; {:tag :item, :attrs {:id "2"}, :content ["Second"]}]} If you want to read an XML as a sequence of nodes, pass the XML map to the xml- seq function from the clojure.core namespace. (xml/xml-seq (clojure.xml/parse ( "simple.xml"))) xml-seq returns a tree sequence of nodes; that is, a sequence of each node, starting at the root and then doing a depth-first walk of the rest of the document. To write an XML file, pass an XML structure map to clojure.xml/emit. emit spits the XML to the currently bound output stream (out), so to write to a file either bind out to the file’s output stream, or capture the output stream to a string with the with-out- str macro, which you can then spit to a file: (spit "test.xml" (with-out-str (clojure.xml/emit simple-xml-map))) Discussion To work with XML you can handle it as any other map. Here is an example of a function that, given an id and a file, will parse the file for nodes with an attribute id that is equal to the argument. (defn get-with-id [id xml-file] (for [node (xml-seq (clojure.xml/parse xml-file)) :when (= (get-in node [:attrs :id]) id)] (:content node))) (get-with-id "2" simple-xml) ;; -> (["Second"]) To modify XML, just use the normal map manipulation functions on the Clojure data representation. Additionally, if you are going to work a lot with your XML structure you might consider using a “zipper”. A zipper is a purely functional data structure useful for navigating and modifying tree-like structures (such as XML) in a convenient and efficient way. Zippers are a deep topic, and a full discussion is beyond the scope of this recipe, but see the documentation for the library for explanation and examples of how to use them effectively with XML. See also • Recipe 4.9 4.22. Working with XML Data | 207 • The namespace. 4.23. Reading and Writing JSON Data by Stefan Karlsson Problem You need to read or write JSON data. Solution Use the function to read a string of JSON as Clojure data. (require '[ :as json]) (json/read-str "[{\"name\":\"Stefan\",\"age\":32}]") ;; -> [{"name" "Stefan", "age" 32}] To write data back to JSON, use the function with the original Clojure data. (json/write-str [{"name" "Stefan", "age" 32}]) ;; -> "[{\"name\":\"Stefan\",\"age\":32}]" Discussion Beyond reading and writing strings, also provides the read and write functions to work with and objects, respec‐ tively. With the exception of their reader/writer parameters, these two functions share the same parameters and options as their string-brethren. (with-open [writer ( "foo.json")] (json/write [{:foo "bar"}] writer)) (with-open [reader ( "foo.json")] (json/read reader)) ;; -> [{"foo" "bar"}] By virtue of JavaScript’s simpler types, JSON notation has a much lower fidelity than Clojure data. As such, you may find you want tweak the way keys or values are interpeted. One common example of this is converting JSON’s string-only keys to proper Clojure keywords. You can apply a function to each processed key by using the :key-fn option. ;; Modifying keys on read 208 | Chapter 4: Local IO (json/read-str "{\"name\": \"Stefan\"}") ;; -> {"name" "Stefan"} (json/read-str "{\"name\": \"Stefan\"}" :key-fn keyword) ;; -> {:name "Stefan"} ;; Modifying keys on write (json/write-str {:name "Stefan"}) ;; -> "{\"name\":\"Stefan\"}" (json/write-str {:name "Stefan"} :key-fn str) ;; -> "{\":name\":\"Stefan\"}" ; Note the extra \: You may also want to control how values are interpeted. Use the :value-fn option to specify how values is read/written. The function you provide will be invoked with two arguments; a key and its value. ;; Properly read UUID values (defn str->uuid [key value] (if (= key :uuid) (java.util.UUID/fromString value) value)) ( "{\"name\": \"Stefan\", \"uuid\": \"51674ca0-eadc-4a5b-b9fb-67b05d5a71b7\"}" :key-fn keyword :value-fn str->uuid) ;; -> {:name "Stefan", :uuid #uuid "51674ca0-eadc-4a5b-b9fb-67b05d5a71b7"} ;; And similarly, write UUID values (defn uuid->str [key value] (if (= key :uuid) (str value) value)) ( {:name "Stefan", :uuid #uuid "51674ca0-eadc-4a5b-b9fb-67b05d5a71b7"} :value-fn uuid->str) ;; -> "{\"name\":\"Stefan\",\"uuid\":\"51674ca0-eadc-4a5b-b9fb-67b05d5a71b7\"}" As you may have inferred, when you use provide both a :key-fn and :value-fn, the value function will always be called after the key function. It might go without saying, but the :key-fn and :value-fn options can also be used with the write and read functions. See Also • Recipe 4.14 for information on reading/writing edn (Clojure) data. 4.23. Reading and Writing JSON Data | 209 • The API docs for for more information on read/write’s. Op‐ tions not covered in this recipe include :eof-error?, :eof-value and :bigdec on read and :escape-unicode and :escape-slash on write. 4.24. Generating PDF Files by Dmitri Sotnikov Problem You need to generate a PDF from some data. For example, you have a sequence of maps, such as those returned by a clo query, and you need to generate a PDF report. Solution Use the clj-pdf library to create the report. Before starting, add [clj-pdf "1.11.6"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try clj-pdf For the purpose of illustration, imagine we want to render a vector containing the fol‐ lowing employee records. (def employees [{:country "Germany", :place "Nuremberg", :occupation "Engineer", :name "Neil Chetty"} {:country "Germany", :place "Ulm", :occupation "Engineer", :name "Vera Ellison"}]) Create a template for rendering each record using the clj-pdf.core/template macro. (require '[clj-pdf.core :as pdf]) (def employee-template (pdf/template [:paragraph [:heading (.toUpperCase $name)] [:chunk {:style :bold} "occupation: "] $occupation "\n" [:chunk {:style :bold} "place: "] $place "\n" [:chunk {:style :bold} "country: "] $country [:spacer]])) 210 | Chapter 4: Local IO (employee-template employees) ;; -> ([:paragraph [:heading "NEIL CHETTY"] ;; [:chunk {:style :bold} "occupation: "] "Engineer" "\n" ;; [:chunk {:style :bold} "place: "] "Nuremberg" "\n" ;; [:chunk {:style :bold} "country: "] "Germany" [:spacer]] ;; [:paragraph [:heading "VERA ELLISON"] ;; [:chunk {:style :bold} "occupation: "] "Engineer" "\n" ;; [:chunk {:style :bold} "place: "] "Ulm" "\n" ;; [:chunk {:style :bold} "country: "] "Germany" ;; [:spacer]]) Use clj-pdf.core/pdf to create the PDF using the template and data from above. (pdf/pdf [{:title "Employee Table"} (employee-template employees)] "employees.pdf") You’ll find an employees.pdf in the directory you ran your project/REPL—it looks something like Figure 4-1: Figure 4-1. employees.pdf Discussion The clj-pdf library is built on top of iText and JFreeChart libraries. The templating syntax is inspired by the popular Hiccup HTML templating engine. In a template, $ is used to indicate places where dynamic content will be substituted. When populating a template from a map all substitution anchors ($name) are populated with the value of the corresponding keyword key in the map (the value of the :name key). Beyond substituting simple values, it is also possible to perform further processing on those values. The :heading portion of the employee-template does precisely this by calling (.toUpperCase $name). In clj-pdf, a document is represented by a vector containing a map of metadata fol‐ lowed by the content. The content can in turn consist of strings, vectors or collections of vectors. A very simple PDF. (pdf/pdf [{:title "Hello World"} "Hello, World."] "hello-world.pdf") Under the hood, collections of content are automatically expanded. 4.24. Generating PDF Files | 211 ;; This *collection* of paragraphs... (pdf [{} [[:paragraph "foo"] [:paragraph "bar"]]] "document.pdf") ;; is equivalent to these *individual* paragraphs (pdf [{} [:paragraph "foo"] [:paragraph "bar"]] "document.pdf") Apart from plain strings, each content element is represented as a vector. The first ele‐ ment of this vector is a keyword type, and everything that follows is the content itself. Some types clj-pdf includes: :paragraph, :phrase, :list and :table. [:heading "Lorem Ipsum"] [:line] [:list "first item" "second item" "third item"] [:paragraph "I'm a paragraph"] [:phrase "some text here"] [:table ["foo" "bar" "baz"] ["foo1" "bar1" "baz1"] ["foo2" "bar2" "baz2"]] Some elements accept optional styling metadata. You can provide this style information as a map immediately following the type parameter (the second item in the vector). [:paragraph {:style :bold} "this text is bold"] [:chunk {:style :bold :size 18 :family :helvetica :color [0 234 123]} "some large green text"] The contents of an element can consist of other elements (like an HTML document) and any style applied to a parent element will be inherited by the child elements: [:paragraph "some content"] [:paragraph {:style :bold} "Some bold text" [:phrase [:chunk "even more"] "bold text"]] Like CSS, child elements can augment or override their parent style’s by specifying their own styles. [:paragraph {:style :bold} "Bold words" [:phrase {:color [0 255 221]} "Bold AND teal!"]] Images can be embedded in the document using the :image element. Image content can be one of, java.awt.Image, a byte array, a base64 string, or a string 212 | Chapter 4: Local IO representing URL or a file. Images larger than the page margins will automatically be scaled to fit. [:image "my-image.jpg"] [:image ""] See Also • For more information on using clj-pdf, including a complete list of element types, charting capabilities, etc. see the clj-pdf GitHub repository. GUI 4.25. Making a GUI Window with Scrollable Text by John Jacobsen, originally submitted by John Walker Problem You want to create and display a GUI window. Solution Though Java’s Swing library is the most common way to make Java GUIs (at least on the desktop), the Seesaw library, which wraps Swing and provides a more idiomatic and functional interface, is the best tool for creating GUIs with Clojure. To follow along with this recipe, start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try seesaw Swing implements “programmable Look and Feel”: the appearance of various widgets, and their behavior, can be modified, though it is common to set this to match the plat‐ form one is on, for the sake of maximum usability. Setting the native Look and Feel is accomplished in Seesaw with the native! function: (require '[seesaw.core :refer [native! frame show! config! pack! text scrollable]]) (native!) ;; -> nil To create your window object, use frame (which, under the covers, makes a JFrame Swing object): (frame :title "Lyrical Clojure" :content "Hello World") ;; -> # Although a frame has been created, nothing appears. In order to actually display the frame, use show!: (def f (frame :title "Lyrical Clojure")) (show! f) ;; -> # Figure 4-2. A simple window Discussion Having created the window, you can set its size, add content, and add scrollbars, as follows. Adding Content You can change properties of the frame using config!: (config! f :content "Actual content!") ;; -> # Sizing the Window You can also specify the size of the window at time of creation: (def f (frame :title "Lyrical Clojure" :width 300 :height 150)) ;; -> # However, it is common to instead call pack! on the resulting frame object; this assigns width and height properties according to its content: 214 | Chapter 4: Local IO (-> f pack! show!) ;; -> # Figure 4-3. A window with basic content Adding Scrollable Content Now add some text, in the form of an excerpt from the sonnets of Shakespeare, to your window: (def sonnet-text (->> "" slurp (drop 20000) (take 4000) (apply str))) This content is too big to fit in the current window: (config! f :content sonnet-text) ;; -> # Figure 4-4. A window with more text than space 4.25. Making a GUI Window with Scrollable Text | 215 Normally, one would call pack! again to adjust the window size to the new content. However, the content will not fit comfortably on most screens, so set the size explicitly and add scrollbars: (.setSize f 400 400) (config! f :content (scrollable (text :multi-line? true :text sonnet-text :editable? false))) Figure 4-5. A larger window with a scroll bar The :multi-line? option to the text function selects JTextArea as the underlying object, rather than JTextField (JTextArea is used for multiline text; JTextField is for single-line text fields). :editable? specifies that you don’t want allow users to edit the text (since it is, perhaps, doubtful that they would improve upon Shakespeare’s original). 216 | Chapter 4: Local IO Like most of the Seesaw functions which create widgets, there are several more options to text, which are best learned about by studying the API documentation. As is always the case in Clojure, the Seesaw library functions return Java objects, which can be operated upon directly using Java methods; for example, our use of the .set Size method of the JFrame object returned by frame. This interoperability provides great power, but comes at the cost of a somewhat higher burden on programmers, who must navigate not only the Seesaw API but, frequently, some aspects of the underlying Swing API as well. Seesaw supports a wide variety of GUI tasks — creation of menus, display of text and images, scroll bars, radio buttons, check boxes, multi-paned windows, drag-and-drop, and much more. In addition to the dozen or so books which have been written about Swing, one could easily write an entire book on Seesaw. This recipe merely serves as a starting point for further investigation of the Seesaw library. See Also • The Seesaw GitHub repository. • J. Elliott et. al., “Java Swing, 2nd Ed.”, O’Reilly Media. 4.25. Making a GUI Window with Scrollable Text | 217 1. In fact, There’s Just No Getting around It: You’re Building a Distributed System. 2. As Australian songwriter Peter Allen so aptly put it: “Everything old is new again.” CHAPTER 5 Network IO & Web Services 5.0. Introduction More and more these days it seems like every system we build has to talk to something, somewhere 1. Like Chapter 4, we’d hardly be doing anything at all if we didn’t actually talk with some other computers over some kind of network. This chapter covers all of the normal remote communication modes you would expect —HTTP, TCP, UDP and the like—as well as some relative newcomers 2 like message- oriented architectures. 5.1. Making HTTP Requests by John Cromartie Problem You want to make a simple HTTP GET or POST request. Solution Use slurp to make simple HTTP GET requests. (slurp "") ;; -> "\n\n\n Example Domain ... 219 Use the clj-http library to make GET, POST, and other requests with specific param‐ eters or headers, to handle redirects and other special circumstances, or to get specific details about the response. To follow along, add [clj-http "0.7.7"] to your project’s dependencies, or use lein- try to start a REPL: $ lein try clj-http Use clj-http.client/get to make GET requests. (require '[clj-http.client :as http]) (:status (http/get "")) ;; -> 200 (-> (http/get "") :headers (get "server")) ;; -> "nginx" (-> (http/get "") :cookies keys) ;; -> ("session-id" "session-id-time" "x-wl-uid" "skin") Parameters can be included in both GET and POST requests. Use clj-http.client/ post to make POST requests. (http/get "" {:query-params {:q "clojure"}}) ;; -> {:status 200 ...} (http/post "" {:form-params {:username "joecoder" :password "il0v3clojure"}}) ;; -> {:status 200 ...} You can even use the :multipart option to upload files, as from a HTML form via a web browser. Discussion slurp works to make HTTP GET requests because its arguments are passed to clo, which in turn correctly handles opening URL strings. This is totally sufficient for issuing a quick HTTP GET to a well-behaved URL. Unfortunately, this is where slurp’s usefulness ends. Among other limitations, it will not behave cor‐ rectly for responses with HTTP redirects. clj-http is an extremely flexible Clojure wrapper around the very robust Apache HttpComponents library. 220 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services Its features include convenient functions for other HTTP verbs like PUT and DELETE, for reading and sending cookies, headers, and other request metadata, reading and writing data using streams, files, or byte arrays, and lots more. Refer to the GitHub repository to learn about the huge variety of options available and to see many more examples. If you’re building production systems that rely on external services, you may want to consider wrapping HTTP calls in Netflix’s Hystrix library to make your application more fault-tolerant and resilient. Hystrix provides Clojure Bindings that you can use to wrap network calls and more easily manage complex failure scenarios involving external services. See Also • clj-http’s GitHub repository. • For information on making asynchronous HTTP calls, see Recipe 5.2. • When building production systems that interact with external services, consider Hystrix and its Clojure bindings to wrangle complex failure scenarios. 5.2. Performing Asynchronous HTTP Requests by Alan Busby and Ryan Neufeld Problem You want to perform asynchronous HTTP requests. Solution Use HTTP Kit, a highly-performant event-driven HTTP client/server library. Before starting, add [http-kit "2.1.12"] to your project’s dependencies, or follow along in a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try http-kit Use any of org.httpkit.client’s HTTP verb functions to perform asynchronous HTTP requests. In their base form, these functions return a promise which you can await with deref or the @ reader-shorthand. (require '[org.httpkit.client :as http]) (def response (http/get "")) ;; Some time later.. 5.2. Performing Asynchronous HTTP Requests | 221 (:status @response) ;; -> 200 ;; Or, using deref to specify a timeout length in milliseconds and ;; value (deref response 2000 nil) ;; -> {:opts {:url "", :method :get} ;; :body "..." ;; :headers {:content-type "text/html", :content-length "1270" ...} ;; :status 200} Discussion As the bulk of time spent performing HTTP requests is establishing the connection and awaiting the server’s response, asynchronous requests enable your application to con‐ tinue working while awaiting the delivery of data. In this vein, HTTP Kit provides both a highly concurrent web server, as well as a pow‐ erful HTTP client. It offers both callbacks and promises for asynchronous requests, as well as persistent connections and alternate SSL Engines for dealing with unsigned SSL certificates. The org.httpkit.client namespace defines asynchronous versions of numerous HTTP methods, including: get, delete, head, post, put, options and patch. Each of these verbs derives from org.httpkit.client/request, which defines a common in‐ terface; An asynchronous request of a given method is made and a promise is returned. Upon completion of the request, the promise will be fulfilled with the results/response. All request functions accept an optional map of options where you can specify keys like :query-params, :post-params or :headers. Functions also allow specifying a call‐ back function to be called upon request completion. (http/get "" {:timeout 1000 ;; ms :query-params {:search "value"}} (fn [{:keys [status headers body error]}] (if error (binding [*out* *err*] (println "Failed with, " error)) (println body)))) ;; -> # ;; *out* ;; ;; ;; Example Domain ;; ... 222 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services See Also • Recipe 5.1 for normal, non-asynchronous HTTP requests. • HTTP Kit is heavily inspired by the API of clj-http, see Recipe 5.1 for more information on the library. 5.3. Sending a Ping Request by Jason Webb Problem You want to ping an IP address to check availability. Solution Use the java class to test if the address isReachable. (.isReachable ( "") 5000) ;; -> true Discussion Using isReachable works great if the correct permissions can be obtained. On a typical Unix like implementation you will need to start your Clojure instance with sudo to get an actual ICMP ping sent. Otherwise a standard connection will be attempted on port 7, which in most cases will be blocked by a firewall. More information can be found in the Java docs (see “See Also” on page 224). A common need when pinging another machine is to time the ping. You can wrap an .isReachable invokation in a function timed-ping to return timing values with every ping. (defn timed-ping "Time an .isReachable ping to a given domain" [domain timeout] (let [addr ( domain) start (. System (nanoTime)) result (.isReachable addr timeout) total (/ (double (- (. System (nanoTime)) start)) 1000000.0)] {:time total :result result})) (timed-ping "" 5000) ;; -> {:time 88.07, :result true} 5.3. Sending a Ping Request | 223 See Also • InetAddress/isReachable documentation. 5.4. Retrieving and Parsing RSS Data by Osbert Feng Problem You need to parse RSS data. Solution Use the feedparser-clj library to parse RSS data. Before starting, add [org.clojars.scsibug/feedparser-clj "0.4.0"] to your project’s dependencies, or follow along in a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try org.clojars.scsibug/feedparser-clj Invoke feedparser-clj.core/parse-feed with the URI of a RSS feed to retrieve that feed and parse it into Clojure data. (require '[feedparser-clj.core :as rss]) (rss/parse-feed "") ;; -> {:authors [...] :entries [{:link "LINK" :title "TITLE" :contents "CONTENT"} ...] ...} You can also invoke parse-feed with a to read from a file or other location. (with-open [writer ( "master.atom")] (spit writer (slurp ""))) (with-open [stream ( "master.atom")] (rss/parse-feed stream)) ;; -> {:authors [...] :entries [{:link "LINK" :title "TITLE" :contents "CONTENT"} ...] ...} Discussion feedparser-clj is a wrapper around the Java ROME library which is capable of pro‐ cessing a variety formats of RSS and Atom feeds. feedparser-clj.core/parse-feed returns a Clojure map that closely mimics the underlying XML feed. Most of the time, what you care about will be under the :entries key, which contains an array of maps corresponding to each RSS entry. 224 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services Some RSS feeds will have elements that indicate that the returned list is incomplete and more entries can be retrieved by following the link. A lazy list of these RSS entries can be generated: (defn next-uri "Return the rel=next href in a feed." [feed] (-> feed :entry-links (->> (filter #(= (:rel %) "next"))) first :href)) (defn lazy-stream "Return a lazy stream of RSS entries." [uri] (let [raw-response (rss/parse-feed uri)] (lazy-cat (:entries raw-response) (if-let [nxt (next-uri raw-response)] (lazy-stream nxt))))) To verify that lazy loading is happening, logging or tracing can be added to lazy- stream, but it also easy to confirm that you can retrieve more entries than are present in a single fetch: (def youtube-feed "") (count (rss/parse-feed youtube-feed)) ;; -> 15 (count (take 50 (lazy-stream youtube-feed))) ;; -> 50 Be careful when evaluating a lazy sequence in a REPL, it will attempt to print the entire sequence. Use take to only realize part of the se‐ quence. See Also • Recipe 5.1 • Recipe 4.22 for more information on reading and writing XML data like RSS feeds. 5.5. Sending Email by Ryan Neufeld 5.5. Sending Email | 225 Problem You need to send emails from inside a Clojure application. Solution Use postal, a thin wrapper over the JavaMail package, to send email messages. To follow along with this recipe, start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try com.draines/postal Send a message by invoking the postal.core/send-message function with two maps; the first containing connection details and the second containing message details. For example, to send an email message to yourself via a Gmail account: (require '[postal.core :refer [send-message]]) ;; Replace the following with your own credentials (def email "<") (def pass "") (def conn {:host "" :ssl true :user email :pass pass}) (send-message conn {:from email :to email :subject "A message, from the past" :body "Hi there, me!"}) ;; -> {:error :SUCCESS, :code 0, :message "messages sent"} If all is well, you should receive an email from yourself shortly thereafter. Discussion With the venerable JavaMail at its core, there isn’t much postal leaves for you to worry about. Even Gmail’s oft-maligned authentication setup can be tackled with a sin‐ gle :ssl key. While we might normally suggest: “give the native Java API a try,” for simple email delivery we prefer postal because it presents an API oriented around data rather than objects. One of the places data-orientation really shines is in specifying connection details. The first argument to the send-message function is a (versatile) map of connection details. Valid connection details are: :host Hostname of the desired SMTP server. Optional if running locally. 226 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services :port Port of SMTP server. Numerous contextual defaults exist, including 465 when :ssl is set or 25 when :tls is set. :user Username to authenticate with (if authenticating). :pass Password to authenticate with (if authenticating). :ssl Enables SSL encryption if value is truthy. :tls Enables TLS encryption if value is truthy. When provided no connection details — either by omitting the first argument or pass‐ ing nil — postal will attempt to route email through a local sendmail instance. Since Amazon’s Simple Email Service (SES) can operate over SMTP, it is possible to use postal to send email via Amazon’s infrastructure. Similar to connection details, messages themselves are represented as simple maps of data. The full complement of standard headers are supported as message keys: Standard Message Options • Sender options — :from — :reply-to • Recipient options — :to — :cc — :bcc • Content options — :subject — :body • Metadata options — :date — :message-id 5.5. Sending Email | 227 — :user-agent Options specified beyond these will be attached to the message as ancillary headers. When specifying recipients on the :to, :cc or :bcc keys, values may be either a single address or a sequence of addresses. Valid Recipient Key-Value Pairs. {:to "" :cc ["", "", ""] :bcc ""} A message’s body can be specified as either a string or a sequence of part maps. While the former delivers a simple plaintext email, the latter will deliver a multipart MIME message. MIME--"Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions” if you’ve got a few minutes —is the standard that allows email messages to contain attachments or other rich con‐ tent, such as HTML. A part map is made up of two values: :type and :content. For message body parts, :type is the MIME type of the content, and :content is the textual representation of said content. For example, to create a message with both plaintext and HTML rep‐ resentations of the content: :body [:alternative {:type "text/plain" :content "You just won the lottery!"} {:type "text/html" :content "

You just won the lottery!

"}] You’ll notice the first “part” in the body above was not, in fact, a part map, but the keyword :alternative. Messages are normally sent in “mixed” mode, indicating to an email client each part constitutes a piece of the whole message. Messages of the :alter native type, however, inform a client each part represents the entire message, albeit in differing formats. If you need to send complicated multipart messages and require a high level of control over message creation, you should use the raw Java‐ Mail API to construct messages. For attachments, the :type parameter behaves a little differently, controlling whether the attachment resides inline (:inline) or as an attachment (:attachment). The con‐ tents of an attachment are specified by providing a File object for the :content key. 228 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services An attachments content type and name are generally inferred from the File object, but they be overridden via the :content-type and :file-name keys, respectively. For example, forwarding all of your closest friends a picture of your cat might look something like this: :body [{:type "text/plain" :content "Hey folks,\n\nCheck out these pictures of my cat!"} {:type :inline :content (File. "/tmp/lester-flying-photoshop") :content-type "image/jpeg" :file-name "lester-flying.jpeg"} {:type :attachment :content (File. "/tmp/lester-upside-down.jpeg")}] See Also • postal’s GitHub repository. • JavaMail’s API documentation. 5.6. Communicating over Queues using RabbitMQ originally submitted by Michael Klishin Problem You want to communicate between a number of applications using a queueing broker such as RabbitMQ. Solution Use Langohr, a small RabbitMQ client, to communicate with RabbitMQ. Before starting, add [com.novemberain/langohr "1.6.0"] to your project’s depen‐ dencies, or follow along in a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try com.novemberain/langohr In order to follow along with this recipe, you need to have RabbitMQ installed and running. You can find details on how to install RabbitMQ here: http:// Once installed, start a standalone RabbitMQ server with the command rabbitmq- server. $ rabbitmq-server 5.6. Communicating over Queues using RabbitMQ | 229 Prior to performing any operations against RabbitMQ you must connect to a server and open a communication channel. A channel is the medium over which you can produce and consume messages to/from. (require 'langohr.core ' ;; Connect to local RabbitMQ cluster node on localhost:5672 (def conn (langohr.core/connect {:hostname "localhost"})) ;; Open a channel against the connection. (def ch ( conn)) In RabbitMQ, messages are published to exchanges, routed to queues via a binding, then finally consumed by consumers. There are a number of different exchange types that vary the semantics of delivery; the most basic exchange type is “direct”, which routes messages based on their routing key. To construct a pipeline between producer and consumer, start by invoking lan gohr.queue/declare to create a queue with the desired name. (require '[langohr.queue :as lq]) (def resize-queue "imaging.resize") (lq/declare ch resize-queue) ;; -> {:queue "imaging.resize", ;; :consumer-count 0, ;; :message_count 0, ;; :consumer_count 0, ;; :message-count 0} By default, RabbitMQ creates a binding between the empty exchange (an empty string) and each queue. You can now publish a message to the "imagine.resize" queue by invoking langohr.basic/publish with the channel, direct exchange, routing key (your queue name) and a message. (lb/publish ch "" resize-queue "hello.jpg") To consume messages from a queue synchronously, invoke langohr.basic/get with the channel and queue name. (def hello-msg (lb/get ch resize-queue)) hello-msg ;; -> [{:routing-key "imaging.resize", :headers nil ...} #] (String. (last hello-msg) "UTF-8") ;; -> "hello.jpg" get -> delivered in order, nil if empty, properties 230 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services To consume messages asynchronously as they appear, use langohr.consumers/ subscribe to subscribe to a queue. The handler function you provide to subscribe will be called for each message published to the queue. (require '[langohr.consumers :as lc]) (defn resize-image-handler "Spawn a resize process for each resize message received" [ch metadata ^bytes payload] (let [filename (String. payload "UTF-8")] (println (format "Resizing file %s" filename)))) ;; Subscribe to the queue with the handler function (def tag (lc/subscribe ch resize-queue resize-image-handler)) ;; The return value of subscribe is a subscription tag. tag ;; -> "amq.ctag-7hsNsSqLDEEoES5AkIC6XQ" (lb/publish ch "" resize-queue "hello-again.jpg") ;; *out* ;; Resizing file hello-again.jpg ;; Unsubscribe resize-image-handler via the tag value (lb/cancel ch tag) Discussion At this point, you’ve round-tripped a few messages to RabbitMQ, but you’ve barely scratched the surface of what Langohr/RabbitMQ are capable of. Langohr is a small RabbitMQ client wrapping the Java RabbitMQ library that supports AMQP 0-9-1, RabbitMQ extensions of AMQP, and provides an HTTP API client. AMQP 0-9-1, and by extension, Langohr, centers around a few main concepts: ex‐ changes, queues and bindings. Exchanges An exchange is very much like a post office: when a message is published to an exchange, the exchange will route the message to one or more queues. How those messages are routed to queues is dependant on both the exchange type and the bindings between the exchange/queues. There are multiple exchange types, each with its own routing semantics—see Table 5-1 for a complete listing. Custom exchange types can be created to deal with sophisticated routing scenarios (e.g. routing based on content or geolocation data) or just for conve‐ nience. 5.6. Communicating over Queues using RabbitMQ | 231 Table 5-1. Built-in Exchange Types Name Behavior Pre-declared Exchange Direct 1:1, routed based on routing key "" Fanout 1:N, ignoring routing key "amq.fanout" Topic 1:N, taking routing key into consideration "amq.topic" Headers 1:1, taking into consideration any number of headers "amq.match" To declare one of the built-in exchanges, use one of, lan, or Each of these functions exposes the relevant options for that exchange type, ultimately invoking (require '[ :as le]) ;; Create a fanout exchange for image processing completion (le/fanout ch "imaging.complete") Exchanges have several attributes associated with them: • Name • Type (direct, fanout, topic, headers or some custom type) • Durability (should it survive broker restarts?) • Whether the exchange is auto-deleted when no longer used • Custom metadata (sometimes known as x-arguments) Using directly you can customize these attributes to create your own types of exchanges. Queues A queue is like a mailbox in a post office. The langohr.queue/declare function creates named queues. Apart from the name, this function accepts a number of keyword ar‐ guments that vary the characteristics of the queue, including whether it is :dura ble, :exclusive, :auto-delete. Other arguments can be specified in an :arguments value. (lq/declare ch "imaging.transcode" :durable true) ;; -> {:queue "imaging.transcode", ...} Queues with unique names can be generated using the langohr.queue/declare- server-named function. This functions similarly to langohr.queue/declare, but without a name argument. (lq/declare-server-named ch) ;; -> "amq.gen-FcFv8JD9K8-4NuT8kC3jKA" 232 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services Unlike exchanges, queues in RabbitMQ are all of the same type. Bindings As you saw in the solution, a direct exchange has an implicit binding between the default exchange and every queue, by name. In the wild, however, queues are usually bound to exchanges explicitly. You can create your own bindings by invoking langohr.queue/ bind with a channel, queue name and exchange name. ;; Create a unique completion queue... (def completion-queue (lq/declare-server-named ch)) ;; and bind it to the imaging.complete fanout (lq/bind ch completion-queue "imaging.complete") Publishing Messages are published to an exchange using the langohr.basic/publish function. This function takes three primary arguments (beyond channel): • The name of an exchange, either a user-made exchange such as " plete", or a built-in like "amq.fanout" or "". • A routing key, used by the exchange to perform type-specific routing of messages to queue(s). • A message, a string body for the message to be delivered to the queue. As optional arguments, publish allows users to specify a plethora of message headers as keyword arguments. For the full list, see the docstring for the publish function. Consuming Having declared a number of queues, there are two ways to consume messages from them: • Pull, using langohr.basic/get, or • Push, using langohr.consumers/subscribe In the Push API, you make a synchronous invokation of get function to retrieve a single message from a queue. The return value of get is a tuple of metadata map and a body. The body payload, as returned, is an array of bytes—for plaintext messages you can use the string constructor, String., to intern those bytes to a string. Since String byte arrays are encoded using UTF-8, it is important to invoke the String constructor with an encoding option of "UTF-8". (lb/publish ch "" resize-queue "hello.jpg") (let [[_ body] (lb/get ch resize-queue)] 5.6. Communicating over Queues using RabbitMQ | 233 (String. body "UTF-8")) ;; -> "hello.jpg" When no messages are present on a queue, get will return nil. In the Pull API, you subscribe to a queue using langohr.consumers/subscribe, pro‐ viding a message handler function that will be invoked for each message the queue receives. This function will be invoked with three arguments: a channel, metadata and the body bytes. ;; A run-of-the-mill handler function (defn resize-image-handler "Spawn a resize process for each resize message received" [ch metadata ^bytes payload] (let [filename (String. payload "UTF-8")] (println (format "Resizing file %s" filename)))) subscribe is a non-blocking call, and upon completion will return a tag string that can be used to later cancel the subscription use langohr.consumers/cancel. The subscribe function also allows you to specify a large number of queue lifecycle functions, documented at length in the langohr.consumers/create-default doc‐ string. Acknowledgement Consumed messages need to be acknowledged. That can happen automatically (Rab‐ bitMQ will consider a message acknowledged as soon as it sends it to a consumer) or manually. When a message is acknowledged, it is removed from the queue. If a channel closes unexpectedly before a delivery is acknowledged, it will be automatically requeued by RabbitMQ. Note that these acknowledgements have application-specific semantics and help ensure that messages are processed properly. With manual acknowledgement, it is application’s responsibility to either acknowledge or reject a delivery. This is done with langohr.basic/ack and langohr.basic/nack, respectively, which takes a metadata attribute called delivery-tag (delivery ID). To enable manual acknowledgements, pass :auto-ack false to langohr.consumers/ subscribe. (defn manual-ack-handler "Spawn a resize process for each resize message received" [ch {:keys [delivery-tag]} ^bytes payload] (try (String. payload "UTF-8") ;; Do some work, then acknowledge the message (lb/ack ch delivery-tag) 234 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services (catch Throwable t ;; Reject message (lb/nack ch delivery-tag)))) (lc/subscribe ch resize-queue manual-ack-handler :auto-ack false) Note that if you requeue a message with just one consumer on it, it will be redelivered immediately. It is also possible to control how many messages will be pushed to the client before it must receive an ack for at least one of them. This is known as the prefetch setting and is set using langohr.basic/qos. This setting applies across an entire channel. ;; Pre-fetch a dozen messages (lb/qos ch 12) RabbitMQ queues can also be mirrored between cluster nodes for high availability, have bounded length or expiration period for messages, and more. To learn more, see Rab‐ bitMQ and Langohr documentation sites. See Also • Langohr documentation. • Langohr’s API reference. • RabbitMQ tutorials. • If you need low-level access to RabbitMQ, you may want to investigate using Clo‐ jure’s Java interop to interact with the RabbitMQ Java Client, the library upon which Langohr is based. 5.7. Communicating with Embedded Devices via MQTT By Sandeep Nangia Problem You want to communicate with embedded devices (think “Internet of Things”) using “publish” and “subscribe” model. Solution Use Machine Head, a Clojure library to perform Machine to Machine (M2M) commu‐ nication via MQTT protocol. MQTT protocol requires an existing MQTT broker with which all devices (or machines) will communicate by publishing messages or subscrib‐ ing messages on specific “topics”. Use the Mosquitto broker with its test installation that 5.7. Communicating with Embedded Devices via MQTT | 235 is available at tcp:// (of course, you need a functional Internet connection on your machine). To follow along with this recipe, launch a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try clojurewerkz/machine_head To start, create a simple connect-and-subscribe function that listens to a topic and prints messages it receives. (require '[clojurewerkz.machine-head.client :as mh]) (defn message-handler [topic meta payload] (let [p (apply str (map char payload))] (println "received " p "on topic " topic))) (defn connect-and-subscribe [broker-addr topics subscriberid] (let [qos-levels (vec (repeat (count topics) 2)) ;; All at qos 2 conn-sub (mh/connect broker-addr subscriberid)] (if (mh/connected? conn-sub) (do (mh/subscribe conn-sub topics message-handler {:qos qos-levels}) conn-sub)))) ;; Return conn-sub for later mh/disconnect... (def subscriberid (mh/generate-id)) ;; or use a unique id ;; (def subscriberid "SNSubscriber01") (connect-and-subscribe "tcp://" ["SNControlNetwork/Florida/device1"] subscriberid) Open another terminal window and start a second lein-try REPL session. Use the code below to publish messages to the broker. Note that subscriber must be connected already so as not to lose incoming messages. (require '[clojurewerkz.machine-head.client :as mh]) (defn connect-and-publish [broker-addr client-id topic] (let [qos 2 retained false conn (mh/connect broker-addr client-id)] (if (mh/connected? conn) (do (dotimes [n 5] (let [payload (str "msg" n)] (mh/publish conn topic payload qos retained) (println "published " payload))) (mh/disconnect conn))))) (def pubclientid (mh/generate-id)) pubclientid ;; -> "ryan.1384135173618" (connect-and-publish "tcp://" pubclientid 236 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services "SNControlNetwork/Florida/device1") ;; *out* of publish REPL ;; published msg0 ;; published msg1 ;; published msg2 ;; published msg3 ;; published msg4 ;; *out* of client REPL ;; received msg0 on topic SNControlNetwork/Florida/device1 ;; received msg1 on topic SNControlNetwork/Florida/device1 ;; received msg2 on topic SNControlNetwork/Florida/device1 ;; received msg3 on topic SNControlNetwork/Florida/device1 ;; received msg4 on topic SNControlNetwork/Florida/device1 Discussion MQTT is an open, lightweight publish/subscribe messaging protocol. It is useful for connections where bandwidth is at premium and/or connections are unreliable. While AMQP protocol excels at various scenarios for business messaging, MQTT is usually the choice for smaller payloads and last mile connectivity as it is simple to implement in hardware. MQTT protocol has the following properties which make it good for con‐ strained networks: • Designed for devices with limited resources, like battery-operated 8-bit controllers. • Internally the protocol compresses into bit-wise headers and variable length fields. The smallest possible packet-size is a mere 2 bytes. • “No-polling” required. Asynchronous bidirectional “push” delivery of messages. • Supports always-connected and sometimes-connected models. • Tested with low bandwidth networks like VSAT and GPRS The protocol defines three possible QoS values 0, 1 and 2 corresponding to “fire and forget”, “at least once”, “exactly once” qualities of service. QoS parameters 1 and 2 require persistent storage on the client so as to save the message until acknowledgement arrives. In the above recipe, the default persistence implementation provided by the library is used. MQTT also has a concept of retention of messages. If you were to set retained as true in the connect-and-publish function, the broker will remember the last known re‐ tained message on the topic. When the subscriber connects, it is given the last message (for which retained was true) by the broker and does not have to wait to receive the first message. Websphere and RabbitMQ also implement MQTT and can be used instead of Mos‐ quitto. While the above code used the test broker at tcp://, you can install your own Mosquitto broker using via MQTT installation instructions. 5.7. Communicating with Embedded Devices via MQTT | 237 The topics are usually defined with the separator / defining hierarchies. As an example, the sensor devices of a particular domain, SNControl, might be publishing their values to SNControl/Florida/device1, SNControl/Florida/device2, and so on. While the devices in domain RKNControl might publish their values to RKNControl/Washington/ device1, etc. Naming the topics in this way helps in subscribing to multiple topics based on wildcards. This is how wild cards are used: • / is used as a separator. • + is the single-level wild-card and can appear anywhere in the string. • # is a multilevel wild card needs to appear at the end of the string. For example, these subscriptions are possible: • SNControl/# : any device under SNControl/Florida (e.g. SNControl/Florida/ device1/sensor1 and SNControl/Florida/device1/sensor2) and SNControl/ California/device1 will match. • SNControl/+/device1: any device1 in states under domain SNControl. So SNCon trol/Florida/device1 and SNControl/California/device1 will match. • SNControl/+/+/sensor1 will match SNControl/Florida/device1/sensor1 and SNControl/Florida/device2/sensor1 In the above code, the connect-and-subscribe method uses the callback handler message-handler to process incoming messages arriving from the broker. In the connect-and-subscribe method, the connect method from Machine Head library is invoked by providing it the broker address and client ID (generated using generate- id or some other unique id). Then, it checks that the connection has been established using connected? method. The subscribe method is invoked with the connection, vector of topics to subscribe to, message handler and a :qos option. The subscriber then waits for some time and disconnect using disconnect method. The connect-and-publish method calls the method connect which accepts the broker address and client id and returns the connection conn. Then, it checks if the connection is successful with connected? method and invokes the publish method to publish messages (a few times) to the broker. The publish method accepts the connection, topic string, payload, QoS value and retained as parameters. The QoS value of 2 corresponds to “exactly once” delivery. retained value of false instructs the broker not to retain messages. Finally, disconnect method disconnects from the broker. 238 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services While the above code fragment just prints the incoming messages, you could potentially use the messages in some other way e.g. triggering some actions based on an alarm that the code has received. See Also • The details on MQTT protocol at • Machine Head Documentation of the Machine_Head library • Eclipse Paho library, the Java library, that Machine Head uses under the hood to communicate using MQTT. • Mosquitto, an open source message broker that implements MQTT protocol at • Building Smarter Planet Solutions with MQTT and IBM WebSphere MQ Teleme‐ try, An IBM Redbooks publication explains MQTT in more details. • The TED talk by Andy Stanford-Clark, one of the inventors of MQTT, is a hu‐ mourous and informative session on how MQTT can be used. 5.8. Using ZeroMQ Concurrently by Kevin J. Lynagh Problem You want to use ZeroMQ concurrently, but ZeroMQ sockets are not thread-safe. You could manually set up mutual exclusion via locks or other Java concurrency primitives, but you’d rather use a simpler method. Solution Use the zmq-async library to simplify concurrent usage of ZeroMQ via core.async. In order to follow along with this recipe, your system should have ZeroMQ 3.2 installed. If you’re on a Mac and have the Homebrew package manager installed: $ brew install zeromq Or, are on Ubuntu: $ apt-get install libzmq3 Otherwise, visit ØMQ’s Downloads page. 5.8. Using ZeroMQ Concurrently | 239 Before starting, add [com.keminglabs/zmq-async "0.1.0"] to your project’s depen‐ dencies, or follow along in a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try com.keminglabs/zmq-async Here’s a simple ping-pong between two asynchronous go blocks in core.async, com‐ municating via a ZeroMQ in-process socket: (require '[com.keminglabs.zmq-async.core :refer [register-socket!]] '[clojure.core.async :refer [>! ! server-in "pong")) (close! server-in)) ;; A simple client worker which sends a "ping" request and awaits ;; a response. (go (dotimes [_ 3] (>! client-in "ping") (println (String. (! sends a multipart message. Received multipart mes‐ sages are placed on core.async channels. Reading these messages with false (realized? (doall (range 100))) ;; -> true Depending on your application, you may prefer to use the doseq macro. Instead of retaining the entire sequence, doseq executes its body for each element of the sequence. This is useful if you need to cause side-effects for each element of a sequence, but need to hang on to the entire thing. 5.9. Creating a TCP Client | 243 (doseq [n (range 3)] (println n)) ;; *out* ;; 0 ;; 1 ;; 2 See Also • Recipe 5.10 • Wikipedia on the TCP protocol. 5.10. Creating a TCP Server by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to open up a socket on a port to use as a low-level TCP server. Solution Use Java interop on the class to create a TCP listener. Use the functions in to obtain input and output streams (or readers and writers) to read and write data to the socket. (require '[ :as io]) (import '[ ServerSocket]) (defn receive "Read a line of textual data from the given socket" [socket] (.readLine (io/reader socket))) (defn send "Send the given string message out over the given socket" [socket msg] (let [writer (io/writer socket)] (.write writer msg) (.flush writer))) (defn serve [port handler] (with-open [server-sock (ServerSocket. port) sock (.accept server-sock)] (let [msg-in (receive sock) msg-out (handler msg-in)] (send sock msg-out)))) 244 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services This code defines three functions. receive and send deal with reading and writing string data from and to a socket, using the and writer functions. Both of these accept a as an argument, and will return a or built from the socket’s input and output streams. server handles actually creating an instance of ServerSocket on a particular port. It also takes a handler function, which will be used to process the incoming request and determine a response message. After creating an instance of ServerSocket, server immediately calls its accept meth‐ od, which blocks until a TCP connection is established. When a client connects, it re‐ turns the session as an instance of It then passes the socket to the receive function, which opens up a reader on it and blocks until it receives a full line of input, terminated by a newline character (\n). When it receives one, it calls the handler function with the resulting value, and calls send to send the response using a writer opened on the same socket. send also calls the flush method on the writer, to ensure that all the data is actually sent back to the client, instead of being buffered in the Writer instance. After sending the response, the serve method returns. Because it used the with-open macro when creating the server socket and the TCP session socket, it will invoke the close method on each before returning, which disconnects the client and ends the session. To try it out, invoke the serve function in the REPL. For a simple example, use (serve 8888 #(.toUpperCase %)). Note that it won’t return right away; it blocks, waiting for a client to connect. To connect to the sever, you can use a telnet client, which is installed by default on nearly every operating system. To use it, open up a command line window: $ telnet localhost 8888 Trying ::1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. At this point you can type anything you like. When you finish, make sure you type “enter” or “return” to send a newline character. $ telnet localhost 8888 Trying ::1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. Hello, World! HELLO, WORLD!Connection closed by foreign host 5.10. Creating a TCP Server | 245 As you can see, as soon as you type a newline, the server responds with the uppercased version of your input (as per the handler function) and then immediately terminates the connection. In the REPL, you will find that the serve function has finally returned. Discussion This example uses readers and writers, which deal solely in textual data, to make the concepts of working with sockets easier to demonstrate. Of course, an actual socket is not limited to strings, and can send and receive any kind of binary data. To do this, simply use the and stream functions instead of and functions, respectively, which return and Stream objects. These provide APIs for reading and writing raw bytes, rather than just strings and characters. One thing you may have noticed about the example is that, unlike a traditional “server” it doesn’t actually continue to accept incoming connections after the serve function returns. For ongoing use, typically you’d like to be able to serve multiple incoming connections. Fortunately, this is relatively straightforward to do giving the concurrency tools that Clojure provides. Modifing the serve function above to work as a persistent server requires three changes: • Run the server on a seperate thread so it doesn’t block the REPL • Don’t close the server socket after handling the first request • After handing a request, loop back to immediately handle another Also, because the server will be running on a non-repl thread, it’d also be good to provide a mechanism for terminating the server other than killing the whole JVM. The modified code looks like this: (defn serve-persistent [port handler] (let [running (atom true)] (future (with-open [server-sock (ServerSocket. port)] (while @running (with-open [sock (.accept server-sock)] (let [msg-in (receive sock) msg-out (handler msg-in)] (send sock msg-out)))))) running)) The key feature of this code is that it launches the server socket asynchronously inside a future, and calls the accept method inside of a loop. It also creates an atom called 246 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services running and returns it, checking it each time it loops. To stop the server, reset the atom to false, and the loop will break. (def a (serve-persistent 8888 #(.toUpperCase %))) ;; -> #'my-server/a ;; server is running, will respond to multiple requests (reset! a false) ;; -> false ;; server is stopped, will stop serving requests after the next one Sidebar When to use sockets As you can see from these examples, raw server sockets are a fairly low-level networking construct. Using them effectively means either creating your own data protocol or re- implementing an existing one, and handling all the fiddly bits of connecting, flushing and disconnecting input and outputs streams yourself. If your communication needs can be met by some existing protocol or communication technique (such as HTTP, SSH, a message queue, etc) you should almost certainly use that instead. The are widely available servers and libraries for these protocols that allow programming at a much higher level of abstraction, with much better performance and resiliency. Still, understanding how all these different techniques work on a low level is valuable. At least as far as the JVM is concerned, most networking code ultimately bottoms out in calls to the raw socket mechanisms described in this recipe. Understanding how they work is an important tool in understanding how higher level networking (such as HTTP requests or JMS queues) actually work. See Also • The API documentation for ServerSocket and Socket objects in Java. • The API documentation for the namespace. • Recipe 5.9 • Wikipedia on the TCP protocol. 5.11. Sending and Receiving UDP Packets by Luke VanderHart 5.11. Sending and Receiving UDP Packets | 247 Problem You want to send or receive asynchronous UDP packets from your application. Solution Use Java interop with the and classes to send and receive UDP messages. The following example demonstrates functions that send and receive short strings en‐ coded into UDP packets. (import '[ DatagramSocket DatagramPacket InetSocketAddress]) (defn send "Send a short textual message over a DatagramSocket to the specified host and port. If the string is over 512 bytes long, it will be truncated. " [^DatagramSocket socket msg host port] (let [payload (.getBytes msg) length (min (alength payload) 512) address (InetSocketAddress. host port) packet (DatagramPacket. payload length address)] (.send socket packet))) (defn receive "Block until a UDP message is received on the given DatagramSocket, and returns the payload message as a string." [^DatagramSocket socket] (let [buffer (byte-array 512) packet (DatagramPacket. buffer 512)] (.receive socket packet) (String. (.getData packet) 0 (.getLength packet)))) (defn receive-loop "Given a function and DatagramSocket, will (in another thread) wait for the socket to receive a message, and whenever it does, will call the provided function on the incoming message." [socket f] (future (while true (f (receive socket))))) The send function is fairly straightforward - most of its content is devoted to construc‐ tring a byte array as a payload for the DatagramPacket, and invoking constructor forms. The most interesting thing is its limitation of the payload size to 512 bytes, using the length argument to the DatagramPacket constructor. This is because it generally isn’t safe to attempt to send over 512 bytes of payload in a single UDP packet - although some network infrastructures may support it, others do not. 248 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services The receive function creates an incoming byte array, adds it to a mutable empty Data gramPacket instance, and invokes the DatagramSocket.receive method on the socket. When incoming data is received, the receive method will return after populating the instance of DatagramPacket. The Clojure code then constructs and returns a new String using the populated range of the byte array (that is, between 0 and the value reported by the DatagramPacket.getLength method.) Because the receive function blocks and only returns a single value, it isn’t particularly useful for accepting multiple message or using from the REPL. receive-loop wraps the receive function, calling it repeatedly on a seperate thread. Whenever it returns a value, it invokes the supplied function, then loops back to waiting for more input. To execute this code, you’ll first need to create an instance of DatagramSocket. At the REPL: (def socket (DatagramSocket. 8888)) ;; -> #'udp/socket This creates a UDP socket on the specified port (in this case, 8888). Next, start up a listener using the receive-loop function. For this example, simply pass it the println function so it will print out all received values. (receive-loop socket println) ;; -> # Then, you can send a message! If you started the listener thread with receive-loop properly, you should see it print out the incoming message immediately. (send socket "hello, world!" "localhost" 8888) ;; *out* ;; hello, world! ;; ;; -> nil In this case, sending to localhost, the message transmission happens so quickly that the message is actually received before the send function even returns. Discussion Unlike TCP, UDP (which stands for User Datagram Packet) is an asynchronous protocol that makes no guarantees regarding the order in which messages arrive, whether their contents are correct, or even if they arrive at all. In exchange, UDP typically has a lower per-packet latency than protocols like TCP since it does not need to perform error checking or recovery. Before you do decide to use UDP, make sure your application is designed to continue working even if packets are dropped or corrupt. 5.11. Sending and Receiving UDP Packets | 249 Because UDP uses asynchronous messages as its model, it is fairly easy to use core.async to wrap the raw DatagramSocket instances. core.async provides a very nice channel abstraction that lets you consume and produce inherently asynchronous eventes (such as UDP messages) in a clean, managed way. Multicast UDP UDP is also capable of sending the same datagram packet to multiple destinations using a technique called UDP multicast. To use multicast, create an instance of ticastSocket instead of A full explanation of how to use MulticastSocket is very well documented on Oracle’s website and would be redundant to reproduce here, since it is straightforward Java interop. After reading the example above, extending it to MulticastSocket should be relatively self-explanatory. See Also • Creating a TCP Server • Creating a TCP Client • Using core.async • Documentation for 250 | Chapter 5: Network IO & Web Services CHAPTER 6 Databases 6.0. Introduction Storing data in a database is not an uncommon task for developers — in this day and age, it’s practically a given. Like nearly every language under the sun there exist a bevy of drivers and clients to interact with databases from Clojure. What sets Clojure apart, however, is its ability to compose. As we’ve said before in this book: in Clojure, data is king. You’ll find many of the database client libraries do a little legwork to connect you to the datastore, then promptly get out of your way. Libraries such as this don’t do so out of laziness (at least, we hope), but rather out of separation of concern; I’ll handle connecting to the database, you handle the domain (your data). In fact, the best APIs are built out of data, providing only one or two functions and letting you manipulate queries and data to be inserted directly as Clojure data structures. In this chapter, we’ll visit a a wide number of databases and techniques, including the SQLs, full-text search, Mongo, Redis and Datomic. Datomic is one of the more interesting recent developments in the database landscape. It is invented and maintainted by Rich Hickey (who you will probably recognize as the same person who wrote Clojure itself.) It is a scalable, transactional, value-oriented, time-aware database built around the same principles and philosophies as Clojure. If you like Clojure, you should definitely give Datomic a try, both as your application’s data store and also as a learning tool to further explore functional, data-oriented pro‐ gramming. 6.1. Connecting to an SQL Database by Tom Hicks, originally submitted by Simone Mosciatti 251 1. Mac users: visit to download an easy-to-install DMG. Everyone else: find a guide for your operating system on the PostgreSQL Wiki. Problem You want to connect your program to an SQL database. Solution Use the library for JDBC-based access to SQL databases. To follow along with this recipe, you’ll need a running SQL database and existing table to connect to. We suggest PostgreSQL 1 After you have PostgreSQL running (presumably on localhost:5432) run the following command to create a database for this recipe: # On Mac $ /Applications/ cookbook_experiments # Everyone else: $ createdb cookbook_experiments Before starting, add [org.clojure/java.jdbc "0.3.0"] to your project’s dependen‐ cies. You’ll also need a JDBC-driver for the RDBMS of your choice. If you’re following along with this sample, use [org.postgresql/postgresql "9.2-1003-jdbc4"]. To start a REPL using lein-try, enter the following Leiningen command: $ lein try org.clojure/java.jdbc "0.3.0" \ java-jdbc/dsl "0.1.0" \ org.postgresql/postgresql "9.2-1003-jdbc4" To interact with a database using, all you need is a connection specification. This specification takes the form of a plain Clojure map with values in‐ dicating the database driver type, location and authentication credentials. (def db-spec {:classname "org.postgresql.Driver" :subprotocol "postgresql" :subname "//localhost:5432/cookbook_experiments" ;; Not needed for a non-secure local database... ;; :user "bilbo" ;; :password "secret" }) Create a relation in the specified database by invoking the table function with the specification and any number of column specifications. (require '[ :as jdbc] '[java-jdbc.ddl :as ddl]) (jdbc/db-do-commands db-spec false 252 | Chapter 6: Databases (ddl/create-table :tags [:id :serial "PRIMARY KEY"] [:name :varchar "NOT NULL"])) ;; -> (0) Many other functions which query and manipulate a database, such as clo!, take a database specification directly as their first argument. (require '[java-jdbc.sql :as sql]) (jdbc/insert! db-spec :tags {:name "Clojure"} {:name "Java"}) ;; -> ({:name "Clojure", :id 1} {:name "Java", :id 2}) (jdbc/query db-spec (sql/select * :tags (sql/where {:name "Clojure"}))) ;; -> ({:name "Clojure", :id 1}) Discussion The library provides functions which wrap the basic capabilities of the Java JDBC specification. The additional java-jdbc.sql and java-jdbc.ddl namespaces from the java-jdbc/dsl project implement small DSLs to generate basic SQL DML and DDL statements. Because it relies upon Java JDBC, the library is useable with many of the most popular SQL databases; including Apache Derby, HSQLDB, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQLite. The parameters necessary to set up and access a data source are called the “database specification” (often abbreviated “db-spec”) and are provided in a simple Clojure map. The specification usually includes such parameters as the driver class name, the sub‐ protocol for a particular RDBMS type, the hostname, the port number, the database name, and the username and password. The library also permits several other forms of data source speci‐ fication, including Java URIs, already open connections, JNDI connections, and plain strings. For example, a complete URI string may be provided under the :connection- uri key: ;; As a spec string (def db-spec "jdbc:postgresql://bilbo:secret@localhost:5432/cookbook_experiment") ;; As a connection URI map... ;; ... with a username and password (def db-spec {:connection-uri "jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/cookbook_experiments?user=bilbo&password=secret"}) ;; ... or without (def db-spec {:connection-uri "jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/cookbook_experiments"}) 6.1. Connecting to an SQL Database | 253 Database records are represented as Clojure maps, with the table’s column names used as keys. Retrieval of a set of database records produces a sequence of maps which can then be processed with all the normal Clojure functions. (jdbc/query db-spec (sql/select * :tags)) ;; -> ({:name "Clojure", :id 1} ; {:name "Java", :id 2}) (filter #(not (.endsWith (:name %) "ure")) (jdbc/query db-spec (sql/select * :tags))) ;; -> ({:name "Java", :id 2}) There are other Clojure libraries to access relational databases and each provides a different abstraction and DSL for the manipulation of SQL data and expressions, such as Korma. The library, however, covers a large portion of everyday database access needs. See Also • Recipe 6.3 to learn about using to interact with an SQL data‐ base. • Recipe 6.2 to learn about pooling connections to an SQL database with c3p0 and • Visit the GitHub repository for more detailed information on the library. • Visit the java-jdbc/dsl GitHub repository for more information on the SQL query generation capabilities it provides. Alternatively, investigate the Honey SQL, SQLingvo or Korma libraries for SQL query generation. Korma is covered in Recipe 6.4. 6.2. Connecting to an SQL Database with a Connection Pool by Tom Hicks and Filippo Diotalevi Problem You would like to connect to an SQL database efficiently using a connection pool. 254 | Chapter 6: Databases 2. Mac users: visit to download an easy-to-install DMG. Everyone else: find a guide for your operating system on the PostgreSQL Wiki. Solution Use the BoneCP connection and statement pooling library to wrap your JDBC-based drivers, creating a pooled data source. The pooled data source is then usable by the library, as described in the Recipe 6.1 recipe. To follow along with this recipe, you’ll need a running SQL database and existing table to connect to. We suggest PostgreSQL 2 After you have PostgreSQL running (presumably on localhost:5432) run the following command to create a database for this recipe: # On Mac $ /Applications/ cookbook_experiments # Everyone else: $ createdb cookbook_experiments Before starting, add the BoneCP dependency ([com.jolbox/bonecp "0.8.0.RE LEASE"]), as well as the appropriate JDBC libraries for your RDBMS, to your project’s dependencies. You’ll also need a valid SLF4J logger. Alternatively, you can follow along in a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try com.jolbox/bonecp "0.8.0.RELEASE" \ org.clojure/java.jdbc "0.3.0" \ java-jdbc/dsl "0.1.0" \ org.postgresql/postgresql "9.2-1003-jdbc4" \ org.slf4j/slf4j-nop # Just do not log anything First, create a database specification containing the parameters for accessing the data‐ base. This includes keys for the initial and maximum pool sizes, as well as the number of partitions. (def db-spec {:classname "org.postgresql.Driver" :subprotocol "postgresql" :subname "//localhost:5432/cookbook_experiments" :init-pool-size 4 :max-pool-size 20 :partitions 2}) To create a pooled BoneCPDataSource object define a function (for convenience) which uses the parameters in the database specification map. (import 'com.jolbox.bonecp.BoneCPDataSource) (defn pooled-datasource [db-spec] (let [{:keys [classname subprotocol subname user password init-pool-size max-pool-size idle-time partitions]} db-spec 6.2. Connecting to an SQL Database with a Connection Pool | 255 cpds (doto (BoneCPDataSource.) (.setDriverClass classname) (.setJdbcUrl (str "jdbc:" subprotocol ":" subname)) (.setUsername user) (.setPassword password) (.setMinConnectionsPerPartition (inc (int (/ init-pool-size partitions)))) (.setMaxConnectionsPerPartition (inc (int (/ max-pool-size partitions)))) (.setPartitionCount partitions) (.setStatisticsEnabled true) (.setIdleMaxAgeInMinutes (or idle-time 60)))] {:datasource cpds})) Use the convenience function to define a pooled data source for connecting to your database: (def pooled-db-spec (pooled-datasource db-spec)) pooled-db-spec ;; -> {:datasource #} Pass the database specification as the first argument to any func‐ tions that query or manipulate your database. (require '[ :as jdbc] '[java-jdbc.ddl :as ddl] '[java-jdbc.sql :as sql]) (jdbc/db-do-commands pooled-db-spec false (ddl/create-table :blog_posts [:id :serial "PRIMARY KEY"] [:title "varchar(255)" "NOT NULL"] [:body :text])) ;; -> (0) (jdbc/insert! pooled-db-spec :blog_posts {:title "My first post!" :body "This is going to be good!"}) ;; -> ({:body "This is going to be good!", :title "My first post!", :id 1}) (jdbc/query pooled-db-spec (sql/select * :blog_posts (sql/where{:title "My first post!"}))) ;; -> ({:body "This is going to be good!", :title "My first post!", :id 1}) Discussion As shown above, the library can create database connections from JDBC data sources, which allows connections to be easily pooled by the BoneCP or other pooling libraries. 256 | Chapter 6: Databases The BoneCP library wraps existing JDBC classes to allow the creation of efficient data sources. It can adapt traditional unpooled drivers and data sources by augmenting them with transparent pooling of Connection and PreparedStatement instances. While the library offers several ways to create data sources, most users will find the examples provided here to be the easiest. BoneCP offers several dozen configuration parameters which control the operation of the data source and its connections. Luckily, most of these configuration parameters have built-in defaults. Parameters may be specified to control such facets as the min, max, and initial pool size; the number of idle connections; the age of connections; transaction handling; the use of PreparedStatement pooling; and if, when, and how pooled connections are tested. Pooled data resources (threads and database connections) may be released by calling the close method on the BoneCPDataSource class of the library. Attempting to reuse the pooled data source after it is closed will result in an SQL exception. (.close (:datasource pooled-db-spec)) ;; -> nil See Also • Recipe 6.1 to learn about basic database connections with • Recipe 6.3 to learn about using to interact with an SQL data‐ base. • The BoneCP documentation and GitHub repository • Visit the GitHub repository for more detailed information on the library. 6.3. Manipulating an SQL Database by Tom Hicks Made after documentation by Sean Corfield and Stephen Gilardi. Problem You want your Clojure program to manipulate tables and records in an SQL database. Solution Use the library for JDBC-based access to SQL databases. 6.3. Manipulating an SQL Database | 257 3. Mac users: visit to download an easy-to-install DMG. Everyone else: find a guide for your operating system on the PostgreSQL Wiki. To follow along with this recipe, you’ll need a running SQL database and existing table to connect to. We suggest PostgreSQL 3 After you have PostgreSQL running (presumably on localhost:5432) run the following command to create a database for this recipe: # On Mac $ /Applications/ cookbook_experiments # Everyone else: $ createdb cookbook_experiments Before starting, add [org.clojure/java.jdbc "0.3.0"] and [java-jdbc/dsl "0.1.0"] to your project’s dependencies. You’ll also need a JDBC-driver for the RDBMS of your choice. If you’re following along with this sample, use [org.postgresql/post gresql "9.2-1003-jdbc4"]. To start a REPL using lein-try, enter the following Lei‐ ningen command: $ lein try org.clojure/java.jdbc "0.3.0" \ java-jdbc/dsl "0.1.0" \ org.postgresql/postgresql "9.2-1003-jdbc4" Then, define how the database should be accessed. (def db-spec {:classname "org.postgresql.Driver" :subprotocol "postgresql" :subname "//localhost:5432/cookbook_experiments"}) To create a new table, use the java-jdbc.ddl/create-table function to generate the necessary DDL statement, then pass the statement into the jdbc/db-do-commands function to execute it. (require '[ :as jdbc] '[java-jdbc.ddl :as ddl]) (jdbc/db-do-commands db-spec (ddl/create-table :fruit [:name "varchar(16)" "PRIMARY KEY"] [:appearance "varchar(32)"] [:cost :int "NOT NULL"] [:unit "varchar(16)"] [:grade :real])) ;; -> (0) Insert complete records into a table using the! function, invoking it with a vector of the column values for each row. Be sure to provide the column values in the order in which the columns were declared in the table. 258 | Chapter 6: Databases (jdbc/insert! db-spec :fruit nil ; column names omitted ["Red Delicious" "dark red" 20 "bushel" 8.2] ["Plantain" "mild spotting" 48 "stalk" 7.4] ["Kiwifruit" "fresh" 35 "crate" 9.1] ["Plum" "ripe" 12 "carton" 8.4]) ;; -> (1 1 1 1) To query the database, generate the SQL for the query with the java-jdbc.sql/ select function, then invoke with the result. (require '[java-jdbc.sql :as sql]) (jdbc/query db-spec (sql/select * :fruit (sql/where {:appearance "ripe"}))) ;; -> ({:grade 8.4, :unit "carton", :cost 12, :appearance "ripe", :name "Plum"}) If you no longer need a particular table, invoke with the appropriate DDL statements generated by java-dbc.ddl/drop-table. (jdbc/db-do-commands db-spec (ddl/create-table :delete_me [:name "varchar(16)" "PRIMARY KEY"])) (jdbc/db-do-commands db-spec (ddl/drop-table :delete_me)) ;; -> (0) Discussion The library provides functions which wrap the basic capabilities of the Java JDBC specification. The java-jdbc/dsl project’s java-jdbc.sql and java- jdbc.ddl namespaces implement small DSLs to generate basic SQL DML and DDL statements. java-jdbc/dsl used to be a part of, but was re‐ moved to keep the API of the core library as small as possible. The java-dbc.ddl/create-table function generates the DDL needed to create a table. The arguments are a table name and a vector for each column specification. At the time of this writing, table-level specifications are not yet supported. Inserting and Updating Records Records may be inserted into a table in a variety of ways. In addition to the vector method illustrated above, the! function can accept one or more maps with column names as keys: 6.3. Manipulating an SQL Database | 259 (jdbc/insert! db-spec :fruit {:name "Banana" :appearance "spotting" :cost 35} {:name "Tomato" :appearance "rotten" :cost 10 :grade 1.4} {:name "Peach" :appearance "fresh" :cost 37 :unit "pallet"}) ;; -> ({:grade nil, :unit nil, :cost 35, :appearance "spotting", :name "Banana"} ;; {:grade 1.4, :unit nil, :cost 10, :appearance "rotten", :name "Tomato"} ;; {:grade nil, :unit "pallet", :cost 37, :appearance "fresh", :name "Peach"}) If you want to insert rows but only specify some columns’ values, you can invoke! with a vector of column names followed by one or more vectors containing values for those columns: (jdbc/insert! db-spec :fruit [:name :cost] ["Mango" 84] ["Kumquat" 77]) ;; -> (1 1) To update existing records, invoke! with a map of column names to new values. The optional java-jdbc.sql/where clause controls which rows will be updated. (jdbc/update! db-spec :fruit {:grade 7.0 :appearance "spotting" :cost 75} (sql/where {:name "Mango"})) ;; -> (1) Transactions Database transactions are available to ensure that multiple operations are performed atomically (i.e. all or none). The macro creates a transaction-aware connection from the database specification. Use the transaction- aware connection for the duration of the transaction: ;; insert two new fruits atomically (jdbc/with-db-transaction [trans-conn db-spec] (jdbc/insert! trans-conn :fruit {:name "Fig" :cost 12}) (jdbc/insert! trans-conn :fruit {:name "Date" :cost 14})) ;; -> ({:grade nil, :unit nil, :cost 14, :appearance nil, :name "Date"}) If an exception is thrown, the transaction is rolled back: ;; Query how many items the table has now: (defn fruit-count "Query how many items are in the fruit table." [db-spec] (let [result (jdbc/query db-spec (sql/select "count(*)" :fruit))] (:count (first result)))) (fruit-count db-spec) ;; -> 11 (jdbc/with-db-transaction [trans-conn db-spec] 260 | Chapter 6: Databases (jdbc/insert! trans-conn :fruit [:name :cost] ["Grape" 86] ["Pear" 86]) ;; At this point the insert! call is complete, but the transaction ;; is not. An exception will cause the transaction to roll back, ;; leaving the database unchanged. (throw (Exception. "sql-test-exception"))) ;; -> Exception sql-test-exception ... ;; The table still has the same number of items: (fruit-count db-spec) ;; -> 11 Transactions can be explicitly set to rollback with the rollback-only! function. This setting can be unset with the unset-rollback-only! function, and tested with the rollback-only function. (fruit-count db-spec) ;; -> 11 (jdbc/with-db-transaction [trans-conn db-spec] (jdbc/db-set-rollback-only! trans-conn) (jdbc/insert! trans-conn :fruit {:name "Pear" :cost 69})) ;; -> ({:grade nil, :unit nil, :cost 69, :appearance nil, :name "Pear"}) ;; the table still has the same number of items: (fruit-count db-spec) ;; -> 11 Reading and Processing Records Database records are returned from queries as Clojure maps, with the table’s column names used as keys. Retrieval of a set of database records produces a sequence of maps which can then be processed with all the normal Clojure functions. Here, we query all the records in the fruit table, gathering the name and grade of low quality fruit: (->> (jdbc/query db-spec (sql/select "name, grade" :fruit)) ;; Filter all fruits by fruits with grade < 3.0 (filter (fn [{:keys [grade]}] (and grade (< grade 3.0)))) (map (juxt :name :grade))) ;; -> (["Tomato" 1.4]) The example above uses the SQL DSL provided by the java-jdbc.sql namespace. The DSL implements a simple abstraction over the generation of SQL statements. At present, it provides some basic mechanisms for selects, joins, where clauses, and order-by clau‐ ses. (defn fresh-fruit [] (jdbc/query db-spec 6.3. Manipulating an SQL Database | 261 (sql/select [] {:fruit :f} (sql/where {:f.appearance "fresh"}) (sql/order-by (fresh-fruit) ;; -> ({:name "Kiwifruit"} {:name "Peach"}) The use of the SQL DSL is entirely optional. For more direct control, a vector containing an SQL query string and arguments can be passed to the query function. The following function also finds low quality fruit, but does it by passing a quality threshold value directly to the SQL statement: (defn find-low-quality [acceptable] (jdbc/query db-spec ["select name, grade from fruit where grade < ?" acceptable])) (find-low-quality 3.0) ;; -> ({:grade 1.4, :name "Tomato"}) The jdbc/query function has several optional keyword parameters which control how it constructs the returned result set. The :result-set-fn parameter specifies a function which is applied to the entire result set (a lazy sequence) before it is returned. The default argument is the doall function. (defn hi-lo [rs] [(first rs) (last rs)]) ;; Find the highest and lowest cost fruits (jdbc/query db-spec ["select * from fruit order by cost desc"] :result-set-fn hi-lo) ;; -> [{:grade nil, :unit nil, :cost 77, :appearance nil, :name "Kumquat"} ;; {:grade 1.4, :unit nil, :cost 10, :appearance "rotten", :name "Tomato"}] The :row-fn parameter specifies a function which is applied to each result row as the result is constructed. The default argument is the identity function. (defn add-tax [row] (assoc row :tax (* 0.08 (row :cost)))) (jdbc/query db-spec ["select name,cost from fruit where cost = 12"] :row-fn add-tax) ;; -> ({:tax 0.96, :cost 12, :name "Plum"} {:tax 0.96, :cost 12, :name "Fig"}) The boolean :as-arrays? parameter indicates whether to return the results as a set of vectors or not. The default argument value is false. (jdbc/query db-spec ["select name,cost,grade from fruit where appearance = 'spotting'"] :as-arrays? true) ;; -> ([:name :cost :grade] ["Banana" 35 nil] ["Mango" 75 7.0]) Finally, the :identifiers parameter takes a function which is applied to each column name in the result set. The default argument is the clojure.string/lower-case func‐ tion, which lowercases the table’s column names before they are converted to keywords. If your application needs to perform some different conversion of column names, pro‐ vide an alternate function using this keyword parameter. 262 | Chapter 6: Databases 4. Mac users: visit to download an easy-to-install DMG. Everyone else: find a guide for your operating system on the PostgreSQL Wiki. The library is a good choice for quick and easy access to most popular relational databases. Its use of Clojure’s vectors and maps to represent records blends well with Clojure’s emphasis on data-oriented programming. Novice users of SQL can conveniently utilize the provided DSLs while expert users can more directly construct and execute complex SQL statements. See Also • Recipe 6.1 to learn about basic database connections with • Recipe 6.2 to learn about pooling connections to an SQL database with BoneCP and • Visit the GitHub repository for more detailed information on the library. • Visit the java-jdbc/dsl GitHub repository for more information on the SQL query generation capabilities it provides. Alternatively, investigate the Honey SQL, SQLingvo or Korma libraries for SQL query generation. Korma is covered in Recipe 6.4. 6.4. Simplifying SQL with Korma by Dmitri Sotnikov and Chris Allen Problem You want to work with data stored in a relational database without writing SQL by hand. Solution Use Korma as a DSL for generating SQL queries and traversing relationships. Before starting, add [korma "0.3.0-RC6"] and [org.postgresql/postgresql "9.2-1002-jdbc4"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try korma org.postgresql/postgresql To follow along with this recipe, you’ll need a running SQL database and existing table to connect to. We suggest PostgreSQL 4 After you have PostgreSQL running (presumably on localhost:5432) run the following command to create a database for this recipe: 6.4. Simplifying SQL with Korma | 263 # On Mac $ /Applications/ learn_korma # Everyone else: $ createdb learn_korma To connect to the learn_korma database, use defdb with the postgres helper. Because Korma is a rather large DSL, it is acceptable to :refer :all its contents into model namespaces. (require '[korma.db :refer :all]) (defdb db (postgres {:db "learn_korma"})) To interact with a table in your database, define and create what Korma calls entities. Here you’ll define an entity for blog posts: (defentity posts (pk :id) (table :posts) ; Table name (entity-fields :title :content)) ; Default fields to SELECT Normally you’d use a proper migration library for your schema, but for the sake of simplicity we’ll create a table manually. Use the exec-raw function to execute raw SQL statements against the database. You should only do this where strictly necessary. (def create-posts (str "CREATE TABLE posts " "(id serial, title text, content text," "created_on timestamp default current_timestamp);")) (exec-raw create-posts) Now that the posts table exists, you can invoke insert against posts with a map’s values to add records to the database. Each record is represented by a map. The names of the keys in the map must match the names of the columns in the database. (insert posts (values nil {:title "First post" :content "blah blah blah"})) To retrieve values from the database, query using select. Successful queries will return a sequence of maps, each containing keys representing the column names. (select posts (limit 1)) ;; -> [{:created_on #inst "2013-11-01T19:21:10.652920000-00:00", ;; :content "blah blah blah", ;; :title "First post", ;; :id 1}] To correct or change exist records, use the update macro. Invoke update against posts, providing a set-fields declaration to specify what should change and a where declaration narrowing what records to make those changes to. 264 | Chapter 6: Databases (update posts (set-fields {:title "Best Post"}) (where {:title "First post"})) ;; -> {:title "Best Post", :id 1 ...} The delete macro works similarly to update, but doesn’t take a set-fields declaration. (delete posts (where {:title "Best Post"})) (select posts) ;; -> [] Discussion Korma provides a simple and intuitive way to construct SQL queries from Clojure. The advantage of using Korma is that the queries are written as regular code instead of SQL strings. You can easily compose queries together and abstract common operations. Korma exposes these abilities through its entity system. Entities are an abstraction over traditional SQL tables that mask the complexity of SQL’s crufty and complicated DDL (Data Definition Language). Via the defentity macro, you have access to all of the power of traditional SQL, packaged in a readable, Clojure-based DSL. When defining entities with defentity you can pass in a number of options. Some common options include table to specify a table name, pk to specify the default ID field (primary key), entity-fields to specify the default fields for SELECT statements, or even db to specify which database the entity belongs in. Entities also simplify defining relations between tables. Entity declaration statements such as has-one, has-many, belongs-to and many-to-many define relationships to other entities. Consider adding an author to each of our blog posts: ;; Create authors that assume posts has an author_id (defentity authors ;; By default, foreign-key will be :authors_id, but that is a little ;; awkward... (has-many posts {:fk :author_id})) ;; Re-define posts such that it assumes it has an author_id (defentity posts (belongs-to authors {:fk :author_id})) ;; Create the authors table (exec-raw "CREATE TABLE authors (id serial, name text);") ;; Add the authors_id field to posts (exec-raw "ALTER TABLE posts ADD COLUMN author_id int;") (def ryan (insert authors (values {:name "Ryan"}))) ryan 6.4. Simplifying SQL with Korma | 265 ;; -> {:name "Ryan", :id 1} (insert posts (values [{:title "My first post!", :author_id (:id ryan)} {:title "My second post.", :author_id (:id ryan)}])) (select posts (where {:author_id (:id ryan)})) ;; -> [{:author_id 1, ;; ... ;; :title "My first post!", ;; :id 4} ;; {:author_id 1, ;; ... ;; :title "My second post.", ;; :id 5}] Stemming from its entity system, Korma provides DSL versions of common SQL state‐ ments such as select, update, insert and delete. One of the most interesting query types is select, which provides support for most every SELECT statement option, in‐ clude simplified table-joins (via its relation helpers). Some notable helpers include: aggregate, join, order, group and having--chances are, if it is a SQL statement feature, Korma has a helper for it. Korma’s DSL isn’t only convenient, it’s also composable. Using select* instead of se lect returns a query as a value, instead of an evaluated result. You can pipeline query values through regular select-helpers to build up or store partial queries. Finally, in‐ voke select on a query value to execute it and receive its result. (defn authors-posts "Retrieve all posts for a person with a given name" [name] (-> (select* posts) (with authors) (where { name}))) ;; Find the title of all posts by author named "Ryan" (-> (authors-posts "Ryan") (where (like :title "%second%")) (fields :title) select) ;; -> [{:title "My second post."}] Another convenience Korma provides is default connections. You may have noticed in the examples we never referred to the db we defined. When only a single connection is defined it will be used by default and you don’t have to pass it explicitly. If you like you can define multiple connections and wrap series of statements in a with-db call (with-db db (select (authors-posts "Ryan"))) 266 | Chapter 6: Databases 5. We would normally suggest using lein-try, but the plugin is currently incompatible with Clucy. See Also • For more information, see the official Korma project page. 6.5. Performing Full-text Search with Lucene by Osbert Feng Problem You want to support flexible full text search over a unstructured or semi-structured dataset using Lucene. For example, return all people that have “Clojure” anywhere in their job descriptions in the “United States”. Solution Use Clucy, a Clojure wrapper for Lucene. Clucy provides the tools to build and query indexes from within a Clojure process. To follow along with this recipe, create a new project (lein new text-search), add [clucy "0.4.0"] to its dependencies and start a REPL using lein repl 5. The following code creates and queries a simple in-memory index: (require '[clucy.core :as clucy]) (def index (clucy/memory-index)) ;; -> #'user/index (clucy/add index {:name "Alice" :description "Clojure expert" :location "North Carolina, United States"} {:name "Bob" :description "Clojure novice" :location "Berlin, Germany"} {:name "Eve" :description "Eavesdropper" :location "Maryland, United States"}) ;; -> nil (clucy/search index "description:clojure AND location:\"united states\"" 10) ;; -> ({:name "Alice", :location "North Carolina, United States", :description "Clojure expert"}) Discussion Lucene is a Java library for information retrieval. To use Lucene, you generate documents and index them for later retrieval. Documents consist of fields and terms. In this example 6.5. Performing Full-text Search with Lucene | 267 the documents are quite small, but Lucene is capable of efficiently indexing large num‐ bers of very large documents as well. Clucy wraps Lucene in a convenient manner for use in Clojure, and is capable of gen‐ erating Lucene documents directly from simple Clojure maps, where keys map to fields and values map to textual data to be indexed. clucy.core/search takes an index, a query string, and the number of results to return as parameters. Lucene is able to efficiently query in part because it is not necessary to return all matching documents, just the top n best matches. Clucy does not work as well out of the box with nested values in your maps. Be sure to flatten out values into simple strings for proper in‐ dexing and retrieval. This example uses a memory-index, which stores the index in system memory. In most real applications, you’ll want to persist the index to disk, allowing it to grow larger than the available memory, and allowing you to restart your process without re-indexing. Clucy lets you construct a Lucene disk index via the disk-index function. (def index (clucy.core/disk-index "/tmp/index")) As part of the process for generating documents, Lucene calls an analyzer on your strings to generate tokens for indexing. The default StandardAnalyzer is sufficient for most purposes, and can be customized with a list of “stop words” to be ignored during token generation. (import 'org.apache.lucene.analysis.standard.StandardAnalyzer) ;; -> org.apache.lucene.analysis.standard.StandardAnalyzer (import 'org.apache.lucene.analysis.util.CharArraySet) ;; -> org.apache.lucene.analysis.util.CharArraySet (def stop-words (doto (CharArray. clucy.core/*version* 3 true) (.add "do") (.add "not") (.add "index"))) (binding [clucy.core/*analyzer* (StandardAnalyzer. clucy.core/*version* stop-words)] ;; invoke index add and search forms here, within the binding ) 268 | Chapter 6: Databases However, in other situations you may need to use a different Analyzer or write your own. For example, the EnglishAnalyzer uses Porter stemming and other techniques more well suited for taking into account pluralization or possessives. (import org.apache.lucene.analysis.en.EnglishAnalyzer) ;; -> org.apache.lucene.analysis.en.EnglishAnalyzer (binding [clucy.core/*analyzer* (EnglishAnalyzer. clucy.core/*version*)] ;; invoke index add and search forms here, within the binding ) The basic search query syntax is field:term. By default multiple clauses will perform an OR search, so an explicit AND is required if both clauses must be true. If no field is specified, there an implicit field _content that indexes all map values. Documents returned are ordered by Lucene’s default relevance algorithm which takes into account term frequency, distance, and document length. (clucy.core/search index "clojure united states" 10) ;; -> ({:name "Alice", :location "North Carolina, United States", :description "Clojure expert"} ;; {:name "Eve", :location "Maryland, United States", :description "Eavesdropper"} ;; {:name "Bob", :location "Berlin, Germany", :description "Clojure novice"}) See Also • The Lucene project homepage. • The Clucy GitHub repository. 6.6. Indexing Data with ElasticSearch by Michael Klishin Problem You want to index data using the the ElasticSearch indexing and search engine. Solution Use Elastisch, a minimalistic Clojure wrapper around the ElasticSearch Java APIs. In order to successfully work through the examples in this recipe, you should have ElasticSearch installed and running on your local system. You can find details on how to install it on the ElasticSearch website. ElasticSearch supports multiple transports (e.g. HTTP, native Netty-based transport, Memcached, etc). Elastisch supports HTTP and native transports. This recipe will use 6.6. Indexing Data with ElasticSearch | 269 HTTP transport client for examples and explain how to switch to the native transport in the Discussion section. To follow along with this recipe, add [clojurewerkz/elastisch "1.2.0"] to your project’s dependencies, or start a REPL use lein-try: $ lein try clojurewerkz/elastisch Before you can index and search with Elastisch, it is necessary to tell Elastisch what ElasticSearch node to use. To use the HTTP transport, you use the clojurewerkz.elas! function that takes an endpoint as its sole argument: (require '[ :as esr]) (esr/connect! "") Indexing Before data can be searched over, it needs to be indexed. Indexing is the process of scanning the text and building a list of search terms and data structures called a search index. Search index allows search engines such as ElasticSearch to retrieve relevant documents for a query efficiently. The process of indexing involves a few steps: • Create an index • [Optionally] Defining mappings (how documents should be indexed) • Submitting documents for indexing via HTTP or other APIs To create an index, use the function: (require '[ :as esi]) (esr/connect! "") ;; creates an index with given settings and no custom mapping types. (esi/create "test1") ;; creates an index with custom settings (esi/create "test2" :settings {"number_of_shards" 1})) A full explanation of the available indexing settings is outside the scope of this recipe. Please refer to the Elastisch documentation on indexing for full details. Creating Mappings Mappings define which fields in documents are indexed, if and how they are tokenized, analyzed and so on. Each index in ElasticSearch may have one or more mapping 270 | Chapter 6: Databases types. Mapping types can be thought of as tables in a database (although this analogy does not always hold). Mapping types are specified when an index is created using the :mapping option: (esr/connect! "") ;; Mapping types map structure is the same as in the ElasticSearch API reference (def mapping-types {"person" {:properties {:username {:type "string" :store "yes"} :first-name {:type "string" :store "yes"} :last-name {:type "string"} :age {:type "integer"} :title {:type "string" :analyzer "snowball"} :planet {:type "string"} :biography {:type "string" :analyzer "snowball" :term_vector "with_positions_offsets"}}}}) (esi/create "test3" :mappings mapping-types))) Indexing documents To add a document to an index, use the create function. This will cause a document id to be generated automatically: (require '[ :as esd]) (esr/connect! "") (def mapping-types {"person" {:properties {:username {:type "string" :store "yes"} :first-name {:type "string" :store "yes"} :last-name {:type "string"} :age {:type "integer"} :title {:type "string" :analyzer "snowball"} :planet {:type "string"} :biography {:type "string" :analyzer "snowball" :term_vector "with_positions_offsets"}}}}) (esi/create "test4" :mappings mapping-types) (def doc {:username "happyjoe" :first-name "Joe" :last-name "Smith" :age 30 :title "The Boss" :planet "Earth" :biography "N/A"}) 6.6. Indexing Data with ElasticSearch | 271 (esd/create "test4" "person" doc) ;; => {:ok true, :_index people, :_type person, :_id "2vr8sP-LTRWhSKOxyWOi_Q", :_version 1} will add a document to the index but ex‐ pects document id to be provided: (esr/put "test4" "person" "happyjoe" doc) Discussion Whenever a document is added to the ElasticSearch index, it is first analyzed. Analysis is a process of several stages: • Tokenization: breaking field values into tokens • Filtering or modifying tokens • Combining them with field names to produce terms How exactly a document was analyzed defines what search queries will match (find) it. ElasticSearch is based on Apache Lucene and offers several analyzers developers can use to achieve the kind of search quality and performance requirements they need. For example, different languages require different analyzers: English, Mandarin Chinese, Arabic and Russian cannot be analyzed the same way. It is possible to skip performing analysis for fields and specify if field values are stored in the index or not. Fields that are not stored still can be searched over but will not be included into search results. ElasticSearch allows users to define how exactly different kinds of documents are in‐ dexed, analyzed and stored. ElasticSearch has excellent support for multi-tenancy: an ElasticSearch cluster can have a virtually unlimited number of indexes and mapping types. For example, you can use a separate index per user account or organization in a SaaS (software as a service) prod‐ uct. There are two ways to index a document with ElasticSearch: submit it for indexing without the id or update a document with a provided id, in which case if the document already exists, it will be updated (a new version will be created). While it is fine and common to use automatically created indexes early in development, manually creating indexes lets you configure a lot about how ElasticSearch will index your data and, in turn, what kind of queries it will be possible to execute against it. How your data is indexed is primarily controlled by mappings. They define which fields in documents are indexed, if/how they are analyzed and if they are stored. Each index in ElasticSearch may have one or more mapping types. Mapping types can be thought of as tables in a database (although this analogy does not always stand). Mapping types 272 | Chapter 6: Databases is the heart of indexing in ElasticSearch and provide access to a lot of ElasticSearch functionality. For example, a blogging application may have types such as “article”, “comment” and “person”. Each has distinct mapping settings that define a set of fields documents of the type have, how they are supposed to be indexed (and, in turn, what kind of queries will be possible over them), what language each field is in and so on. Getting mapping types right for your application is the key to good search experience. It also takes time and experimentation. Mapping types define document fields and of what core types (e.g. string, integer or date/time) they are. Settings are provided to ElasticSearch as a JSON document and this is how they are documented on the ElasticSearch site. With Elastisch, mapping settings are specified as Clojure maps with the same structure (schema). A very minimalistic example: {"tweet" {:properties {:username {:type "string" :index "not_analyzed"}}}} Here is a brief and very incomplete list of things that you can define via mapping settings: • Document fields, their types, whether they are analyzed • Document time-to-live (TTL) • Whether document type is indexed • Special fields ("_all", default field, etc) • Document-level boosting • Timestamp field When an index is created using the function, mapping settings are passed with the :mappings option, as seen above. When it is necessary to update mapping for an index, you can use the clojurewerkz.elas‐ function: (esi/update-mapping "myapp_development" "person" :mapping {:properties {:first-name {:type "string" :store "no"}}}) In a mapping configuration, settings are passed as maps where keys are names (strings or keywords) and values are maps of the actual settings. In this example, the only setting is :properties which defines a single field which is a string that is not analyzed: {"tweet" {:properties {:username {:type "string" :index "not_analyzed"}}}} There is more to indexing and mapping options outside the scope of a single reciple. See the Elastisch Indexing Documentation for an exhaustive list of the capabilities pro‐ vided. 6.6. Indexing Data with ElasticSearch | 273 See Also • The official elasticsearch Elasticsearch Guide • The Elastisch Homepage. 6.7. Working with Cassandra by Alex Petrov Problem You want to work with data stored in Cassandra. Solution Use the Cassaforte library for connecting to Cassandra cluster and work with the records in the database. In order to successfully work through the examples in this recipe, you should have Cassandra installed. You can find details on how to install Cassandra at http:// To follow along with this recipe, add [clojurewerkz/cassaforte "1.1.0"] to your project’s dependencies, or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try clojurewerkz/cassaforte In order to connect to Cassandra cluster and create and use your first keyspace, you will need the clojurewerkz.cassaforte.client, clojurewerkz.cassaforte.cql and clo jurewerkz.cassaforte.query namespaces. clojurewerkz.cassaforte.client is re‐ sponsible for connection, the other two provide a easy interface to execute queries. (require '[clojurewerkz.cassaforte.client :as client] '[clojurewerkz.cassaforte.cql :as cql] '[clojurewerkz.cassaforte.query :as q]) ;; Connect to 2 nodes in a cluster (client/connect! ["localhost" "another.node.local"]) ;; Creates a keyspace name `cassaforte_keyspace`, using Simple Replication Strategy and replication factor of 2 (cql/create-keyspace "cassaforte_keyspace" (q/with {:replication {:class "SimpleStrategy" :replication_factor 2 }})) ;; Switch to the keyspace (cql/use-keyspace "cassaforte_keyspace") 274 | Chapter 6: Databases Now, you can create tables and start inserting data into them. For that, invoke the create-table and insert functions of the clojurewerkz.cassaforte.cql name‐ space. (cql/create-table "users" (q/column-definitions {:name :varchar :city :varchar :age :int :primary-key [:name]})) Now, insert several users into the table: (cql/insert "users" {:name "Alex" :city "Munich" :age (int 26)}) (cql/insert "users" {:name "Robert" :city "Brussels" :age (int 30)}) You can access these records using select query. For example, if you want to retrieve all the users from the table or use limit in your query, you can run: ;; Will retrieve all the users (cql/select "users") ;; Will retrieve top 10 users (cql/select "users" (q/limit 10)) Alternatively, if you want to retrieve information about a single person, by given name, you can add a where clause to it: (cql/select "users" (q/where :name "Alex")) Discussion Cassandra is an open source implementations of many of the ideas in Amazon’s land‐ mark Dynamo Paper. It’s a key-value data store, and it’s not aware of any relationships between tables and data points. Cassandra is a distributed data store and designed to be highly available. For that, it replicates data within the cluster. The data is stored redun‐ dantly on multiple nodes. In case one node fails, data is still available for retrieval from a different node or multiple nodes. Cassandra starts making sense when your data is rather big. Because it was built for distribution, you can scale your reads and writes, and fine-tune and manage your da‐ tabase consistency and availability. Cassandra handles network partitions well, so even when your several nodes are unavailable for some time, you will still be able to read and write data until the network partition heals. If your dataset is rather small, and you don’t expect it to grow significantly any time soon, and you need to run many ad-hoc queries against the dataset, then Cassandra may not make sense. Consistency/Availability are tunable values: you can get better availability by sacrificing data consistency, which means that due to network partitions not all the nodes will hold the latest snapshot of data at all times, but you’ll be still able to respond to writes and receive reads. If you choose to have strong consistency, the latency will increase, since 6.7. Working with Cassandra | 275 more nodes should respond successfully for reads and writes. Eventual consistency guarantees that, if no conflicting writes are made for the data point, eventually all nodes will hold the latest value. Like most data stores, Cassandra has concepts of separate databases (keyspaces in Cas‐ sandra terminology). Every keyspace holds tables (that are sometimes called column families). Tables hold rows, and rows consist of columns. Each column has a key (col‐ umn name), value, write timestamp and time-to live. Cassandra uses two different communication protocols; an older binary protocol called Thrift, and CQL (Cassandra Query Language). All query operators in Cassaforte gen‐ erate CQL code under the hood. Here are a couple of examples of how these operations translate to CQL internally: (cql/select "users" (q/where :name "Alex")) ;; SELECT * FROM users WHERE name='Alex'; (cql/insert "users" {:name "Alex" :city "Munich" :age (int 26)}) ;; INSERT INTO users (name, city) VALUES ('Munich', 26); There’s much more to Cassandra than just creating tables and inserting values. If you want to update records in your database, you can call the update function: (cql/update "users" {:city "Berlin"} (q/where :name "Alex")) Deleting records from the database is just as easy: ;; Will delete just one user (cql/delete :users (q/where :name "Alex")) ;; Will delete all users whose names match within IN clause (cql/delete :users (q/where :name [:in ["Alex" "Robert"]])) If you’d like to execute some arbitrary CQL statements, outside of Cassaforte’s macro- based DSL, you can pass a string to the client/execute function: (client/execute "INSERT INTO users (name, city, age) VALUES ('Alex', 'Munich', 19);") For each issued write you can specify an optional TTL (time to live) to expire the data after certain period of time. It’s useful for caching and data that you only want to hold for certain period of time (like user sessions, for example). For example, if you want the record to live for just 60 seconds, you can run: (cql/insert "users" {:name "Alex" :city "Munich" :age (int 26)} (q/using :ttl 60)) Another concept that people like about Cassandra is distributed counters. Counter col‐ umns provide an efficient way to count or sum anything you need. It is achieved by 276 | Chapter 6: Databases using atomic increment/decrement operations on values. In order to create a table with a counter from Cassaforte, you can use the :counter column type: (cql/create-table :scores (q/column-definitions {:username :varchar :score :counter :primary-key [:username]})) You can increment and decrement counters by using the increment-by and decrement- by queries: (cql/update :scores {:score (q/increment-by 50)} (q/where :name "Alex")) (cql/update :scores {:score (q/decrement-by 5)} (q/where :name "Robert")) See Also • The Cassaforte documentation 6.8. Working with MongoDB by Clinton Dreisbach Problem You want to work with data stored in MongoDB. Solution Use Monger to connect to MongoDB and search or manipulate the data. Monger is a Clojure wrapper around the Java MongoDB driver. Before using Mongo from your Clojure code, you must have a running instance of MongoDB to connect to. See MongoDB’s installation guide for instructions on how to install MongoDB on your local system. When you’re ready to write a Clojure MongoDB client, start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try com.novemberain/monger To connect to MongoDB, use the monger.core/connect! function. This will store your connection in the *mongodb-connection* dynamic var. If you want to get a connection to use without storing it in a dynamic var, you can use monger.core/connect with the same options. 6.8. Working with MongoDB | 277 (require '[monger.core :as mongo]) ;; Connect to localhost. (mongo/connect! {:host "" :port 27017}) ;; Disconnect when you are done. (mongo/disconnect!) Once you are connected, you can insert and query documents easily. (require '[monger.core :as mongo] '[monger.collection :as coll]) (import '[org.bson.types ObjectId]) ;; Sets the database in the *mongodb-database* var. (mongo/use-db! "mongo-time") ;; Inserts one document. (coll/insert "users" {:name "Jeremiah Forthright" :state "TX"}) ;; Inserts a batch of documents. (coll/insert-batch "users" [{:name "Pete Killibrew" :state "KY"} {:name "Wendy Perkins" :state "OK"} {:name "Steel Whitaker" :state "OK"} {:name "Sarah LaRue" :state "WY"}]) ;; Finds all documents and returns a com.mongodb.DBCursor. (coll/find "users") ;; Finds all documents matching a query and returns a DBCursor. (coll/find "users" {:state "OK"}) ;; Finds documents and returns them as Clojure maps. (coll/find-maps "users" {:state "OK"}) ;; -> ({:_id #, :state "OK", :name "Wendy Perkins"} ;; {:_id #, :state "OK", :name "Steel Whitaker"}) ;; Finds one document and returns a com.mongodb.DBObject. (coll/find-one "users" {:name "Pete Killibrew"}) ;; Finds one document and returns it as a Clojure map. (coll/find-one-as-map "users" {:name "Sarah LaRue"}) ;; -> {:_id #, :state "WY", :name "Sarah LaRue"} Discussion MongoDB, especially with Monger, can be a natural choice for storing Clojure data. It stores data as BSON (binary JSON), which maps well to Clojure’s own vectors and maps. There are several ways to connect to Mongo, depending on how much you need to customize your connection and whether you have a map of options or a URI. 278 | Chapter 6: Databases ;; Connects to localhost, port 27017 by default. (mongo/connect!) ;; Connects to another machine. (mongo/connect! {:host "" :port 27017}) ;; Connects using more complex options. (let [options (mongo/mongo-options :auto-connect-retry true :connect-timeout 15 :socket-timeout 15) server (mongo/server-address "" 27017)] (mongo/connect! server options)) ;; Connects via a URI. (mongo/connect-via-uri! (System/genenv "MONGOHQ_URL")) When inserting data, giving each document an _id is optional. One will be created for you if you do not have one in your document. It often makes sense to add it yourself, however, if you need to reference the document afterward. (require '[monger.collection :as coll]) (import '[org.bson.types ObjectId]) (let [id (ObjectId.) user {:name "Lola Morales"}] (coll/insert "users" (assoc user :_id id)) ;; Later, look up your user by their id. (coll/find-map-by-id "users" id)) ;; -> {:_id #, :name "Lola Morales"} In its idiomatic usage, Monger is set up to work with one connection and one database, as monger.core/connect! and monger.core/use-db! set dynamic vars to hold their information. It is easy to work around this, though. You can use binding to set these explicitly around code. In addition, you can use the monger.multi.collection name‐ space instead of monger.collection. All functions in the monger.multi.collection namespace take a database as their first argument. (require '[monger.core :as mongo] '[monger.multi.collection :as multi]) (mongo/connect!) ;; use-db! takes a string for the database, as it is a convenience function, ;; but for the monger.multi.collection and other functions, we need to use ;; get-db to get the database. (let [stats-server (mongo/connect "") app-db (mongo/get-db "mongo-time") geo-db (mongo/get-db "geography")] ;; Record data in our stats server. (binding [mongo/*mongodb-connection* stats-server] (multi/insert (mongo/get-db "stats") "access" 6.8. Working with MongoDB | 279 {:ip "" :time (java.util.Date.)})) ;; Find users in our application DB. (multi/find-maps app-db "users" {:state "WY"}) ;; Insert a square in our geography DB. (multi/insert geo-db "shapes" {:name "square" :sides 4 :parallel true :equal true})) The basic find functions in monger.collection will work for simple queries, but you will soon find yourself needing to make more complex queries, which is where mon ger.query comes in. This is a domain-specific language for MongoDB queries. (require '[monger.query :as q]) ;; Find users, skipping the first two and getting the next three. (q/with-collection "users" (q/find {}) (q/skip 2) (q/limit 3)) ;; Gets all the users from Oklahoma, sorted by name. ;; You must use array-map with sort so you can keep keys in order. (q/with-collection "users" (q/find {:state "OK"}) (q/sort (array-map :name 1))) ;; Gets all users not from Oklahoma or with names that start with "S". (q/with-collection "users" (q/find {"$or" [{:state {"$ne" "OK"}} {:name #"^S"}]})) See Also • CongoMongo, another Clojure library for working with MongoDB that you might consider. 6.9. Working with Redis by Jason Webb Problem You want to work with data in Redis. 280 | Chapter 6: Databases Solution Use Carmine to connect to and interact with Redis. To use this recipe you should first install Redis and have it running locally. You can find details on how to install Redis at the official Re‐ dis download page. If you are on Windows you will want to look at the Microsoft Open Tech Github Redis project. To follow along with this recipe, add [com.taoensso/carmine "2.2.0"] to your project’s dependencies, or start REPL using lein-try: $ lein try com.taoensso/carmine To use Carmine, you must first define a connection spec. (def server-connection {:pool {:max-active 8} :spec {:host "localhost" :port 6379 ;;:password "" :timeout 4000}}) Carmine supports all of the Redis commands and the names (for the most part) match the Redis documentation. Use the wcar function and the connection specification server-connection to send all the Redis commands you already know and love: (require `[taoensso.carmine :as car :refer (wcar)]) (wcar server-connection (car/set "Nick" "Nack")) ;; -> "OK" (wcar server-connection (car/get "Nick")) ;; -> "Nack" (wcar server-connection (car/hset "founder" "name" "Tim")) ;; -> 0 (wcar server-connection (car/hset "founder" "age" 59)) ;; -> 0 (wcar server-connection (car/hgetall "founder")) ;; -> [name Tim age 59] Passing in multiple commands will pipeline them and return the results together as a vector: (wcar server-connection (car/set "paddywhacks" 0) (car/incr "paddywhacks") (car/get "paddywhacks")) ;; -> ["OK" 1 "1"] 6.9. Working with Redis | 281 Discussion Redis describes itself as a data structure server. With data structures similar to the core data structures in Clojure, they make a natural pairing for a wide range of problems. Its speed and key/value nature make it especially useful for caching and memoization ap‐ plications (more on that later). You can remove some boiler plate by wrapping the call to wcar in a macro that passes the connection specification for you: (defmacro wcar* [& body] `(car/wcar server-connection ~@body)) (wcar* (car/set "Nick" "Nack")) ;; -> "OK" (wcar* (car/get "Nick")) ;; -> "Nack" Serialization is handled automatically and for most cases just works. Simply pass in the data you want to store and Carmine will automatically serialize/de-serialize it for you: (wcar* (car/set "some-key" {:event "An Event", :timestamp (new java.util.Date)}) (car/get "some-key")) ;; -> [OK {:event An Event, :timestamp #inst "2013-08-18T21:31:33.993-00:00"}] This works great as long as you stick to core Clojure data types. However if you need to support storing custom data types you will need to deal with the underlying serialization library, called Nippy. For more information see the Nippy Github project. Redis is great to use as a memoization storage backend. Obviously there are some serious trade-offs to consider when weighing against an in memory solution, such as the core.cache library. But for the right situation it can be an incredible boost. Consider for example memoizing a function that hits an external web service to fetch the current weather. With minimal effort multiple servers can share the latest data and even have stale data automatically expire and refresh. The following is an example for just such a situation: (defn redis-memoize "Convert a function to one that is memoized using Redis as storage." [key-prefix ttl-seconds connection-spec f] (fn [& args] (let [key-name [key-prefix args]] (if-let [found-result (wcar connection-spec (car/get key-name))] found-result (let [new-result (apply f args)] (wcar connection-spec (car/set key-name new-result) (car/expire key-name ttl-seconds)) new-result))))) This makes a couple assumptions worth noting. First it assumes that the arguments for the function being memoized are supported by Nippy (see serialization above). Second it assumes that the memoized data should be expired after a specified number of seconds. 282 | Chapter 6: Databases To use redis-memoize simply pass in a function. The following is a highly contrived example that uses the server-connection defined above: (defn square [x] (printf "Ran square for: %s\n" x) (* x x)) (def redis-squared (redis-memoize "squared" 10 server-connection square)) (redis-squared 99) ;; -> Ran square for: 99 ;; -> 9801 (redis-squared 99) ;; -> 9801 In addition to the features showcased above, Carmine includes (among other things): serialization, a message queue, distributed locks, a Ring session store and even an im‐ plementation of DynamoDB (which is alpha at time of writing). Many of these features are outside the scope of this recipe, but are well documented and straightforward to use. Consult the Carmine Github project for more information. See Also • The Carmine Github project for more information about Carmine. • The official Redis documentation for a complete list of Redis commands. • The Nippy Github project for information about Serialization. • The Clojure core documentation for documentation of the memoize function. 6.10. Connecting to a Datomic Database by Robert Stuttaford Problem You need to connect to a Datomic database. Solution Before starting, add [com.datomic/datomic-free "0.8.4218"] to your project’s de‐ pendencies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try com.datomic/datomic-free 6.10. Connecting to a Datomic Database | 283 To create and connect to an in-memory database use database.api/create- database and datomic.api/connect. Create a database and connection. (require '[datomic.api :as d]) (def uri "datomic:mem://sample-database") (d/create-database uri) ;; -> true (def conn (d/connect uri)) conn ;; -> # Once you have a connection, you can use it to get a database value with datomic.api/ db. This value is used to query a database. (def db (d/db (d/connect uri))) db ;; -> datomic.db.Db@7b7fea26 You can also use the connection to transact data using datomic.api/transact. ;; Transact the schema for your Next Big Thing (def my-great-schema []) ; This vector intentionally left blank (d/transact (d/connect uri) my-great-schema) Discussion You’ll notice in the solution, we not only connected to a database, but we created it too. This pattern is common when using in-memory databases, as no in-memory databases exist in a fresh JVM. It is not strictly necessary to call create-database if the database already exists, but it is safe to do so--create-database is idempotent and will return false if one already exists. When connecting to a database that isn’t in memory, it is necessary for the relevant transactor and storage service to be running. The return value of d/connect is used when querying a database value or when trans‐ acting data. It is also used when reading the transaction log, consuming the transaction report queue or when performing administrative tasks such as requesting an indexing job, garbage collecting storage, and disposing resources associated with the connection. Connections are thread-safe, and are cached by URI internally, so there is no need to pool connections yourself. There is no performance overhead for creating many con‐ nections to the same URI. 284 | Chapter 6: Databases Storage Services Datomic transactor processes have a limit on the number of concurrently connected peer processes. Datomic Free has a limit of 2 peers per transactor. For non-distributed applications this may well be sufficient. If you’re building a larger service, then you may need a Datomic Pro license for more peers. There are several options for storage services that back Datomic; three are built-in and the rest use external services. Datomic Free includes access to the in-memory and :free storage backends. Datomic Pro and Pro Starter Edition include access to all services. Built-in storage options • In local memory: "datomic:mem://[db-name]" • Free, for use with Datomic Free, subject to a 2-peer limit: "datomic:free:// host[:port]/[db-name]" • Dev, for use with Datomic Pro, subject to the licensed peer limit: "datomic:dev:// host[:port]/[db-name]" Free and Dev can also be configured to use alternate ports for storage: "datom ic:free://host[:port]/[db-name]?h2-port=[port]&h2-web-port=[port]" By default, these ports will be 1 and 2 more than the transactor port, respectively. External storage service options • DynamoDB: "datomic:ddb://[aws-region]/[dynamodb-table]/[db-name]? aws_access_key_id=[XXX]&aws_secret_key=[YYY]" • Riak: "datomic:riak://host[:port]/bucket/dbname[?interface=http|proto buf]" (default is protobuf) • Couchbase: "datomic:couchbase://host/bucket/dbname[?password=xxx]" • Infinispan: "datomic:inf://[cluster-member-host:port]/[db-name]" • SQL: "datomic:sql://[db-name][?jdbc-url]" For SQL storage services, the map format can be used instead of the string format. This is useful when specifying objects that can’t be embedded in URI strings, like DataSour‐ ces. The format for the SQL map is: {:protocol :sql ;; keyword or string :db-name "[db-name]" ;; keyword or string :data-source aDataSourceObject ;; OR :factory aCallableReturningConnection} 6.10. Connecting to a Datomic Database | 285 See Also • Recipe 6.11 • Recipe 6.12 • Sign up for free access to all service storages and Datomic Console via Datomic Pro Starter Edition. 6.11. Defining Schema for a Datomic Database by Robert Stuttaford Problem You need to define how your data will be modelled in Datomic. For example, you need to model users and their user groups, relating the two in some way. Solution Datomic schemas are defined in terms of attributes. It’s probably easiest to jump straight to an example. To follow along with this recipe, complete the steps in “Solution” on page 283. After doing this you should have a in-memory database and connection, conn, to work with. Consider the attributes a user might have: • One email address, which must be unique to the database. • One name, which we index for fast search. • Any number of roles. There are three roles: guest, author, and editor. To define this schema, create a vector with attribute maps for email, name and role, as well as insertions of the three static roles. TODO: Add UML schema diagrams for user and group. (def user-schema [{:db/doc "User email address" :db/ident :user/email :db/valueType :db.type/string :db/cardinality :db.cardinality/one :db/unique :db.unique/identity :db/id #db/id[:db.part/db] :db.install/_attribute :db.part/db} {:db/doc "User name" 286 | Chapter 6: Databases :db/ident :user/name :db/valueType :db.type/string :db/cardinality :db.cardinality/one :db/index true :db/id #db/id[:db.part/db] :db.install/_attribute :db.part/db} {:db/doc "User roles" :db/ident :user/roles :db/valueType :db.type/ref :db/cardinality :db.cardinality/many :db/id #db/id[:db.part/db] :db.install/_attribute :db.part/db} [:db/add #db/id[:db.part/user] :db/ident :user.roles/guest] [:db/add #db/id[:db.part/user] :db/ident :user.roles/author] [:db/add #db/id[:db.part/user] :db/ident :user.roles/editor]]) We define a group as having: • One UUID, which must be unique to the database. • One name, which we index for fast search. • Any number of related users. (def group-schema [{:db/doc "Group UUID" :db/ident :group/uuid :db/valueType :db.type/uuid :db/cardinality :db.cardinality/one :db/unique :db.unique/value :db/id #db/id[:db.part/db] :db.install/_attribute :db.part/db} {:db/doc "Group name" :db/ident :group/name :db/valueType :db.type/string :db/cardinality :db.cardinality/one :db/index true :db/id #db/id[:db.part/db] :db.install/_attribute :db.part/db} {:db/doc "Group users" :db/ident :group/users :db/valueType :db.type/ref :db/cardinality :db.cardinality/many :db/id #db/id[:db.part/db] :db.install/_attribute :db.part/db}]) Finally, transact both schema definitions into a database via a connection. (require '[datomic.api :as d]) 6.11. Defining Schema for a Datomic Database | 287 @(d/transact (d/connect "datomic:mem://sample-database") (concat user-schema group-schema)) ;; -> {:db-before datomic.db.Db@25b48c7b, ;; :db-after datomic.db.Db@5d81650c, ;; :tx-data [#Datum{:e ... :a ... :v ... :tx :added true}, ...], ;; :tempids {-... ..., ...}} Discussion Datomic schema is represented as Clojure data and is added to the database in a trans‐ action, just like any other data we would store. The :db.install/_at tribute :db.part/db key/value is used by the transactor to make the schema available to the rest of the system. Schema is placed in the :db.part/db database partition, a partition reserved for schema. All user data is placed in user partition(s) - either the default of :db.part/user or custom partitions. Partitions are useful for optimising how indexes sort data, which is useful for optimising query. Schema entities require that at least :db/ident, :db/valueType and :db/cardinali ty values are present. Aside from schema, Datomic does not enforce how attributes are combined for any given entity. Datomic only requires that schema be defined up-front, enforcing type and uniqueness constraints at run-time. Use namespaces in schema :db/ident values to help classify entities (such as user in :user/email). Datomic doesn’t do anything specific with namespaces, so using them is optional. There are several options for :db/valueType: Table 6-1. :db/valueType options :db.type/keyword :db.type/string :db.type/long :db.type/boolean :db.type/bigint :db.type/float :db.type/double :db.type/bigdec :db.type/instant :db.type/ref :db.type/uuid :db.type/uri :db.type/bytes See for an exhaustive listing of their semantics. Attributes with :db/valueType :db.type/ref can only have other entities as their val‐ ue(s). You use this type to model relationships between entities. Datomic does not en‐ force which entities are related to on a given :db/valueType :db.type/ref attribute; any other entity can be related to. This means that entities can relate to themselves! 288 | Chapter 6: Databases You also use :db/valueType :db.type/ref and lone :db/ident values to model enu‐ merations, such as the user roles that you defined. These enumerations are not actually schema; they are normal entities with a single attribute, :db/ident. An entity’s :db/ ident value serves as a shorthand for that entity; you may use this value in lieu of the entity’s :db/id value in transactions and queries. Attributes with :db/valueType :db.type/ref and :db/unique values are implicitly indexed as though you had added :db/index true to their definitions. It is also possible to use Lucene full-text indexing on string attributes, using :db/full text true and the system-defined fulltext function in Datalog. There are two options for specifying a uniqueness constraint at :db/unique; :db.unique/ value and :db.unique/identity. • :db.unique/value: disallows attempts to insert a duplicate value for a different entity ID. • :db.unique/identity: designates that the attribute value is unique to each entity and enables “upsert”; any attempts to insert a duplicate value for a temporary entity ID will cause all attributes associated with that temporary ID to be merged with the entity already in the database. In the case where you are modelling entities with sub-entities that only exist in the context of the entity, such as order items on an order or variants for a product, you can use :db/isComponent to simplify working with such sub-entities. It can only be used on attributes of type :db.type/ref. When you use the :db.fn/retractEntity function in a transaction, any entities on the value side of such attributes for the retracted entity will be also be retracted. Also, when you use d/touch to realize all the lazy keys in an entity map, component entities will also be realized. Both the retraction and realization behaviours are recursive. By default, Datomic stores all past values of attributes. If you do not wish to keep past values for a particular attribute, use :db/noHistory true to have Datomic discard pre‐ vious values. Using this attribute is much like using a traditional update-in-place data‐ base. See Also • Recipe 6.12 for more information on transacting datoms (schema!) 6.11. Defining Schema for a Datomic Database | 289 6.12. Writing Data to Datomic by Robert Stuttaford Problem You need to add data to your Datomic database. Solution Use a Datomic connection to transact data. To follow along with this recipe, complete the steps in “Solution” on page 283 and “Solution” on page 286. After doing this you will have a connection, conn, and a schema installed against which you can insert data. (require '[datomic.api :as d :refer [q db]]) (def tx-data [{:db/id (d/tempid :db.part/user) :user/email "" :user/name "Martin Fowler" :user/roles [:user.roles/author :user.roles/editor]}]) @(d/transact conn tx-data) (q '[:find ?name :where [?e :user/name ?name]] (:db-after tx-result)) ;; -> #{["Martin Fowler"]} Discussion This map-based syntax for representing the data expands to a series of :db/add state‐ ments. This transaction is identical to the previous one: (def new-id (d/tempid :db.part/user)) new-id ;; -> #db/id[:db.part/user -1000013] (def tx-data2 [[:db/add new-id :user/email ""] [:db/add new-id :user/name "Ryan Neufeld"] [:db/add new-id :user/roles [:user.roles/author :user.roles/editor]]]) (def tx-result @(d/transact conn tx-data2)) ;; Keep this for later... (q '[:find ?name :where [?e :user/name ?name]] (db conn)) ;; -> #{["Ryan Neufeld"] ["Martin Fowler"]} 290 | Chapter 6: Databases Of course, you can provide statements like these yourself, as well using the map syntax in the Solution, or any mix of the two. This is also how you would transact multiple entries (e.g. (d/transact conn [person1-map person2-map])). One difference you’ll note between the map and the expanded form is the lack of a :db/ add statement for the :db/id key. In the expanded form this value comes immediately after the action (:db/add) and must be identical between all statements to correlate attributes to a single entity. When specifying an entity as a map you provide a single ID which the transactor transparently affixes to each attribute. What is an appropriate ID? Any IDs for new entities are assigned temporary, negative ID values, which can be used to model relationships within the transaction. Upon suc‐ cessfully completing a transaction, all the temporary IDs are assigned in-storage positive ID values. When working with code, the correct approach is to use the datomic.api/ tempid function to obtain a temporary ID. The datomic.api/tempid function takes a partition keyword as its arguments; for most purposes :db.part/user will suffice When working with non-executable data, you’ll need to use the data-literal form for temporary IDs. The literal #db/id [:db.part/user] is equivalent to (d/ tempid :db.part/user). This form is most useful when you store transaction data in an *.edn file, which is most often the case with schema definitions. Again, you should use d/tempid in your code, as the #db/id literal will evaluate once at compile time, which means that any code that expects the ID value to change from one execution to the next will fail, because it’ll only ever have one value. An example file: user-bootstrap.edn. [{:db/id #db/id [:db.part/user] :user/email "" :user/name "Martin Fowler" :user/roles [:user.roles/author :user.roles/editor]}] When a transaction completes, you’ll receive a completed future. If you prefer to transact asynchronously, you can also use d/transact-async instead, which will return its future immediately. In this case, as with all futures, when you dereference it, it will block until the transaction completes. Either way, dereferencing the future returns a map, with four keys: • :db-before: the value of the database just before the transaction was committed. • :db-after: the value of the database just after the transaction was committed. • :tx-data: a vector of all the datoms that were transacted. • :tempids: a mapping of the temporary ids to the in-storage ids, one per temporary id in the transaction. You can use the :db-after database to query the database directly after the transaction: 6.12. Writing Data to Datomic | 291 (def db-after-tx (:db-after tx-result)) (q '[:find ?name :in $ ?email :where [?entity :user/email ?email] [?entity :user/name ?name]] db-after-tx "") ;; -> #{["Martin Fowler"]} You can use the :tempids map to find the in-storage IDs for any new entities you care about, much like you would when retrieving the last insert ID in SQL databases. Invoke datomic.api/resolve-tempid with the :db-after value, :tempids value and the orig‐ inal temporary ID to retrieve the realized ID. (d/resolve-tempid db-after-tx (:tempids tx-result) new-id) ;; -> 17592186045421 See Also • Recipe 6.11 • Recipe 6.13 • Recipe 6.14 6.13. Removing data from a Datomic Database by Robert Stuttaford Problem You need to remove data from your Datomic database. Solution To remove a value for an attribute, you should use the :db/retract operation in trans‐ actions. To follow along with this recipe, complete the steps in “Solution” on page 283 and “Solution” on page 286. After doing this you will have a connection, conn, and a schema installed against which you can insert data. To start things off, add a user, Barney Rubble, and verify that he has an email address: (def new-id (d/tempid :db.part/user)) (def tx-result @(d/transact conn [{:db/id new-id :user/name "Barney Rubble" 292 | Chapter 6: Databases :user/email ""}])) (def after-tx-db (:db-after tx-result)) (def barney-id (d/resolve-tempid after-tx-db (:tempids tx-result) new-id)) barney-id ;; -> 17592186045429 (d/q '[:find ?email :in $ ?entity-id :where [?entity-id :user/email ?email]] after-tx-db barney-id) ;; -> #{[""]} To retract Barney’s email, transact a transaction with the :db/retract operation. (def retract-tx-result @(d/transact conn [[:db/retract barney-id :user/email ""]])) (def after-retract-db (:db-after retract-tx-result)) (d/q '[:find ?email :in $ ?entity-id :where [?entity-id :user/email ?email]] after-retract-db barney-id) ;; -> #{} To retract entire entities, use the :db.fn/retractEntity built-in transactor function: (def retract-entity-tx-result @(d/transact conn [[:db.fn/retractEntity barney-id]])) (def after-retract-entity-db (:db-after retract-entity-tx-result)) (d/q '[:find ?entity-id :in $ ?name :where [?entity-id :user/name ?name]] after-retract-entity-db "Barney Rubble") ;; -> #{} Discussion When using :db/retract, you provide the value to retract so that in the case of cardinality-many attributes, it’s clear which value to retract from the set of values for that attribute. Regardless of the cardinality, if you provide a value that isn’t in storage, nothing will be retracted. This means that you have to know what value you want to retract; you can’t simply retract everything for an attribute by only providing the entity id and the attribute. 6.13. Removing data from a Datomic Database | 293 If you retract values for an attribute that does not use :db/noHistory, you will be able to query past database values to find past values for the attribute. If you retract values for an attribute that uses :db/noHistory, that data will be perma‐ nently deleted. When using :db.fn/retractEntity, all attribute values for all the attributes on that entity will be retracted, as will all :db/ref attributes that have the entity as a value. Any component entities of the entity being retracted will be themselves be recursively re‐ tracted. You’ll find that the actual entity ID itself is not retracted, but that it will have no attributes associated with it. This is because once an entity is created, it can not be retracted. Removing all the attributes and references to the entity has the same effect as though it had been permanently removed, though! If you need to permanently remove data due to legal concerns or because the data in question falls outside of your domain-specified retention period, use Excision to remove the data permanently. See Also •, the blog post covering the excision feature. 6.14. Trying Datomic Transactions without Committing Them by Robert Stuttaford Problem You want to test a transaction prior to committing it using Datalog or the entity API. Solution Build your transaction as usual, but instead of calling d/transact or d/transact- async, use d/with to produce an in-memory database that includes the changes your transaction provides. To follow along with this recipe, complete the steps in “Solution” on page 283 and “Solution” on page 286. After doing this you will have a connection, conn, and a schema installed against which you can insert data. 294 | Chapter 6: Databases First, add some data to the database about Fred Flintstone. As of about 4000 BCE Fred didn’t have an email, but we at least know his name. (require '[datomic.api :as d]) (def new-id (d/tempid :db.part/user)) (def tx-result @(d/transact conn [{:db/id new-id :user/name "Fred Flintstone"}])) Fast forward to today: Fred is thawed, after having been frozen in ice for 6000 years, and he gets his first email address. Prepare a transaction to add an email to the Fred entity. ;; Grab Fred's ID from the original transaction (def fred-id (d/resolve-tempid (:db-after tx-result) (:tempids tx-result) new-id)) fred-id ;; -> 17592186045421 (def add-freds-email-tx [[:db/add fred-id :user/email ""]]) Now, prepare an in-memory database with this new transaction applied. First, get the current database value to use as a basis, then create an in-memory database. Finally grab the :db-after value so that you can test that the email was properly added: (defn db-with "Return a new database with tx applied" [db tx] (-> (d/with db tx) :db-after)) (def db-after (db-with (d/db conn) add-freds-email-tx)) Now, compare the value of Fred’s email in the current database with that of Fred’s email in the in-memory database: (defn users-email "Retrieve a user's email given their name." [db name] (-> (d/q '[:find ?email :in $ ?name :where [?entity :user/name ?name] [?entity :user/email ?email]] db name) ffirst)) 6.14. Trying Datomic Transactions without Committing Them | 295 (users-email db-after "Fred Flintstone") ;; -> "" (users-email (d/db conn) "Fred Flintstone") ;; -> nil As you can see, the current database remains unaffected by this transaction, but the database at db-after now displays the new value. Discussion Databases produced by d/with can be used with any of the other API functions that accept a database, including d/with itself. This means that you can layer multiple trans‐ actions on top of each other without first having to commit them to the transactor! One of the things that makes Datomic so powerful is its ability to treat a database as a value. For this reason, the helper functions we’ve written take a database as an argument, not a connection. Now, it is not only possible to query the current database, but other values of the database. See Also • Recipe 6.12 for more general information on transacting data. 6.15. Traversing Datomic Indices by Alan Busby and Ryan Neufeld Problem You want to execute simple Datomic queries with high-performance. Solution Use the datomic.api/datoms function to directly access the core Datomic indices in your database. To follow along with this recipe, complete the steps in “Solution” on page 283 and “Solution” on page 286. After doing this you will have a connection, conn, and a schema installed against which you can insert data. For example, to quickly find the entities which have the provided attribute and value set, invoke datomic.api/datoms, specifying the :avet index (attribute, value, entity, transaction) and the desired attribute and value. 296 | Chapter 6: Databases This will only work for attributes where :db/index is true, or :db/ unique is not nil. (require '[datomic.api :as d]) (d/transact conn [{:db/id (d/tempid :db.part/user) :user/name "Barney Rubble" :user/email ""}]) (defn entities-with-attr-val "Return entities with a given attribute and value." [db attr val] (->> (d/datoms db :avet attr val) (map :e) (map (partial d/entity db)))) (def barney (first (entities-with-attr-val (d/db conn) :user/email ""))) (:user/email barney) ;; -> "" To quickly determine all of the attributes an entity has, use the :eavt-ordered index. (defn entities-attrs "Return attrs of an entity" [db entity] (->> (d/datoms db :eavt (:db/id entity)) (map :a) (map (partial d/entity db)) (map :db/ident))) (entities-attrs (d/db conn) barney) ;; -> (:user/email :user/name) To quickly find entities that refer, via :db.type/ref, to a provided entity, use the :vaet- ordered index. ;; Add a person that refers to a :user.roles/author role (d/transact conn [{:db/id (d/tempid :db.part/user) :user/name "Ryan Neufeld" :user/email "" :user/roles [:user.roles/author :user.roles/editor]}]) (defn referring-to "Find all entities referring to an entity as a certain attribute." [db entity] (->> (d/datoms db :vaet (:db/id entity) ) 6.15. Traversing Datomic Indices | 297 (map :e) (map (partial d/entity db)))) (def author-entity (d/entity (d/db conn) :user.roles/author)) ;; The names of all users with a :user.roles/author role (map :user/name (referring-to (d/db conn) author-entity)) ;; -> ("Ryan Neufeld") Discussion For simple lookup queries, like “find by attribute” or “find by value”, nothing beats Datomic’s raw indices in terms of performance. The datomic.api/datoms interface provides access to all of Datomic’s indices, and conveniently lets you dive in any number of levels, “biting off” only the data you need. As with most Datomic functions, datoms takes a db as its first argument. You’ll note in our examples, and elsewhere in the book, we too accept a database as a value, and not a connection—this idiom allows API users to perform varying numbers of operations on the same database value. You should always try to do this yourself. datoms second argument is the particular index you want to access. Each of these is a permutation of e, entity, a, attribute, v, value, and t, transaction. The order of letters in an index indicates how it is indexed. For example, :eavt should be traversed by entity, then attribute, then so on and so forth. The four indices and what they include are as follows: • :eavt - An entity-first index which includes all datoms. This index provides a view over your database very much like a traditional relational-database. • :aevt - An “attribute, then entity” index which includes all datoms. This index provides columnar access to your database, much like a data warehouse. • :avet - An “attribute-value” index which only includes attributes where :db/ index is true. Incredibly useful as a lookup index (e.g. “I need the entity with email of“). • :vaet - A value-first index which only includes :db.type/ref values. A very in‐ teresting index that can be used to treat your data a bit like a graph database. After specifying an index ordering, you can optionally provide any number of compo‐ nents to pre-traverse the index. This serves to reduce the number of elements returned. For example, specifying just an attribute component for AVET traversal will return any entity with that attribute. Specifying an attribute and a value component, on the other hand, will return only entities with that specify attribute and value pair. What is returned by datoms is a stream of Datum objects. Each datum responds to :a, :e, t, :v and :added as functions. 298 | Chapter 6: Databases See Also • Recipe 6.12 6.15. Traversing Datomic Indices | 299 CHAPTER 7 Web Applications 7.0. Introduction Web application development is the bread-winner for many languages nowadays; Clo‐ jure is no exception to this. In the annual 2013 State of Clojure Survery “Web Devel‐ opment” ranked first for the question: “In which domains are you applying Clojure and/ or ClojureScript?” Much of the Clojure web development community today centers around Ring, a HTTP server library very much akin to Ruby’s Rack. Starting with the introduction to Ring in Recipe 7.1 you’ll find a full complement of recipes that will get you up to speed in no time. Following Ring, the chapter takes a tour of the other the Clojure web development ecosystems as of the date of publication, covering a few templating and HTML- manipulation libraries and a number of alternative web frameworks. 7.1. Introduction to Ring by Adam Bard Problem You need to write an HTTP service with Clojure Solution Clojure has no built-in HTTP server, but the de-facto standard for serving basic, syn‐ chronous HTTP requests is the Ring library. 301 To follow along with this recipe, clone the‐ est repository and overwrite src/ringtest.clj. src/ringtest.clj. (ns ringtest (:require [ring.adapter.jetty :as jetty] clojure.pprint)) ;; Echo (with pretty-print) the request received. (defn handler [request] {:status 200 :headers {"content-type" "text/clojure"} :body (with-out-str (clojure.pprint/pprint request))}) (defn -main [] ;; Run the server on port 3000 (jetty/run-jetty handler {:port 3000})) Discussion Ring is the basis for most web applications in clojure. It provides a low-level and straightforward request- response API, where requests and responses are plain old clo‐ jure maps. Ring applications are architected around handlers; functions that accept requests and return responses. The above example defines a single handler that just echos the re‐ sponse it receives. A basic response map consists of 3 keys: :status, the status code of the re‐ sponse, :headers, an optional string-string map of the response headers you want, and :body, the string you want as your response body. Here, :status is 200 and :body is a pretty-printed string of the request. Therefore, the following sample response from hitting the url http://localhost:3000/test/path/?qs=1 on the authors machine demonstrates the structure of a request: {:ssl-client-cert nil, :remote-addr "0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1", :scheme :http, :request-method :get, :query-string "qs=1", :content-type nil, :uri "/test/path/", :server-name "localhost", :headers {"accept-encoding" "gzip,deflate,sdch", "connection" "keep-alive", "user-agent" "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_8_4) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/28.0.1500.71 Safari/537.36", 302 | Chapter 7: Web Applications "accept-language" "en-US,en;q=0.8", "accept" "text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8", "host" "localhost:3000", "cookie" ""}, :content-length nil, :server-port 3000, :character-encoding nil, :body #} You can see that this is comprehensive, but low level, with the salient features of the request parsed into Clojure data structures without additional abstraction. Typically, additional code or libraries are used to extract meaningful information from this data structure. The jetty adapter is used to run an embedded Jetty server. Ring also comes with adapters to run as a servlet in any Java servlet container. Note that the call to run-jetty is synchronous, and will not return as long as the server is running. If you call it from the REPL, you should wrap it in a future (or use some other concurrency mechanism) so the server runs on another thread and your REPL does not become unresponsive. See Also • Ring’s GitHub repository. 7.2. Using Ring Middleware by Adam Bard Problem You’d like to build a transformation automatically applied to Ring requests or responses. For example, Ring gives you query strings, but you’d really rather work with a parsed map. Solution Since Ring works with regular Clojure data and functions, you can easily define mid‐ dleware as functions-returning-functions. Define a middleware that modifies the re‐ quest by adding a parsed version of the query string to the request before passing it on to the handler: To follow along with this recipe, clone the‐ est repository and overwrite src/ringtest.clj. 7.2. Using Ring Middleware | 303 src/ringtest.clj. (ns ringtest (:require [ring.adapter.jetty :as jetty] [clojure.string :as str] clojure.pprint)) (defn parse-query-string "Parse a query string to a hash-map" [qs] (if (> (count qs) 0) ; Don't operate on nils or empty strings (apply hash-map (str/split qs #"[&=]")))) (defn wrap-query "Add a :query parameter to incoming requests that contains a parsed version of the query string as a hash-map" [handler] (fn [req] (let [parsed-qs (parse-query-string (:query-string req)) new-req (assoc req :query parsed-qs)] (handler new-req)))) (defn handler [req] (let [name (get (:query req) "name")] {:status 200 :body (str "Hello, " (or name "World"))})) (defn -main [] ;; Run the server on port 3000 (jetty/run-jetty (wrap-query handler) {:port 3000})) Discussion Since Ring handlers operate on regular Clojure maps, it’s very easy to write middleware that wraps a handler. Here, we write a middleware that modifies the request before passing it to the handler. If the original request looked like this: {:query-string "x=1&y=2" ; ... and the rest } Then the request received by the handler becomes: {:query-string "x=1&y=2" :query {"x" "1" "y" "2"} ; ... and the rest } However, you don’t need to write your own middleware for this. Ring provides a number of middlewares to add to your app, including one called params that does the same as the middleware we just wrote but better: 304 | Chapter 7: Web Applications wrap-params Middleware to parse urlencoded parameters from the query string and form body (if the request is a urlencoded form). Adds the following keys to the request map: :query-params - a map of parameters from the query string :form-params - a map of parameters from the body :params - a merged map of all types of parameter Takes an optional configuration map. Recognized keys are: :encoding - encoding to use for url-decoding. If not specified, uses the request character encoding, or “UTF-8” if no request character encoding is set. — Ring Documentation You are in no way limited to using one middleware. Usually, you’ll at least want to use the cookie, session, and params middleware. One concise way to wrap your handler with several middlewares is to use the -> macro: (require '[ring.middleware.session :refer [wrap-session]]) (require '[ring.middleware.cookies :refer [wrap-cookies]]) (require '[ring.middleware.params :refer [wrap-params]]) (def wrapped-handler (-> handler wrap-cookies wrap-params wrap-session)) See Also • Middleware Concepts 7.3. Serving Static Files with Ring by Clinton Dreisbach Problem You want to serve static files through your Ring application. Solution Use ring.middleware.file/wrap-file. (require '[ring.middleware.file :refer [wrap-file]]) ;; Serve all files from your public directory. (def app (wrap-file handler "/var/webapps/public")) 7.3. Serving Static Files with Ring | 305 Discussion wrap-file wraps another web request handler, so that you will serve a static file if one exists in the specified directory, and call the handler if the requested file does not exist. wrap-file is only one way to serve static files. If you only want to serve up a particular file, ring.util.response/file-response will return a handler that serves up that file. (require '[ring.util.response :refer [file-response]]) ;; Serve README.html. (file-response "README.html") ;; Serve README.html from the public/ directory. (file-response "README.html" {:root "public"}) ;; Serve README.html through a symlink. (file-response "README.html" {:allow-symlinks? true}) Often, you will want to bundle your static files with your application. In that case, it makes more sense to serve files from your classpath rather than from a specific directory. In that case, you want to use ring.middleware.resource/wrap-resource. (require '[ring.middleware.resource :refer [wrap-resource]]) (def app (wrap-resource handler "static")) This will serve all files under a directory called static in your classpath. You can put the static directory under resources/ in a Leiningen project and have your static files packaged with JAR files you generate from that project. You may want to wrap any file responses with ring.middleware.file-info/wrap- file-info. This Ring middleware checks the modification date and the type of the file, setting Content-Type and Last-Modified headers. wrap-file-info needs to wrap around wrap-file or wrap-resource. See Also • Recipe 7.8 • Recipe 4.4 7.4. Handling Form Data with Ring by Adam Bard 306 | Chapter 7: Web Applications Problem You want your app to accept user input using an HTML form. Solution Use ring.middleware.params/wrap-params to add incoming HTTP form parameters parameters to incoming request maps. To follow along with this recipe, clone the‐ est repository and overwrite src/ringtest.clj. src/ringtest.clj. (ns ringtest (:require [ring.adapter.jetty :as jetty] [ring.middleware.params :refer [wrap-params]])) (def greeting-form (str "" "
" " Enter your name:
" " " "
" "")) (defn show-form [] {:body greeting-form :status 200 }) (defn show-name "A response showing that we know the user's name" [name] {:body (str "Hello, " name) :status 200}) (defn handler "Show a form requesting the user's name, or greet them if they submitted the form" [req] (let [name (get-in req [:params "name"])] (if name (show-name name) (show-form)))) (defn -main [] ;; Run the server on port 3000 (jetty/run-jetty (wrap-params handler) {:port 3000})) 7.4. Handling Form Data with Ring | 307 Discussion wrap-params is a Ring middleware that handles the retrieval of querystring and form parameters from raw requests. It adds three keys to the request: • :query-params, containing a map of the parsed querystring parameters, • :form-params, containing a map of form body parameters, and • :params, which has the contents of both merged together. In the above example we use :form-params, and so our handler will only respond with a greeting on POST requests containing form encoded parameters.. If we had used :params, we would have the option of also passing a URL query string with a "name" parameter. :params works with any kind of parameter (form or URL encoded), :form-params only works for form parameters. Note that the form keys are passed in as Strings, not keywords. See Also • Recipe 7.2 7.5. Handling Cookies with Ring by Adam Bard Problem Your web application needs to read or set cookies on the user’s browser (for example, to remember a user’s name.) Solution Use the ring.middleware.cookies/wrap-cookies middleware to add cookies to your requests. To follow along with this recipe, clone the‐ est repository and overwrite src/ringtest.clj. src/ringtest.clj. (ns ringtest (:require [ring.adapter.jetty :as jetty] [ring.middleware.cookies :refer [wrap-cookies]] [ring.middleware.params :refer [wrap-params]])) 308 | Chapter 7: Web Applications (defn set-name-form "A response showing a form for the user to enter their name." [] {:body "
" :status 200 :content-type "text/html" }) (defn show-name "A response showing that we know the user's name" [name] {:body (str "Hello, " name) :cookies {"name" {:value name}} ; Preserve the cookies :status 200 }) (defn handler "If we know the user's name, show it; else, show a form to get it." [req] (let [name (or (get-in req [:cookies "name" :value]) (get-in req [:params "name"]))] (if name (show-name name) (set-name-form)))) (def wrapped-handler (-> handler wrap-cookies wrap-params)) (defn -main [] ;; Run the server on port 3000 (jetty/run-jetty wrapped-handler {:port 3000})) Discussion This example uses the wrap-cookies and wrap-params middlewares included with ring-core. The first time the user visits a page, it shows the user a form for them to enter their name. After their name is entered, it stores their name in a cookie and displays it as a instead, until the cookie is removed. The example uses wrap-cookies to retrieve the user’s stored name from the cookie map, or if it’s not there, wrap-params to retrieve the user’s name from the request parameters. Ring’s cookie middleware simply adds an extra parameter, :cookies, onto the incoming request map, and sets any cookies you pass out as the :cookies parameter on the re‐ sponse. The :cookies parameter is a map that looks something like this: {"name" {:value "Some Guy"}} 7.5. Handling Cookies with Ring | 309 You can add other optional parameters to each cookie, along with :value. From the Ring Cookie Documentation: As well as setting the value of the cookie, you can also set additional attributes: • :domain - restrict the cookie to a specific domain • :path - restrict the cookie to a specific path • :secure - restrict the cookie to HTTPS URLs if true • :http-only - restrict the cookie to HTTP if true (not accessible via e.g. JavaScript) • :max-age - the number of seconds until the cookie expires • :expires - a specific date and time the cookie expires — Ring Docs See Also • Recipe 7.2 • Ring’s Cookie Documentation 7.6. Storing Sessions with Ring by Adam Bard Problem You need to store secure data about a logged-in user as state on the server. Solution Use ring.middleware.session/wrap-session to add sessions to your Ring applica‐ tion. To follow along with this recipe, clone the‐ est repository and overwrite src/ringtest.clj. src/ringtest.clj. (ns ringtest (:require [ring.adapter.jetty :as jetty] [ring.middleware.session :refer [wrap-session]] [ring.middleware.params :refer [wrap-params]])) (def login-form 310 | Chapter 7: Web Applications (str "" "
" " Username:
" " Password:
" " " "
" "")) (defn show-form [] {:body login-form :status 200 }) (defn show-name "A response showing that we know the user's name" [name session] {:body (str "Hello, " name) :status 200 :session session }) (defn do-login "Checks the submitted form data and updates the session if necessary" [params session] (if (and (= (params "username") "jim") (= (params "password") "password")) (assoc session :user "jim") session)) (defn handler "Log a user in, or not" [{session :session params :form-params :as req}] (let [session (do-login params session) username (:user session)] (if username (show-name username session) (show-form)))) (def wrapped-handler (-> handler wrap-session wrap-params)) (defn -main [] ;; Run the server on port 3000 (jetty/run-jetty wrapped-handler {:port 3000})) Discussion Ring’s session middleware have an api similar to the cookie api: get them from the :session request map, and set them by including a :session key in the response 7.6. Storing Sessions with Ring | 311 map. Whatever you pass to :session is up to you, but usually you’ll want to use a map to store keys and values. Behind the scenes, Ring sets a cookie called ring-session, which contains a unique ID identifying the session. When a request comes in, the session middleware gets the ses‐ sion ID from the request, then reads the value of the session from some session store. Which session store the middleware uses is configurable. The default is to use an in- memory session store, which is useful for development but has the side effect of losing sessions whenever you restart the app. Ring includes an encrypted cookie store as well, which is persistent, and you can get third-party libs for many popular storages, including memcached and Redis. You can write your own, too, to store your sessions in any da‐ tabase. You can set your store by passing an options map with a :store parameter to wrap- session. (wrap-session handler {:store (my-store)})) To set the value of :session, just pass it along with your response. If you don’t need the session changed, leave :session out of your response. If you want to actually clear the session, pass nil as your the value of the :session key. See Also • Recipe 7.2 • Ring’s Session documentation. 7.7. Reading and Writing Request & Response Headers in Ring originally submitted by Adam Bard Problem You need to read or write HTTP request or response headers. Solution Read from the :headers key in a Ring request map, or assoc values on to the response map before returning from a Ring handler function. To follow along with this recipe, clone the‐ est repository and overwrite src/ringtest.clj. 312 | Chapter 7: Web Applications src/ringtest.clj. (ns ringtest (:require [ring.adapter.jetty :as jetty])) (defn user-agent-as-json "A handler that returns the User-agent header as a JSON response with an appropriate Content-Type" [req] {:body (str "{\"user-agent\": \"" (get-in req [:headers "user-agent"]) "\"}") :headers {"Content-Type" "application/json"} :status 200}) (defn -main [] ;; Run the server on port 3000 (jetty/run-jetty user-agent-as-json {:port 3000})) Discussion This example defines a Ring handler that returns the incoming User-Agent header as a JSON response. It gets the User-Agent from the request header map, and uses a Content-Type header in the response to indicate to the client that it should be parsed as JSON. Ring passes request headers as a :headers parameter in the request map, and accepts a :headers parameter in response maps as well. The keys and values of the headers map should both be strings - Clojure keywords are not supported. You can use Ring to set any header that is valid in HTTP. According to RFC-2616, header names are not case sensitive. To make it easier to con‐ sistently get values from the request map, no matter what their case, Ring passes in all header values as lower-case, regardless of what the client sent. You may wish to send headers using the actual capitalization used in the specification, however, just in case the client you’re communicating with is not compliant (following the classic robsutness principle; “be conservative in what you send, be liberal in what you accept”.) See Also • Ring Concepts. 7.8. Routing Requests with Compojure by Adam Bard 7.8. Routing Requests with Compojure | 313 Problem You want an easy way to route URLs to specific Ring handler functions. Solution Use the Compojure library ( to add routing to your app. To follow along with this recipe, clone the‐ est repository and overwrite src/ringtest.clj. src/ringtest.clj. (ns ringtest (:require [compojure.core :refer [defroutes GET]] [ring.adapter.jetty :as jetty])) ; View functions (defn view [x] (str "

" x "

")) (defn index [] (view "Hello")) (defn index-fr [] (view "Bonjour")) ; Routing (defroutes main-routes (GET "/" [] (index)) (GET "/en/" [] (index)) (GET "/fr/" [] (index-fr)) (GET "/:greeting/" [greeting] (view greeting))) ; Server (defn -main [] (jetty/run-jetty main-routes {:port 3000})) Discussion Compojure is a routing library that lets you define routes for your app. It does this via the defroutes macro, which produces a Ring handler function. Here, we define four routes: • /, which displays “Hello” • /en/, the same • /fr/, which displays “Bonjour”, and 314 | Chapter 7: Web Applications 1. If you’re not familiar with Clojure’s destructuring syntax, we suggest Jay Fields’ Clojure: Destructuring blog article. For a more extensive resource, pick up a copy of Clojure Programming, which covers destructuring in depth. • /:greeting/, which echos the greeting passed. The last view is an example of Compojure’s URL parameter syntax. The section of the URL identified by :greeting is passed along to the view, which displays it for the user. So, visiting http://localhost:3000/Buenos%20Dias/ displays “Buenos Dias” in re‐ sponse. One caveat to be aware of is that Compojure routes are sensitive to a trailing slash: a route defined as /users/:user/blog/ will not match the url users/fred/blog - but it will match The [] in each route is actually a syntactic sugar for intercepting these parameters. You can also use req or any other symbol to get the whole request: (defroutes main-routes-2 (GET "/" req (some-view req))) You can even use Clojure’s destructuring syntax 1 to extract parts of the request. For example, if you’re using the wrap-params middleware, you can grab the params and pass them to a function: (defroutes main-routes-2 (GET "/" {params :params} (some-other-view params))) It is important to realize that Compojure works on top of Ring. Your views should still return Ring response maps (although Compojure will wrap strings you return with a basic 200 response). You can also define routes for other types of HTTP requests by specifying the route using the relevant Compojure directive: compojure.core/POST and compojure.core/PUT are most commonly used in addition to compojure.core/GET. Compojure provides a few other helpful tools: compojure.route, which provides help‐ ers for serving resources, files and 404 responses; and compojure.handler, which bun‐ dles a number of ring middlewares into one convenient wrapper. See Also • 7.8. Routing Requests with Compojure | 315 7.9. Performing HTTP Redirects with Ring by Craig McDaniel Problem In a Ring application, you need to return a HTTP response code that will redirect the browser to another URL. Solution To redirect a Ring request, use the redirect function in the ring.util.response namespace. To follow along with this recipe, clone the‐ est repository and overwrite src/ringtest.clj. src/ringtest.clj. (ns ringtest (:require [ring.adapter.jetty :as jetty] [ring.util.response :as response])) (defn redirect-to-github "A handler that redirects all requests" [req] (response/redirect "")) (defn -main [] ;; Run the server on port 3000 (jetty/run-jetty redirect-to-github {:port 3000})) Discussion The ring.util.response namespace contains a function for redirecting to a URL. This URL can be generated dynamically from the request map (using parameters from wrap- params, headers, etc.). Underneath, this function simply creates a response map with a 302 :status value and a “Location” header containing the URL to redirect to. According to the HTTP specification, if the response method is a POST, PUT, or DE‐ LETE, it should be assumed that the server received the request, and the client should issue a GET request to the URL in the Location header. This is an important caveat when writing REST services. Fortunately, the specification provides a 307 status code, which should signal to clients that the request should be redirected to the new Location using the original method and body. To do this, simply return a response map in the handler function like so: 316 | Chapter 7: Web Applications (defn redirect-to-github [req] {:status 307 :headers {"Location" ""} :body ""}) See Also • Ring Concepts. 7.10. Building a RESTful Application with Liberator by Eric Normand Problem You want to build a RESTful (RFC-2616 compliant) web application on top of Ring and Compojure at a higher level of abstraction, by defining resources. Solution Use Liberator to create HTTP-compliant, RESTful web apps. To follow along with this recipe, create a new project using the command lein new liberator-test. Inside your project.clj, add the following dependencies to your :dependencies key: [compojure "1.0.2"] [ring/ring-jetty-adapter "1.1.0"] [liberator "0.9.0"] Then, modify src/liberator_test/core.clj to match the following contents: src/liberator_test/core.clj. (ns liberator-test.core (:require [compojure.core :refer [defroutes ANY]] [ring.adapter.jetty :as jetty] [liberator.core :refer [defresource]])) ;; Resources (defresource root :available-media-types #{"text/plain"}) ; Routing (defroutes main-routes (ANY "/" [] root)) 7.10. Building a RESTful Application with Liberator | 317 ; Server (defn -main [] (jetty/run-jetty main-routes {:port 3000})) Discussion Liberator is a library for developing HTTP-compliant web servers. It handles content negotiation, status codes, and standard request methods on RESTful resources. It de‐ cides what status to respond using a decision tree which follows the HTTP Spec. Liberator does not handle routing, so another library needs to be used. In this recipe, Compojure was used. Since Liberator does a better job handling the request method (GET, PUT, POST, etc.), you should use ANY in your Compojure routes. You could also use a different routing library such as Clout, Moustache, or the playnice router. The defresource form defines a web resource, which is modeled as a Ring handler. You can therefore pass the resource as the last argument to Compojure routes. Liberator resources are set up with sensible defaults. The default for the available media types is the empty set, so it needs to be set to something, otherwise Liberator will return a 406 Not Acceptable response. In this recipe it is set to respond with text/plain as the MIME type. The default response is “OK”, which you will see if you run the recipe and point a browser at http://localhost:3000. See Also • Recipe 7.1 for information on setting up Ring. • Recipe 7.8 for more information on Compojure routes. • Liberator’s Homepage. 7.11. Templating HTML with Enlive by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to create HTML dynamically based on a template, without using traditional mixed-code or DSL style templating. Solution Use Enlive, a Clojure library that takes a selector based approach to templating HTML. Unlike other template frameworks like PHP, ERB, JSP et al, it doesn’t mix code and text. 318 | Chapter 7: Web Applications And unlike systems like Haml or Hiccup, it doesn’t use specialized DSLs. Instead, tem‐ plates are plain old HTML files, and Enlive uses Clojure code to target specific areas for replacement or duplication based on incoming data. To follow along with this recipe, start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try enlive To begin, create a file post.hml to serve as an Enlive template. Place this file in the resources/ directory, if you’re using enlive in the context of a project. post.html. Page Title

Page Title

By Mickey Mouse

Lorem ipsum etc...
The following Clojure code defines an Enlive template based on the contents of post.html. (require '[net.cgrand.enlive-html :as html]) ;; define the template (html/deftemplate post-page "post.html" [post] [:title] (html/content (:title post)) [:h1] (html/content (:title post)) [] (html/content (:author post)) [] (html/content (:body post))) ;; some sample data (def sample-post {:author "Luke VanderHart" :title "Why Clojure Rocks" :body "Functional programming!"}) To apply the template to the data, invoke the function defined by deftemplate. Since it returns a sequence of strings, in most applications you’ll probably want to concatenate the results into a single string. (reduce str (post-page sample-post)) 7.11. Templating HTML with Enlive | 319 Formatted Output. Why Clojure Rocks

Why Clojure Rocks

By Luke VanderHart

Functional programming!
See the discussion section below for a detail explanation of the deftemplate macro and what is actually happening in this code. Repeating Elements The above code simply replaces the values of certain nodes in the emitted HTML. In real scenarios, another common task is to repeat certain items from input HTML, one repetition for each item in the input data. Enlive provides snippets for this task — se‐ lections from an input HTML which can then be repeated as many times as desired in the output of another template. (def sample-post-list [{:author "Luke VanderHart" :title "Why Clojure Rocks" :body "Functional programming!"} {:author "Ryan Neufeld" :title "Clojure Community Management" :body "Programmers are like..."} {:author "Rich Hickey" :title "Programming" :body "You're doing it completely wrong."}]) (html/defsnippet post-snippet "post.html" {[:h1] [[ (html/nth-of-type 1)]]} [post] [:h1] (html/content (:title post)) [] (html/content (:author post)) [] (html/content (:body post))) (html/deftemplate all-posts-page "post.html" [post-list] [:title] (html/content "All Posts") [:body] (html/content (map post-snippet post-list))) Invoking the defined all-posts-page function now returns an HTML page populated with all three sample posts: (reduce str (all-posts-page sample-post-list)) Formatted Output. 320 | Chapter 7: Web Applications All Posts

Why Clojure Rocks

By Luke VanderHart

Functional programming!

Clojure Community Management

By Ryan Neufeld

Programmers are like...


By Rich Hickey

You're doing it completely wrong.
In this example, the defsnippet macro defines a snippet over a range of elements in the input HTML, from the

element to the
. Then, the deftemplate for all-posts-page uses the result of mapping post-snippet over the content of the body element. Since there are three posts in the sample input data, the snippet is evaluated three times, and there are three posts output in the resulting HTML. Discussion Enlive can be slightly difficult to get the hang of, compared to some other libraries. There are several contributing factors to this: • It has a more novel conceptual approach than other templating systems (although it bears a lot of similarity to some other non-Clojure templating techniques, such as XSLT). • It utilizes functional programming techniques to the fullest, including liberal use of higher order functions. • It’s a large library, capable of many things. The subset of features required to ac‐ complish a particular task is not always extremely evident. In general, the best way to get past these issues and experience the power and flexibility that Enlive can provide is to understand all the different parts individually, and what they actually do. Then, composing them into useful templating systems becomes more manageable. Enlive and the DOM First of all, it is important to understand that Enlive does not operate on HTML text directly. Instead, it first parses the HTML into a Clojure data structure representing the DOM (document object model.) For example, the HTML fragment: 7.11. Templating HTML with Enlive | 321
Would be parsed into the Clojure data: {:tag :html, :attrs nil, :content ({:tag :body, :attrs nil, :content ({:tag :div, :attrs {:id "foo"}, :content ({:tag :span, :attrs {:class "bar"}, :content ("Hello!")})})})} This is more verbose, but it is easier to manipulate from Clojure. You won’t necessarily have to deal with these data structures directly, but be aware that anywhere Enlive says operates on an element or a node, it means a the Clojure data stucture for the element, not the HTML string. Templates The most important element of these examples is the deftemplate macro. deftem plate takes a symbol as a name, a classpath-relative path to an HTML file, an argument list, and a series of selector and transform function pairs. It emits a function, bound to the same name and of the specified arguments, which, when called, will return the resulting html as a sequence of strings. An Enlive selector is a Clojure data structure that identifies a specific node in the input HTML file. They are similar to CSS selectors in operation, although somewhat more capable. In this example, [:title] selects each element, [] each <span> with class="author", etc. More selector forms are described later on in this section. A template transform function takes an Enlive node and returns a modified node. This example uses Enlive’s content utility function, which returns a function that swaps the contents of a node with the value given as its argument. The return value is not itself a string, but a sequence of strings, each one a small fragment of HTML code. This allows the underlying data structure to be transformed to a string representation lazily. For simplicity, this example just reduces the string concatnation function str across the results, but this is actually not optimally performant. To build a string most efficiently, use the java StringBuilder class, which uses mutable state to build up a String object with the best possible performance. Alternatively, forego the use of Strings altogether and pipe the result seq of the template function directly into an output Writer, which most web application libraries (including Ring) can use as the 322 | Chapter 7: Web Applications body of an HTTP response, which is the most common destination for templated HTML. Selectors Enlive selectors are data structures that identify one or more HTML nodes. They de‐ scribe a pattern of data - if the pattern matches any nodes in the HTML data structure, then the node is will be selected by the selector. A selector may select one, many or zero nodes from a given HTML document depending on how many matches the pattern has. The full reference for valid selector forms is quite complex, and beyond the scope of this recipe to describe fully. See the formal selector specification for complete docu‐ mentation. However, the following selector patterns should be sufficient to get you started: • [:div] selects all <div> element nodes. • [:div.sidebar] selects all <div> element nodes with a CSS class of “sidebar”. • [:div#summary] selects the <div> element with an HTML ID of “summary”. • [:p :span] selects all <span> elements that are descendants of <p> elements. • [ :ul :li :span] selects only <span> elements inside a <li> element inside a <ul> element inside a <div> element with a CSS style of “menu”. • [[:div (nth-child 2)]] selects <div> elements that are the second child of their parent element. The double square brackets are not a typo - the inner vector is used to denote a logical and condition. In this case, the matched element must be a div, AND the nth-child predicate must hold true. Other predicates besides nth-child are available, as well as the ability to define custom predicates. See the Enlive documentation for more details. Finally, there is a special type of selector called a range selector which is not specified by a vector, but by a map literal (in curly braces.) The range selector contains two other selectors, and inclusively matches all the nodes between the two matched nodes, in document order. The starting node is in key position in the map literal, and the ending node is in value position, so the selector {[] []} will match all nodes be‐ tween nodes with an id of “foo” and an id of “bar”. The primary example above uses a range selector in the defsnippet form to select all the nodes that are part of the same logical blog post, even though they aren’t wrapped in a common parent element. 7.11. Templating HTML with Enlive | 323 Snippets A snippet is similar to a template, in that it produces a function based on a base HTML file. However, they have two major differences from templates. 1. Rather than always rendering the entire HTML file like a template does, snippets render only a portion of the input HTML. The portion to be rendered is specified by an Enlive selector passed as the third argument to the defsnippet macro, right after the name and the path to the HTML file. 2. The return values of the emitted functions are Enlive data structures rather than HTML strings. This means that the results of rendering a snippet can be returned directly from the transform function of a template or another snippet. This is where Enlive starts to show its power; snippets can be recycled and re-used extensively and in different combinations. Other than these differences, the defsnippet form is identical to deftemplate, and after the selector the rest of the arguments are the same - an argument vector and a series of selector and transform function pairs. Using Enlive for scraping Because of its emphasis on selectors and use of plain, unannotated HTML files, Enlive is also extremely useful not just for templating and producing HTML but for parsing and scraping data from HTML from any source. To use Enlive to extract data from HTML, you must first parse the HTML file into an Enlive data structure. To do this, invoke the net.cgrand.enlive-html/html- resource function on the HTML file. You may specify the file as a, a, or a string indicating a classpath-relative path. The function will return the parsed Enlive data structure representing the HTML DOM. Then, you can use the net.cgrand.enlive-html/select function to apply a selector to the DOM and extract specific data. Given a node and a selector, select will return only the matched nodes. You can then use the net.cgrand.enlive-html/text function to retrieve the text content of a node. For example, the following function will return a sequence of the most recent N comic titles in the XKCD archives: (defn comic-titles [n] (let [dom (html/html-resource ( "")) title-nodes (html/select dom [:#middleContainer :a]) titles (map html/text title-nodes)] (take n titles))) 324 | Chapter 7: Web Applications (comic-titles 5) ;; -> ("Oort Cloud" "Git Commit" "New Study" "Telescope Names" "Job Interview") When to use Enlive As an HTML templating system, Enlive has two primary value propositions over its alternatives in the Clojure ecosystem. First, the templates are pure HTML. This makes it much easier to work with HTML designers, who can hand their HTML mockups directly to a developer without having to deal with inline markup code, and developers can use them directly without manually slicing them (outside of code, that is.) Furthermore, the templates themselves can be viewed in a browser statically, meaning they can serve as their own wireframes. This eliminates the burden of keeping a web project’s visual prototypes in sync with the code. Secondly, because it uses real Clojure functions and data structures instead of a custom DSL, Enlive exposes the full power of the Clojure language. There are very few situations where you should feel limited by Enlive’s capabilities, since it is always possible to extend it using only standard Clojure functions and macros, operating on familar persistent, immutable data structures. See Also • The Enlive documentation • David Nolen’s tutorial • The Enlive mailing list. • Alternative templating libraries Hiccup (Recipe 7.13) and Selmer (Recipe 7.12). 7.12. Templating with Selmer by Dmitri Sotnikov Problem You want to create server side page templates using syntax similar to Django and Jinja. You want to be able to insert dynamic content and use template inheritance to structure the templates. Solution Use the Selmer library ( to create your template and call it with a context map containing the dynamic content. 7.12. Templating with Selmer | 325 To follow along with this recipe, start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try selmer A Selmer template is an HTML file with special tags that is populated with dynamic content at runtime. A simple template might look like the following: base.html. <!DOCTYPE html> <html lang="en"> <body> <header> <h1>{{header}}</h1> <ul id="navigation"> {% for item in nav-items %} <li> <a href="{{}}">{{}}</a> </li> {% endfor %} </ul> </header> </body> </html> The template can then be rendered by calling the selmer.parser/render-file func‐ tion: (require '[selmer.parser :refer [render-file]]) (println (render-file "base.html" {:header "Hello Selmer" :nav-items [{:name "Home" :link "/"} {:name "About" :link "/about"}]})) When render-file runs it will populate the tags with the content provided. The value will be returned as a string, suitable for use as the response body in a Ring application (for example). Here the result is simply printed to standard out, for easy inspection. We can apply filters to variables for additional post-processing at runtime. Below, we use the upper filter to convert our heading to upper case: <h1>{{header|upper}}</h1> We can extract parts of the template into individual snippets using the include tag. For example, if we wanted to define the header in a separate file we could do the following: header.html. 326 | Chapter 7: Web Applications <header> <h1>{{header}}</h1> <ul id="navigation"> {% for item in nav-items %} <li> <a href="{{}}">{{}}</a> </li> {% endfor %} </ul> </header> base.html. <!DOCTYPE html> <html lang="en"> <body> {% include "header.html" %} </body> </html> The include tag will simply be replaced by the contents of the file it points to when the template is compiled. We can also extend our base template when we create individual pages. To do that we would first define a block in our base template. This will serve as an anchor for the child template to override. base.html. <!DOCTYPE html> <html lang="en"> <body> {% include "header.html" %} {% block content %} {% endblock %} </body> </html> The child template will reference the parent using the extends tag and define its own content for the content block: home.html. {% extends "base.html" %} 7.12. Templating with Selmer | 327 {% block content %} <h1>This is the home page of the site</h1> <p>some exciting content follows</p> {% endblock %} Discussion Selmer provides a powerful and familiar templating tool with many tags and filters for easily accomplishing many common tasks. It separates the view logic from presentation by design. Selmer is also performant as it compiles the templates and ensures that only the dynamic content needs to be evaluated when serving a request. Selmer Concepts Selmer includes two types of elements, these consists of variables and tags. Variables are used to render values from the context map on the page. The {{ and }} are used to indicate the start and end of a variable. In many cases you may wish to post-process the value of a variable. For example, you might want to convert it to upper case, pluralize it, or parse it as a date. Variable filters are used for this purpose. Tags are used to add various functionality to the template such as looping and condi‐ tions. We already saw examples of the for, include, and extends tags above. The tags use {% an %} to define their content. The default tag characters might conflict with client-side frameworks such as AngularJS. In this case we can specify custom tags by passing a map containing any of the following keys to the parser: :tag-open :tag-close :filter-open :filter-close :tag-second :custom-tags :custom-filters If we wanted to use [ and ] as our opening and closing tags, we could call the render function as follows: (render "[% for ele in foo %] {{I'm not a tag, but the next one is}} [{ele}] [%endfor%]" {:foo [1 2 3]} {:tag-open \[ :tag-close \]}) 328 | Chapter 7: Web Applications 2. you’ll need to restart a new lein-try REPL including markdown-clj to try this… The render function works just like render-file, except that it accepts the template content as a string. Defining Filters Selmer provides a rich set of filters that allow decorating the dynamic content. Some of the filters include capitalize, pluralize, hash, length, sort and many others. However, if you need a custom filter that’s not part of the library you can trivially add one yourself. For example, if we wanted to parse Markdown using the markdown-clj library and display it on the page we could write the following filter 2. (require '[markdown.core :refer [md-to-html-string]] '[selmer.filters/add-filter!]) (add-filter! :markdown md-to-html-string) We can now use this filter in our templates to render our Markdown content: <h2>Blog Posts</h2> <ul> {% for post in posts %} <li>{{post.title|markdown|safe}}</li> {% endfor %} </ul> Note that we had to chain the markdown filter with the safe filter. This is due to the fact that Selmer escapes variable content by default. We can change our filter definition to indicate that its content does not need escaping as follows: (add-filter! :markdown (fn [s] [:safe (md-to-html-string s)])) Defining Tags Again, we can define custom tags in addition to those already present in the library. This is done by calling the selmer.parser/add-tag! function. Let’s say we wish to add a tag that will capitalize its contents. We could do that as follows: (require '[selmer.parser :refer [add-tag!]]) (add-tag! :uppercase (fn [args context-map content] (.toUpperCase (get-in content [:uppercase :content]))) :enduppercase) (render "{% uppercase %}foo {{bar}} baz{% enduppercase %}" {:bar "injected"}) 7.12. Templating with Selmer | 329 Inheritance We already saw some examples of template inheritance above. Each template can extend a single template and include any number of templates in its content. The templates can extend templates that themselves extend other templates. In this case the blocks found in the outermost child will override any other blocks with the same name. See Also • The Selmer GitHub repository. 7.13. Templating with Hiccup by Ryan Neufeld Problem You want to create HTML dynamically based on a template, written in pure Clojure data. Solution Use Hiccup, a library for representing and rendering HTML templates made up of regular Clojure data structures. To follow along with this recipe, start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try hiccup Hiccup represents HTML nodes as vectors. The first entry of the vector is the element’s name; the second, an optional map of the element’s attributes; and any remaining entries, the element’s body. ;; <h1 class="header">My Page Title</h1> in Hiccup... [:h1 {:class "header"} "My Page Title"] ;; <ul> ;; <li>lions</li> ;; <li>tigers</li> ;; <li>bears</li> ;; </ul> in Hiccup... [:ul [:li "lions"] [:li "tigers"] [:li "bears"]] ;; oh my! Render any Hiccup data structure to HTML using the hiccup.core/html function. 330 | Chapter 7: Web Applications (require '[hiccup.core :refer [html]]) (html [:h1 {:class "header"} "My Page Title"]) ;; -> "<h1 class=\"header\">My Page Title</h1>" Since nodes are represented as regular Clojure data, you can leverage any of Clojure’s built-in functions or techniques to yield Hiccup-compliant vectors. (def pi 3.14) (html [:p (str "Pi is approximately: " pi)]) ;; -> "<p>Pi is approximately: 3.14</p>" (html [:ul (for [animal ["lions" "tigers" "bears"]] [:li animal])]) ;; -> "<ul><li>lions</li><li>tigers</li><li>bears</li></ul>" Using all of the techniques above, it’s possible to create a simple function to dynamically populate the contents of a minimal blog page using only Clojure functions and data. (defn blog-index "Render a blog's index as Hiccup data" [title author posts] [:html [:head [:title title]] [:body [:h1 title] [:h2 (str "By " author)] (for [post posts] [:article [:h3 (:title post)] [:p (:content post)]])]]) (-> (blog-index "My First Blog" "Ryan" [{:title "First post!" :content "I'm here!"} {:title "Second post." :content "Yawn, bored."}]) html) Formatted Output. <html> <head> <title>My First Blog

My First Blog

By Ryan

First post!

I'm here!

7.13. Templating with Hiccup | 331

Second post.

Yawn, bored.

" Discussion Hiccup is an easy, “no muss, no fuss,” way of templating and rendering HTML from raw functions and data. This comes in particularly handy when, say: you don’t have the time to learn a new DSL, or you prefer to work exclusively with Clojure. HTML nodes are represented in Hiccup as a vector of a few elements: • The node’s name, represented as a keyword, e.g. :h1, :article, or :body. • An optional map of the node’s attributes, with attribute names represented as key‐ words, e.g. {:href "/posts/"} or {:id "post-1" :class "post"}. • Any number of other nodes or string values, constituting the node’s body. Invoke hiccup.core/html with a single node, snippet or entire page to render its con‐ tents as HTML. For content with special characters that should be escaped, wrap values in a hiccup.core/h invocation. (require '[hiccup.core :refer [h]]) (html [:a {:href (h "/post/myurl")}]) ;; -> "" Hiccup also has basic support for rendering forms. Use form-to and a bevy of other helpers in the hiccup.form namespace to simplify rendering form tags. (require '[hiccup.form :as f]) (f/form-to [:post "/posts/new"] (f/hidden-field :user-id 42) (f/text-field :title) (f/text-field :content)) ;; -> [:form {:method "POST", :action #} ;; [:input {:type "hidden" ;; :name "user-id" ;; :id "user-id" ;; :value 42}] ;; [:input {:type "text" ;; :name "title" ;; :id "title" ;; :value nil}] ;; [:input {:type "text" ;; :name "content" ;; :id "content" ;; :value nil}]] 332 | Chapter 7: Web Applications See Also • Hiccup’s GitHub repository, API documentation and Wiki. • If you have more complicated needs from your templating engine—like consuming and populating existing HTML files—you’ll need sharper tools such as Enlive (Recipe 7.11) or Selmer (Recipe 7.12). 7.14. Rendering Markdown Documents by Dmitri Sotnikov Problem You need to render a Markdown document. Solution Use the markdown-clj library ( to render Markdown documents. To follow along with this recipe, start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try markdown-clj Use markdown.core/md-to-html to read a Markdown document and generate as string containing HTML. (require '[markdown.core :as md]) (md/md-to-html "" "output.html") (md/md-to-html (input-stream "") (output-stream "test.txt")) Use markdown.core/md-to-html-string to convert a string with Markdown content to its HTML representation: (md/md-to-html-string "# This is a test\n\nsome code follows:\n```\n(defn foo [])\n```")

This is a test

some code follows:

  (defn foo [])  
Discussion Markdown is a popular lightweight markup language that’s easy to read and write and can be converted to structurally valid HTML. 7.14. Rendering Markdown Documents | 333 Since Markdown leaves many aspects of rendering the HTML open to interpretation it’s not guaranteed that different parsers will produce the same representation. This can be a problem if you render a Markdown preview on the client using one parser and then later generate HTML on a server using a different parser. By virtue of compiling to both Clojure and ClojureScript markdown-clj avoids this problem. With it you can use the same parser on both the server and the client and be guaranteed that the documents will be rendered consistently. Let’s take a look at some more examples of using the library below. The code blocks can be annotated with the language hints, In this case it will the pre tags will be decorated with a class compatible with the SyntaxHighlighter. (md/md-to-html-string "# This is a test\n\nsome code follows:\n```clojure\n(defn foo [])\n```")

This is a test

some code follows:

  (defn foo [])  
markdown-clj supports all the standard Markdown tags with the exception of the ref‐ erence style links due to the fact that the parser uses a single pass to generate the docu‐ ment. The markdown.core/md-to-html processes the input line by line and the entirety of the content does not need to be stored in memory when processing. On the other hand both md-to-html-string and mdToHTML functions load the entire contents into memory. The parser accepts additional formatting options. These include :heading-anchors, :code- style, :custom-transformers and :replacement-transformers. When the :heading-anchors is set to true an anchor will be generated for each heading tag: (md/md-to-html-string "###foo bar BAz" :heading-anchors true)

foo bar BAz

The :code-style key allows overriding the default style hint for code blocks: (md/md-to-html-string "```clojure\n(defn foo [])\n```" :code-style #(str "class=\"" % "\""))
  (defn foo [])  
We can specify transformers for custom tags by using the :custom-transformers key. The transformer function should accept the text parameter which is the current line and the state parameter containing the current state of the parser. The state can be used to store information such as what tags are currently active. 334 | Chapter 7: Web Applications (defn capitalize [text state] [(.toUpperCase text) state]) (md/md-to-html-string "#foo" :custom-transformers [capitalize])


Finally, we could provide a custom set of transformers to replace the built in ones using the :replacement-transformers key: (markdown/md-to-html-string "#foo" :replacement-transformers [capitalize]) See Also • The markdown-clj GitHub repository for more information on the library. 7.15. Building Applications with Luminus by Dmitri Sotnikov Problem RN: The big value proposition here is that Luminus gives a fast path to getting a ring/compojure app created and running quickly. Where possible, rely on other recipes to explain Luminus-stack tech. Quickly create a typical Ring/Compojure web application structure, to get a fast start on a new web development project. Solution Use the Luminus leiningen template when creating a new project. At the command line, type: $ lein new luminus myapp This will create a new Ring/Compojure application, with skeletal namespace and re‐ source directory structure that is ready to be packaged as standalone jar or a war that can be deployed on an application server. You can start the application in development mode by running: $ lein ring server 7.15. Building Applications with Luminus | 335 Discussion Luminus doesn’t do anything you couldn’t do yourself, but provides a standardized set of libraries and boilerplate for creating common Ring/Compojure applications. The template generates a standard directory structure within your project, defines a main handler for your application, adds lein-ring hooks for it in the project.clj, pro‐ vides a default logging configuration and sets up the default routes. You can add additional functionality by specifying profiles when creating the applica‐ tion, which extend the generated code to include the relevant stubs. Below are some examples of initializing the application with a default configurations for different da‐ tabases. $ lein new luminus app1 +h2 # Or, with PostgreSQL $ lein new luminus app2 +postgres # Or, ClojureScript! $ lein new luminus app3 +cljs # You can also specify multiple profiles simultaneously: $ lein new luminus app4 +cljs +postgres The resulting application is structured using the following namespaces. The .handler namespace contains init and destroy functions. These will be called when the application is starting up and shutting down respectively. It also contains the app handler function that’s used by Ring to initialize the route handlers. The .routes package is used to house the core logic of the application. Here is where you would define the application routes and their handlers. The .routes.home namespace contains the routes for the default / and /about pages. The layout for the site is generated by the render function in the /.views.layout namespace. The HTML templates for the pages can be found under src//views/templates/. Luminus uses Selmer as its default tem‐ plating engine. Any miscellaneous helpers will be found under the .views.util name‐ space. When a database profile is selected the .models.db and .mod els.schema namespaces will be created. The schema namespace is reserved for table definitions, while the db namespace houses the functions dealing with the application model. 336 | Chapter 7: Web Applications The application can be packaged as a standalone jar using lein ring uberjar, or as a war using lein ring uberwar. See Also • Visit the Luminus project page. 7.15. Building Applications with Luminus | 337 CHAPTER 8 Performance & Production 8.0. Introduction You’ve spent all of this time developing your next big thing, what’s next but to ship it to the wild? Whether it is a product, internal service or library, the last step (but most important one) is delivering the fruits of your labor to your audience. It’s easy for developers to forget that code-complete is only the beginning of an actual application’s lifecycle. A successful project will spend much more time in production than it will in development, and stability and maintainability are premium features. This is a chapter all about really finishing your work and building something that will run as painlessly as possible for years to come. Be the task performance, logging, release or long-term maintenance, it’s all important in shipping something that is truly excel‐ lent. There is certainly a lot to worry about when your baby finally leaves home; we hope these recipes help you get it right. 8.1. AOT Compilation by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to deliver your code as precompiled JVM bytecode in .class files, rather than as Clojure source code. Solution Use the :aot (Ahead Of Time) compilation key in your project’s project.clj to specify which namespaces should be compiled to .class files. The value of the :aot key is a vector 339 of either symbols indicating specific namespaces to be compiled, or regular expression literals specifying that any namespace with a matching name should be compiled. Alternatively, instead of a vector, you can use the keyword :all as a value, which will AOT compile every namespace in the project. project.clj. :aot [ foo.baz] project.clj. :aot [#"foo\.b.+"] ; compile all NS starting with "foo.b" project.clj. :aot :all Note that if your project has specified a :main namespace, Leiningen will AOT compile it by default whether or not it is present in an :aot directive. Once your project is configured for AOT compilation, you can compile by invoking lein compile at the command line. All emitted classes will be placed in the target/ classes directory, unless you’ve overriden the output directory with the :target- path or :compile-path options. Discussion It’s important to understand that AOT compilation does not change how the code ac‐ tually runs. It’s no faster or different. All Clojure code is compiled to the same bytecode before execution; AOT compilation merely means that it happens at a singular, defined point in time instead of on-demand as the program loads and runs. However, although it isn’t any faster, it can be a great tool in the following situations: • You want to deliver the application binary, but don’t want to include the original source code with it. • To marginally speed up an application’s start time (since the Clojure code won’t have to be compiled on the fly). • You need to generate classes loadable directly from Java for interop purposes. • For platforms (such as Android) that do not support custom classloaders for run‐ ning new bytecode at runtime. You may observe that there is more than one emitted class file for each AOT compiled namespace. In fact, there will be seperate Java classes for each function, the namespace itself, and any additional gen-class, deftype or defrecord forms. This is actually not dissimilar from Java itself; it has always been the case that inner classes are compiled to 340 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production seperate class files, and Clojure functions are effectively anonymous inner classes from the JVM’s point of view. See Also • Clojure’s official documentation on AOT compilation. • Recipe 8.2 8.2. Packaging a Project into a JAR File by Alan Busby Problem You want to package a project into an executable JAR. Solution Use the Leiningen build tool to package your application as an uberjar, a JAR file that includes an application and all of its dependencies. To follow along with this recipe, create a new Leiningen project: $ lein new foo Configure the project to be executable by adding :main and :aot parameters to the project’s project.clj file. project.clj. (defproject foo "0.1.0-SNAPSHOT" :description "FIXME: write description" :url "" :license {:name "Eclipse Public License" :url ""} :dependencies [[org.clojure/clojure "1.5.1"]] :main foo.core :aot :all) To finish making the project executable, add a -main function and :gen-class decla‐ ration to src/foo/core.clj. Remove the existing foo function. src/foo/core.clj. (ns foo.core (:gen-class)) (defn -main [& args] (->> args 8.2. Packaging a Project into a JAR File | 341 (interpose " ") (apply str) (println "Executed with the following args: "))) Run the application using the lein run command to verify it is functioning correctly: $ lein run 1 2 3 To package the application with all of its dependencies included, invoke lein uberjar. $ lein uberjar Created /tmp/foo/target/uberjar/foo-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar Created /tmp/foo/target/foo-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT-standalone.jar Execute the generated target/foo-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT-standalone.jar JAR file by passing it as the -jar option to the java executable. $ java -jar target/foo-1.0.0-standalone.jar 1 2 3 Executed with the following args: 1 2 3 Discussion Executable jar files provide an excellent method to package a program so it can be provided to users, called by cronjobs, combined with other UNIX tools, or used in any other scenario where command-line invocation is useful. Under the hood, an executable jar is like any other jar file in that it contains a collection of program resources such as class files, Clojure source files, classpath resources, etc. Additionally, executable jars contain metadata indicating which class contains the main method as a Main-Class tag in its internal manifest file. A Leiningen uberjar is a jar file that contains not only your program, but all the depen‐ dencies bundled in as well. When Leiningen builds an uberjar, it can detect from the :main entry in project.clj that your program supplies a main function, and writes an appropriate manifest that will ensure that the emitted jar file is executable. The :gen-class in your namespace and the :aot Leiningen option are required to precompile your Clojure source file into a JVM class file, since the “Main-Class” manifest entry doesn’t know how to reference or compile Clojure source files. Packaging JARs without their dependencies Not only does Leiningen make it possible to package a project with its dependencies, it makes it possible to package them without its dependencies. 342 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production 1. Bring your own Clojure! 2. Available on most Unix-based systems. 3. All of which we won’t be committing to print. Take a look for yourself with the command lein uberjar && unzip -l target/foo-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT-standalone.jar. The jar command packages a project’s code without any of its upstream dependencies. Not even Clojure itself is included in the JAR file—you’ll need to BYOC 1. By invoking the command lein jar in the foo project, you’ll generate target/foo-0.1.0- SNAPSHOT.jar. $ lein jar Created /tmp/foo/target/jar/target/foo-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar Listing the contents of the JAR file using the unzip command 2 you can see that very little is packaged; just a Maven pom file, generated JVM class files and the project’s miscellany [source,console] $ unzip -l target/foo-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar Archive: target/foo-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar Length Date Time Name -------- ---- ---- ---- 113 12-06-13 10:26 META-INF/MANIFEST.MF 2595 12-06-13 10:26 META-INF/maven/foo/foo/pom.xml 91 12-06-13 10:26 META-INF/maven/foo/foo/ 292 12-06-13 10:26 META-INF/leiningen/foo/foo/project.clj 292 12-06-13 10:26 project.clj 229 12-06-13 10:26 META-INF/leiningen/foo/foo/ 11220 12-06-13 10:26 META-INF/leiningen/foo/foo/LICENSE 0 12-06-13 10:26 foo/ 1210 12-06-13 10:26 foo/core$_main.class 1304 12-06-13 10:26 foo/core$fn__16.class 1492 12-06-13 10:26 foo/core$loading__4910__auto__.class 1755 12-06-13 10:26 foo/core.class 2814 12-06-13 10:26 foo/core__init.class 162 12-04-13 14:54 foo/core.clj -------- ------- 23569 14 files The target/foo-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT-standalone.jar listing, on the other hand, includes over 3000 files 3. Since the packaged pom.xml file includes a listing of the project’s dependencies, build tools like Leiningen or Maven can resolve these dependencies on their own. This allows for efficient packaging of libraries. Can you imagine if each and every Clojure library included the entirety of its dependencies? It would be a bandwidth nightmare. 8.2. Packaging a Project into a JAR File | 343 4. See Recipe 8.9 for more information on releasing libraries. By virtue of this property, lean JAR files such as this are what is deployed to remote repositories when you use the lein deploy command 4. Without its dependencies included—namely Clojure—you’ll need to do a bit more work to run the foo application. First, download Clojure 1.5.1 from‐ loads. Then invoke foo.core via the java command, including clojure-1.5.1.jar and foo-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar on the classpath (via the -cp option). # Download Clojure $ wget $ unzip # Execute the application $ java -cp target/foo-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar:clojure-1.5.1/clojure-1.5.1.jar \ foo.core \ 1 2 3 Executed with the following args: 1 2 3 See Also • Recipe 3.6 to learn about running Clojure programs from Leiningen. • Recipe 8.1 8.3. Creating a WAR File by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to deploy a Clojure web application built using Ring as a standard Web Archive (WAR) file in a commonly-used Java EE container such as Tomcat, JBoss, WebLogic, etc. Solution Assuming you are using Ring or a framework based on Ring (such as Compojure), the easiest way to structure your project to build as a WAR file is to use the lein-ring plugin for Leiningen. 344 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production 5. If you don’t happen to already have a similarly named project, and you want to follow along, create a new one with lein new warsample Say that your project has a Ring handler function defined in a namespace called war sample.core 5, like so: src/warsample/core.clj. (ns warsample.core) (defn handler [request] {:status 200 :headers {"content-type" "text/html"} :body "

Hello, world!

"}) To configure the project with lein-ring, add the following key/value pairs to your Leiningen project.clj file: project.clj. :plugins [[lein-ring "0.8.8"]] :ring {:handler warsample.core/handler} You’ll also need to make sure that your application declares a dependency on the javax servlet API library. Most webapp libraries do include a transitive dependency, which you can verify by running lein deps :tree. If no other library you’re using includes it, you can include it yourself by adding [javax.servlet/servlet-api "2.5"] to the :dependencies key in project.clj. The :plugins key specifies that the project uses the lein-ring plugin, and the map under the :ring key specifies configuration options specific to lein-ring. The only required option is :handler, which indicates the var name of the application’s primary Ring handler function. lein-ring provides a handy way to run your application locally, for development and testing. At the command line, simply type: $ lein ring server An embedded Jetty server will be started, serving your Ring application (on port 3000 by default, though you can change this in the lein-ring options). It will also open your operating system’s default browser to that page. Once you think the application is running correctly, you can build a WAR file using the lein ring war or lein ring uberwar commands. Both take the name of the war file to emit. $ lein ring war warsample.war $ lein ring uberwar warsample-with-deps.war 8.3. Creating a WAR File | 345 lein ring war builds a WAR file containing only your application code, not any tran‐ sitive dependencies, whereas lein ring uberwar will build a WAR file containing bundled JAR files for every dependency as well. Both these commands will generate all the necessary configuration and wiring (such as a WEB-INF directory and a web.xml file) before building the WAR. See the discussion section for some options you can pass to lein ring that will influence how these arti‐ facts are generated. After issuing the WAR build command, you will find the WAR file you created in your projects target directory. This is a perfectly normal WAR file that you can deploy just as if it were a standard J2EE WAR. Every application server is different, so check the documentation for your preferred system to see how to deploy a WAR file. If you have an operations team responsible for production deployments, you will definitely want to check with them to make sure you adhere to their processes and best practices. Discussion It is crucial to understand the difference between a bare WAR file generated using lein ring war and an “uberwar” generated by lein ring uberwar, and when to use each. A bare WAR file does not contain any of your project’s dependencies; only the applica‐ tion code itself. This means that your program will not work unless you make sure that each and every JAR file your program depends on, including Clojure itself is present on your web application’s shared library path. Exactly how to do this depends on the application server you’re using — you’ll have to refer to your system’s documentation to determine how to make them available. An “uberwar”, on the other hand, bundles up all the JARs your program depends on into the WAR archive as a bundled library under the WEB-INF/lib subfolder. Compliant application servers are capable of running each application (each deployed WAR file) in their own classloader context, and will make the bundled JARs available only to their application. Typically, an uberwar is a safer choice. It spares you from much of the effort of manually curating your libraries, and better reflects how your application’s classpath probably looked in development. The cost of an uberwar, however, is that a single library may be loaded multiple times if it is bundled by multiple applications. If you are running ten applications, all of which use (say) Compojure, the server will actually load up the Compojure code into the JVM’s class space ten times, once for each application. Some organizations running resource- constrained or high-performance deployments prefer to ensure that there is a minimum redundancy in application dependencies. If this is the case, then you may have to fall 346 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production back to using a non-uber WAR file and managing your dependencies in your application server’s shared library pool by hand. Dependency Collisions Although modern J2EE application servers do a pretty good job of keeping the classpaths and bundled libraries of different applications isolated from one another, you do have to be careful of the scenario where your application depends on a library that is part of the core J2EE platform, such as JDBC, the Servlet API, various XML libraries like JAX- *, StAX, JMS, etc. These classes are usually provided by the application container itself, and if your appli‐ cation refers to them it will resolve to the instance provided by the container rather than the version your application has bundled. If they are exactly the same, well and good, but if there is a version mismatch that includes breaking changes in the class API, you may encounter cryptic errors as your application tries to call into classes that are different than the ones it was built against. In this scenario, you will need to reconcile the dependency versions used by your ap‐ plication container and your application, to make sure they are compatible. Other lein-ring options. lein-ring provides some additional options you can set in the :ring configuration map in project.clj, to fine-tune how WAR files are generated. For an exhaustive descrip‐ tion, see the lein-ring project page. A few of the more useful ones are: Table 8-1. lein-ring WAR options Key Description Default :war-exclusions Sequence of regexes of files to exclude from the target WAR All hidden files :servlet-class The name of the generated Servlet class :servlet-name The name of the servlet in web.xml. The name of the handler function :url-pattern The URL of the servlet mapping in web.xml /* :web-xml Specify a specific web.xml file to use instead of the generated one. Building WAR files from scratch If you aren’t using Ring, or if you have a good reason not to use the lein-ring plugin, you can still create a WAR file, but the process is much more hands-on. Fortunately, a WAR file is essentially a JAR file with a different extension and some additional internal 8.3. Creating a WAR File | 347 structure and configuration files, so you can use the standard lein jar tool to generate one provided you add the files listed below at the appropriate locations in the archive. You’ll also need to define some AOT classes implementing javax.servlet.Servlet yourself, and have these call into your Clojure application. Then, you’ll need to wire them up to the application server using a deployment descriptor (web.xml). The structure of a WAR file is: |-- |-- WEB-INF |-- web.xml |-- |-- lib | |-- |-- classes |-- |-- <.clj source files> A full explanation of all of these elements is beyond the scope of this recipe. For a full explanation, see Oracle’s J2EE tutorial on packaging Web Archives. Other web server libraries (for example, Pedestal Server) that include tooling for Lei‐ ningen will also often have a utility for building WAR files - check the documentation of the library you’re using. See Also • Recipe 8.2 • Recipe 8.1 • lein-ring’s project page. • Oracle’s J2EE tutorial. 8.4. Running an Application as a Daemon by Ryan Neufeld Problem You want to run a Clojure application as a daemon, i.e. you want your application to run the background, in another system process. 348 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production 6. jsvc on Unix systems, procrun on Windows. Solution Use the Apache Commons Daemon library to write applications that can be executed in a background process. Daemon consists of two parts: the Daemon interface, which your application must implement, and a system application 6 which runs Daemon- compliant applications as daemons. Begin by adding the Daemon dependency to your project’s project.clj file. If you don’t have an existing project, create a new one with the command lein new my-daemon. Since Daemon is a Java-based system, enable AOT-compilation so that class files are generated. project.clj. (defproject my-daemon "0.1.0-SNAPSHOT" :description "FIXME: write description" :url "" :license {:name "Eclipse Public License" :url ""} :dependencies [[org.clojure/clojure "1.5.1"] [org.apache.commons/commons-daemon "1.0.9"]] :main my-daemon.core :aot :all) To implement the org.apache.commons.daemon.Daemon interface add the appropriate :gen-class declaration and interface functions to one of your project’s namespaces. For a minimally functional daemon, implement -init, -start and - stop. For best results, provide a -main function to enable smoke testing your application without touching the Daemon interface. src/my_daemon/core.clj. (ns my-daemon.core (:import [org.apache.commons.daemon Daemon DaemonContext]) (:gen-class :implements [org.apache.commons.daemon.Daemon])) ;; A crude approximation of your application's state. (def state (atom {})) (defn init [args] (swap! state assoc :running true)) (defn start [] (while (:running @state) (println "tick") (Thread/sleep 2000))) 8.4. Running an Application as a Daemon | 349 7. On OS X we suggest using Homebrew to brew install jsvc. If you’re using Linux, you’ll likely find a jsvc package in your favorite package manager. Windows users will need to install and use procrun. 8. Don’t worry, we’ll capture this all in a shell script soon… (defn stop [] (swap! state assoc :running false)) ;; Daemon implementation (defn -init [this ^DaemonContext context] (init (.getArguments context))) (defn -start [this] (start)) (defn -stop [this] (stop)) ;; Enable command-line invocation (defn -main [& args] (init args) (start)) Package all of the necessary dependencies and generated classes by invoking the Lei‐ ningen uberjar command. $ lein uberjar Compiling my-daemon.core Created /tmp/my-daemon/target/my-daemon-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar Created /tmp/my-daemon/target/my-daemon-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT-standalone.jar Before proceeding, test your application by running it with java. $ java -jar target/my-daemon-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT-standalone.jar tick tick tick # ... Type Ctrl-C to stop the madness Once you’ve verified your application works correctly install jsvc 7. Finally, the moment of truth. Run your application as a daemon by invoking jsvc with all of the requisite parameters: the absolute path of your Java home directory, uber JAR, output log file, and the namespace where your Daemon implementation resides 8. $ sudo jsvc -java-home "$JAVA_HOME" \ -cp "$(pwd)/target/my-daemon-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT-standalone.jar" \ -outfile "$(pwd)/out.txt" \ my-daemon.core # Nothing! 350 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production $ tail out.txt tick tick tick # Quit the daemonized process by adding the -stop flag $ sudo jsvc -java-home "$JAVA_HOME" \ -cp "$(pwd)/target/my-daemon-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT-standalone.jar" \ -stop \ my_daemon.core If all is well, out.txt should now contain a couple ticks. Congratulations! Daemon can be a little hard to get set up, but once you have it running it works fantastically. If you encounter any problems launching a daemon using jsvc, use the -debug flag to output more detailed diagnostic information. You’ll find a full working copy of the my-daemon project at https:// Discussion Have no illusions, daemonizing Java-based services is hard; yet, for over ten years Java developers have been using Apache Commons Daemon to this end. Why re-invent the wheel with a separate Clojure tool? One of Clojure’s core strengths is its ability to breath new life into old tunes—Daemon is one such “old tune.” Not all tunes are created equally, however. Where some Java libraries require a little Java interop, Daemon requires a lot. Daemonizing an application with Apache Commons Daemon requires getting two parts just right. The first part is creating a class that implements the Daemon interface and packaging it as a JAR file. The Daemon interface consists of four methods, called at different points in an daemonized applications lifecycle: • init(DaemonContext context) - invoked as your application is initializing. This is where you should set up any initial state for your application. • start() - invoked after init. This is where you should begin performing work in a loop or separate thread. • stop() - invoked when a daemon has been instructed to stop. This is where you should halt whatever processing you began in start. • destroy() - invoked after stop, but before the JVM process exits. In a traditional Java program, this is where you would free any resources you had acquired. You 8.4. Running an Application as a Daemon | 351 may be able skip this method in Clojure applications if you’ve properly structured your application. It’s easy enough to create a record (with defrecord) that implements the Daemon inter‐ face—but that isn’t enough though. jsvc expects a Daemon-implementing class exist on the classpath. To provide this you must do two things: first, you need to enable ahead- of-time (AOT) compilation for your project—setting :aot :all in your project.clj will accomplish this. Second, you need to commandeer a namespace to produce a class via the :gen-class namespace directive. More specifically, you need to generate a class that implements the Daemon interface. This is accomplished easily enough using :gen- class in conjunction with the :implements directive: (ns my-daemon.core ;; ... (:gen-class :implements [org.apache.commons.daemon.Daemon])) Having set up my-daemon.core to generate a Daemon-implementing class upon compi‐ lation, the only thing left is to implement the methods themselves. Prefacing a function with a dash (e.g. -start) indicates to the Clojure compiler that a function is in fact a Java method. Further, since the Daemon methods are instance methods, each function includes one additional argument, the present Daemon instance. This argument is tra‐ ditionally denoted with the name this. In our simple my-daemon example, most of the method implementations are rather plain, taking no arguments other than this and delegating work to regular Clojure functions. -init deserves a bit more attention though. (defn -init [this ^DaemonContext context] (init (.getArguments context))) The -init method takes as an additional argument: a DaemonContext. This argument captures the command-line arguments the daemon was started with on its .getArgu ments property. As implemented, -init invokes .getArguments method on context, passing its return value along to the regular Clojure function init. On that topic, why delegate every Daemon implementation to a separate Clojure func‐ tion? By separating participation in the Daemon interface from the inner workings of your application you retain the ability to invoke it in other ways. With this separation of concerns it becomes much easier to test your application, either via integration tests or direct invocation. The -main function utilizes these Clojure functions to allow you to verify your application behaves correctly in isolation of daemonization. With all of the groundwork for a Daemon-compliant application layed, the only re‐ maining step remaining is packaging the application. Leiningen’s uberjar command completes all of the necessary preprarations for running your application as a daemon: 352 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production compiling my-daemon.core to a class, gathering dependencies and packaging them all into a “standalone” JAR file. Last, but not least, you need to run the darn thing. Since JVM processes don’t generally play nicely with low-level system calls, Daemon provides system applications, jsvc and procrun, that act as intermediaries between the JVM and your computer’s operating system. These applications, generally written in C, are capable of invoking the appro‐ priate system calls to fork and execute your application in a background process. For simplicity, we’ll limit our discussion to the jsvc tool for the remainder of the recipe. Both of these tools have a dizzying number of configuration options, but only a handful of them are actually necessary for getting the ball rolling. At a minumum, you must provide the location of your standalone JAR (-cp), Java installation (-java-home), and the desired class to execute (the final argument). Other relevant options include - pidfile, -outfile and -errfile; these specify where the process’s ID, standard out and standard error will be written to, respectively. Any arguments following the name of the class to invoke will be passed into -init as a DaemonContext. A more complete example. $ sudo jsvc -java-home "$JAVA_HOME" \ -cp "$(pwd)/target/my-daemon-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT-standalone.jar" \ -pidfile /var/run/ \ -outfile "/var/log/my-daemon.out" \ -errfile "/var/log/my-daemon.err" \ my-daemon.core \ "arguments" "to" "my-daemon.core" Once you’ve started a daemon with jsvc, you can halt it by re- running jsvc with the -stop option included. Since jsvc re-launches your application in a completely new process, it carries none of its original execution context. This means no environment variables, no current work‐ ing directory, nothing; the process may not even be running as the same user. Because of this, it is extremely important to specify arguments to jsvc with their absolute paths and correct permissions in place. For our sample, we’ve opted to use sudo to make this a less painful experience, but in a production you should set up a separate user with more limited permissions. The run‐ ning user should have write access to the PID, out and err files, and read access to Java and the classpath. jsvc and its ilk can be fickle beasts—the slightest misconfiguration will cause your daemon to fail silently, without warning. We highly suggest using the -debug and - 8.4. Running an Application as a Daemon | 353 nodetach flags while developing and configuring your daemon until you’re sure things work correctly. Once you’ve nailed an appropriate configuration, the final step is to automate the man‐ agement of your daemon by writing a daemon script. A good daemon script captures configuration parameters, file paths and common operations, exposing them in a clean noise-free skin. Instead of the long jsvc commands you executed before, you would simply invoke my-daemon start or my-daemon stop. In fact, many Linux distributions use scripts such as this to manage system daemons. To implement your own jsvc daemon script we suggest reading Sheldon Neilson’s Creating a Java Daemon …. See Also • The Daemon documentation. • The contents of the jsvc man page, accessible via jsvc -help. • procrun, a Daemon runner for Windows. • lein-daemon, a Leiningen plugin for creating daemons that can be managed via a lein daemon command inside your project. • Recipe 8.2 for more information on packaging JAR files. • Recipe 8.1 for more information on AOT compilation. • gen-class – how it works and how to use it • Stuart Sierra’s component library, a tiny framework for managing the lifecycle of software components. 8.5. Alleviating Performance Problems With Type Hinting by Ryan Neufeld Problem You have functions that get called very often, and you want to optimize performance for those methods. Solution One of the easiest ways to increase performance for a given function is to eliminate Java reflection. Enable warn-on-reflection to diagnose excessive reflection. (defn column-idx "Return the index number of a column in a CSV header row" [header-cols col] 354 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production (.indexOf (vec header-cols) col)) (def headers (clojure.string/split "A,B,C" #",")) (column-idx headers "B") ;; -> 1 (set! *warn-on-reflection* true) (defn column-idx "Return the index number of a column in a CSV header row" [header-cols col] (.indexOf (vec header-cols) col)) ;; Reflection warning, NO_SOURCE_PATH:1:1 - call to indexOf can't be resolved. ;; 100,000 non-hinted executions... (time (dotimes [_ 100000] (column-idx headers "B"))) ;; "Elapsed time: 329.258 msecs" Once you’ve identified reflection, add type hints to your argument list preceding each argument in the form "^Type arg“. (defn column-idx "Return the index number of a column in a CSV header row" [^java.util.List header-cols col] (.indexOf header-cols col)) ;; 100,000 properly hinted executions (time (dotimes [_ 100000] (column-idx headers "B"))) ;; "Elapsed time: 27.779 msecs" When you have groups of functions that interact together, you may see reflection warn‐ ings in spite of your properly hinted arguments. Add type hints to the argument list itself to hint the type of the functions return value. ;; As a simple example, imagine you want to compare the result ;; of two function calls (defn some-calculation [x] 42) (defn same-calc? [x y] (.equals (some-calculation x) (some-calculation y))) ;; Reflection warning, NO_SOURCE_PATH:1:24 - call to equals can't be resolved. ;; Now type-hint the return value of some-calculation (defn some-calculation ^Integer [x] 42) (defn same-calc? [x y] (.equals (some-calculation x) (some-calculation y))) ;; Look Ma, no reflection warnings! 8.5. Alleviating Performance Problems With Type Hinting | 355 9. To accurately measure performance improvements from unchecked-math we suggest using a tool like cri‐ terium. Benchmarking code with time can be tricky and often yields misleading results (or none at all). Discussion In highly performant code it is often the case that you’ll choose to fall back to Java for increased performance. There is an impedance mismatch between Clojure and Java however; Java is strongly typed, whereas Clojure is not. Because of this, (almost) every time you invoke a Java function in Clojure it needs to reflect on the type of the provided arguments in order to select the appropriate Java method to invoke. For seldom-invoked methods this isn’t too big of a deal, but for methods executed frequently the cost of reflection can pile up quickly. Type hinting short-circuits this reflection. If you’ve hinted all of the arguments to a Java function, the Clojure compiler will no longer perform reflection. Instead, the function application will directly invoke the appropriate Java function. Of course, if you’ve gotten your types wrong your methods may not work properly; improperly hinted functions may throw a type-cast exception. What about when you have a sequence of values, all of a uniform type? Clojure provides a number of special hints for these cases, namely ^ints, ^floats ^longs and ^dou bles. Hinting these types will allow you to pass whole arrays as arguments to Java functions and not provoke reflection for sequences. Unchecked Math You may have noticed Clojure puts training wheels on all of its numeric types too, upgrading types liberally to avoid overflows. This isn’t without a cost, of course, as Clojure needs to check on every operation to make sure you aren’t overflowing con‐ tainers. If you need even more to-the-metal performance and happen to have nerves of steel yourself, then you may want to look at unchecked math 9. Setting unchecked-math to true will disable this safety, causing addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and inc/dec to occur without overflow checks. This in effect reverts numeric behavior to a C-like state where it is possible to overflow a positive integer to a negative one. ;; With checked math, you cannot overflow an integer (inc Long/MAX_VALUE) ;; ArithmeticException integer overflow ... (set! *unchecked-math* true) ;; Now integers are free to overflow (inc Long/MAX_VALUE) ;; -> -9223372036854775808 356 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production unchecked-math isn’t absolute, however; it is possible for boxed types to sneak into your operation, forcing checked math to occur. Combine unchecked-math with type hinting to ensure your maths are truly unchecked. Do so at your own risk, of course. See Also • Chapter 1 • Recipe 8.6 8.6. Fast Math with Primitive Java Arrays by Jason Wolfe Problem You need to perform fast numerical operations over significant amounts of data. Solution Primitive Java arrays are the canonical way to store large collections of numbers com‐ pactly, and do math over them quickly (often 100x faster than Clojure sequences). The hiphip (array) library is a quick and easy way to manipulate primitive arrays of double, long, float, or int members. Before starting, add [prismatic/hiphip "0.1.0"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try prismatic/hiphip Use one of hiphip’s amap macros to perform fast math on typed arrays. amap uses a parallel binding syntax similar to doseq. (require 'hiphip.double) (defn map-sqrt [xs] (hiphip.double/amap [x xs] (Math/sqrt x))) (seq (map-sqrt (double-array (range 1000)))) ;; -> (2.0 3.0 4.0) (defn pointwise-product "Produce a new double array with the product of corresponding elements of xs and ys" [xs ys] (hiphip.double/amap [x xs y ys] (* x y))) (seq (pointwise-product (double-array [1.0 2.0 3.0]) 8.6. Fast Math with Primitive Java Arrays | 357 (double-array [2.0 3.0 4.0]))) ;; -> (2.0 6.0 12.0) To modify an array in-place, use one of hiphip’s afill! macros. (defn add-in-place! "Modify xs, incrementing each element by the corresponding element of ys" [xs ys] (hiphip.double/afill! [x xs y ys] (+ x y))) (let [xs (double-array [1.0 2.0 3.0])] (add-in-place! xs (double-array [0.0 1.0 2.0])) (seq xs)) ;; -> (1.0 3.0 5.0) For faster reduce-like operations, use one of hiphip’s areduce and asum macros: (defn dot-product [ws xs] (hiphip.double/asum [x xs w ws] (* x w))) (dot-product (double-array [1.0 2.0 3.0]) (double-array [2.0 3.0 4.0])) ;; -> 20.0 We’d love to throw in a quick time benchmark to demonstrate the gains, but the JVM is a fickle beast when it comes to optimizations. We suggest using criterium when benchmarking to avoid common pitfalls. To see criterium benchmarks of hiphip, see this gist. Discussion Most of the time, Clojure’s sequence abstraction is all you need to get the job done. The above dot-product can be written succinctly in ordinary Clojure, and this is generally what you should try first. (defn dot-product [ws xs] (reduce + (map * ws xs)) Once you identify a bottleneck in your mathematical operations, however, primitive arrays may be the only way to go. The above dot-product implementation can be made more than 100x faster by using asum, primarily because map produces sequences of boxed Java Double objects. In addition to the cost of constructing an intermediate sequence, all arithmetic operations on boxed numbers are significantly slower than on their prim‐ itive counterparts. hiphip’s amap, afill!, reduce and asum macros (among others) are availabe for int, long, float and double types. If you wanted to use reduce over a array of floats, for 358 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production example, you would use hiphip.float/reduce. These macros define the appropriate type-hints and optimizations per-type. Clojure also comes with built-in functions for operating on arrays, although greater care must be taken to ensure maximal performance (via appropriate type hints and use of *unchecked-math*). (set! *unchecked-math* true) (defn map-inc [^doubles xs] (amap xs i ret (aset ret i (inc (aget xs i))))) Working with primitive arrays in Clojure isn’t for the faint of heart: if you don’t get everything right, you can easily end up with code that’s both much uglier and no faster (or even slower) than the straightforward sequence version. The biggest issue to watch out for is reflection, which can easily bring you from 100x faster to 10x slower with one small typo or missing type hint. If you’re up to the challenge, you should keep these tips in mind: • Use *warn-on-reflection* religiously, but be aware that it won’t warn you about many of the ways your code can be slow. • A solid profiler, or at least a comprehensive benchmark suite, are a must; otherwise you won’t know which function is using 99% of your runtime. • Especially if you’re not using hiphip, experiment with *unchecked-math*; it almost always makes your code faster, if you’re willing to give up the safety of overflow checks. • If you want your array code to go fast under Leiningen, you probably want to add the following to your project.clj: :jvm-opts ^:replace []. See Also • hiphip comes with a comprehensive suite of benchmarks of its and Clojure’s array operations for the main primitive types, including performance comparisons with hand-coded Java alternatives. • Vertigo goes beyond simple arrays of primitives to full C-style structs, which may be a good choice if you need to manipulate structured data (i.e., not just sequences of doubles) with maximal performance. • Recipe 8.5 to learn more about type-hinting and unchecked-math. • Recipe 8.7 to learn about using Timbre to output profiling statistics from your code. 8.6. Fast Math with Primitive Java Arrays | 359 8.7. Simple Profiling with Timbre by Ambrose Bonnaire-Sergeant Problem You want fine-grained statistics on the running time and invocation counts of your code. Solution Use Timbre to inserting profiling macros into your code that won’t incur a performance penalty in production. Before starting, add [com.taoensso/timbre "2.6.3"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try com.taoensso/timbre Use the macros in the taoensso.timbre.profiling namespace to collect benchmark‐ ing metrics in development. (require '[taoensso.timbre.profiling :as p]) (defn bench-me [f] (p/p :bench/bench-me (let [_ (p/p :bench/sleep (Thread/sleep 10)) n (p/p :bench/call-f-once (f)) _ (p/p :bench/call-f-10-times-outer (dotimes [_ 10] (p/p :bench/call-f-10-times-inner (f))))] (iterate f n)))) (p/profile :info :Bench-f (bench-me (fn ([] (p/p :bench/no-arg-f) 100) ([a] (p/p :bench/one-arg-f) +)))) Here we define a Clojure function bench-me, which is called with a higher-order func‐ tion f which takes zero or one argument. Timbre outputs rich profiling information in a convenient table. 2013-Aug-25 11:23:31 +0800 ambrose-VirtualBox INFO [book.profiling-timbre] - Profiling :taoensso.timbre.profiling/Bench-f Name Calls Min Max MAD Mean Time% Time :bench/bench-me 1 13ms 13ms 0ns 13ms 95 13ms :bench/sleep 1 11ms 11ms 0ns 11ms 76 11ms :bench/call-f-10-times-outer 1 970μs 970μs 0ns 970μs 7 970μs :bench/call-f-once 1 610μs 610μs 0ns 610μs 4 610μs 360 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production :bench/call-f-10-times-inner 10 20μs 214μs 35μs 39μs 3 394μs :bench/no-arg-f 11 5μs 163μs 26μs 20μs 2 215μs [Clock] Time 100 14ms Accounted Time 186 26ms Discussion Profiling with Timbre is a great solution for Clojure-only profiling. Standard JVM profiling tools like YourKit and JVisualVM provide more comprehensive information on Java methods, but come with a greater performance penalty. Timbre’s profiling is most useful when profiling a specific area of code, rather than using profiling as an exploratory tool for tuning performance. As profiling markers are just macros, they are flexible. For example, you could record how many times a particular if branch was taken, all without leaving Clojure or suffering from mangled Clojure function names via YourKit or JVisualVM. If profiling is deemed useful enough to keep in your code base, it good practice to use the profiling macros via a namespace alias. p, while conveniently named, is prone to being shadowed by local bindings if used without an explicit namespace. In the solution we used the alias p, and each call to p becomes p/p. Remember, you should not be hesitant to add profiling statements: there is no perfor‐ mance penalty for code involving taoensso.timbre.profiling/p if tracing is not en‐ abled. This means you can leave tracing code in production, which is useful if you want to profile the same code later, or if the profiling comments make your code clearer. See also • Profiling with Timbre 8.8. Logging with Timbre by Alex Miller Problem You want to add logging to your application code. Solution Use Timbre to configure your logger and add logging messages to your code. Before starting, add [com.taoensso/timbre "2.7.1"] to your project’s dependencies or start a REPL using lein-try: 8.8. Logging with Timbre | 361 $ lein try com.taoensso/timbre To write a function that writes log messages, use the Timbre functions info, error, etc. (require '[taoensso.timbre :as log]) (defn div-4 [n] (log/info "Starting") (try (/ 4 n) (catch Throwable t (log/error t "oh no!")) (finally (log/info "Ending")))) The div-4 function takes a single argument and returns (4 / n). The log/info calls will create a log message output at the “info” level. Similarly, the log/error call will create a log message at the “error” output level. Passing an exception as the first argument will cause the stack trace to be printed as well. If you call div-4 with values that will succeed or throw an error you will see output like the following in your REPL. (div-4 2) ;; -> 2 ;; *out* ;; 2013-Nov-22 10:34:11 -0500 laptop INFO [user] - Starting ;; 2013-Nov-22 10:34:11 -0500 laptop INFO [user] - Ending (div-4 0) ;; -> 2013-Nov-22 10:34:47 -0500 laptop ERROR [user] - oh no! java.lang.ArithmeticException: Divide by zero ;; -> nil ;; *out* ;; 2013-Nov-22 10:34:21 -0500 laptop INFO [user] - Starting ;; 2013-Nov-22 10:34:21 -0500 laptop ERROR [user] - oh no! java.lang.ArithmeticException: Divide by zero ;; ... Exception stacktrace ;; 2013-Nov-22 10:34:21 -0500 laptop INFO [user] - Ending Discussion Timbre is a great way to get started with logging in your code. Using a log library allows you to specify later where the output will go, possibly to more than one location or filtered by namespace. Timbre writes logs to any number of configured “appenders” (output destinations). By default, a single appender is configured to write to standard out. For example, to add a second appender for a file, you can dynamically modify the con‐ figuration by enabling the pre-configured spit appender: 362 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production ;; turn it on (log/set-config! [:appenders :spit :enabled?] true) ;; set the log file location (log/set-config! [:shared-appender-config :spit-filename] "out.log") Note that the output file’s directory must exist and the user must be able to write to the file. Once this configuration has been completed, any log messages will be written to both the console and the file. The available logging levels are: :trace, :debug, :info, :warn, :error, and :fatal. The default log level is set to :debug, so all logging levels greater than or equal to :debug will be recorded (everything but trace). To change the logging level at runtime, change the configuration: (log/set-level! :warn) While Timbre is an excellent library for simple logging in your Clojure app, it may not be sufficient if you are integrating with many Java libraries. There are a variety of popular Java logging frameworks and logging facades. If you wish to leverage the existing Java logging infrastructure, you might find the tools.logging framework more suitable. See also • Logging with Timbre • Logging with tools.logging 8.9. Releasing a Library to Clojars by Ryan Neufeld, originally submitted by Simon Mosciatti Problem You’ve built a library in Clojure, and you want to release it to the world. Solution One of easiest places to release libraries to is Clojars (, a community repository for open-source libraries. To get started, sign up for an account at https:// If you don’t already have an SSH key, the GitHub guide “Generating SSH Keys” is an excellent resource. Once you have an account set up, you’re ready to publish any Leiningen-based project. If you don’t have a project to publish, generate one with the command lein new my- first-project--, replacing and with your own name. 8.9. Releasing a Library to Clojars | 363 You can now use the command lein deploy cloajrs to release your library to Clojars. $ lein deploy clojars WARNING: please set :description in project.clj. WARNING: please set :url in project.clj. No credentials found for clojars (did you mean `lein deploy clojars`?) See `lein help deploy` for how to configure credentials. Username: Password: Wrote .../my-first-project-ryan-neufeld/pom.xml Created .../my-first-project-ryan-neufeld-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar Could not find metadata my-first-project-ryan-neufeld:.../0.1.0-SNAPSHOT/maven-metadata.xml \ in clojars ( Sending .../my-first-project-ryan-neufeld-0.1.0-20131113.123334-1.pom (3k) to Sending .../my-first-project-ryan-neufeld-0.1.0-20131113.123334-1.jar (8k) to Could not find metadata my-first-project-ryan-neufeld:.../maven-metadata.xml \ in clojars ( Sending my-first-project-ryan-neufeld/.../0.1.0-SNAPSHOT/maven-metadata.xml (1k) to Sending my-first-project-ryan-neufeld/.../maven-metadata.xml (1k) to Enter your Clojars username, then press return. Enter your Clojars password, then press return. After this command has completed your library will be available both on the web ( and as a Leiningen dependency ([my- first-project-ryan-neufeld "0.1.0-SNAPSHOT"]). Discussion Releasing a library doesn’t get much easier than this; just create an account and press the Big Red Button. Together, Leiningen and Clojars make it trivially easy for members of the Clojure community such as yourself to release their libraries to the masses. In this example, you released a simple, uniquely-named library with little care for ver‐ sioning, release strategies or adequate metadata. In a real project, you should pay at‐ tention to these matters to be a good open-source citizen. The easiest change is appropriate metadata and a website. In your project.clj file add an accurate :description and :url. If you don’t have a website for your project, consider linking to your project’s GitHub page (or other public SCM “landing page”). Less easy is having consistent version numbers for your project. We suggest a scheme called Semantic Versioning or “semver.” The semver scheme prescribes a version num‐ ber of three parts, major, minor and patch, joined with periods. The ends up looking like “0.1.0” or “1.4.2”. Each version position indicates a certain level of stability and 364 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production consistency across releases. Releases sharing a major version should be API-compatible; bumping the major version says: “I have fundamentally changed the API of this library.” The minor version indicates when new, backwards-compatible functionality has been added. Finally, the patch version indicates when bug-fixes have been made. It certainly takes discipline to follow semantic versioning, but when you do, you make it easier for your fellow developers to understand and trust your library versions to behave in a way they expect. Code-signing is another important concern in the deployment process. Signing the artifacts you release lets your users know the artifacts were created by someone they trust (you) and contain exactly what you intended (i.e. they have not be tampered with). Leiningein includes the facitilies to sign release artifacts using GPG and include the relevant .asc signature files in lein deploy publications. Enabling code-signing is de‐ scribed in the GPG section of Leiningen’s Deploying Libraries guide. See Also • The Clojars Wiki, a bountiful resource of information on releasing libraries to Clo‐ jars. • Leiningen’s own Deploying Libraries guide, which covers code-signing and how to deploy to repositories other than Clojars. • The output of the lein help deploy command. 8.10. Using Macros to Simplify API Deprecations by Michael Fogus Problem When maintaining a library that other programmers rely on to get their work done it behooves you to be thoughtful when making changes. In the process of fixing bugs and making improvements to your library you will eventually wish to change its public interface. Making changes to a public-facing portion of your library is no small matter, but assuming that you’ve determined its necessity then you’ll want to deprecate the functions that are obsolete. The term deprecate basically means that a given function should be avoided in favor of some other, newer function. This recipe details an ap‐ proach to deprecating API functions and reporting existing deprecations using Clojure macros. 8.10. Using Macros to Simplify API Deprecations | 365 Solution Take for example the case of the Clojure contrib library core.memoize. Without going into detail about what core.memoize does, it’s fine to know that at one point a segment of its public-facing API was a function named memo-fifo that looked like the following: (defn memo-fifo ([f] ... ) ([f limit] ... ) ([f limit base] ... )) Obviously the implementation has been elided to highlight only the parts that were planned for change in a later version — namely the function’s name and its available argument vectors. The details of the new API are not important, but they were different enough to cause potential confusion to the users. Likewise, to simply make the change without due notice in a new version would have been bad form, and genuine cause for bitterness. Therefore, the question arises: what can you do in the case where a feature is planned for deprecation that not only supports existing code in the interim, but also provides fair warning to the users of your library for an future breaking change? In this section we’ll discuss using macros to provide a nice mechanism for deprecating library func‐ tions and macros with minimal fuss. In the case of the planned deprecation of memo-fifo, the new function, named simply fifo was changed not only in name but also in its provided arities. When deprecating portions of a library it’s often a good idea to print warning messages that point to the new, preferred function to use instead. Therefore, to start on the way to deprecating memo-fifo the following function !! was created to print a warning: (defn ^:private !! [c] (println "WARNING - Deprecated construction method for" c "cache; preferred way is:" (str "(clojure.core.memoize/" c " function <:" c "/threshold num>)"))) When passed a symbol, the !! function prints a messages like the one shown below: (!! 'fifo) ;; WARNING - Deprecated construction method for fifo cache; ;; preferred way is: ;; (clojure.core.memoize/fifo function <:fifo/threshold num>) Not only does the deprecation message indicate that the function called is deprecated, but it also points to the function that should be used instead. As far as deprecation messages go this one is solid, although your own purposes may call for something dif‐ 366 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production ferent. In any case, to insert this warning on every call to memo-fifo we can create a simple macro to inject the call to !! into the body of the function’s definition, as shown below: (defmacro defn-deprecated [nom _ alt ds & arities] `(defn ~nom ~ds ; ~@(for [[args body] arities] ; (list args `(!! (quote ~alt)) body)))) ; 1. Create a defn call with the given name and docstring 2. Loop through the given function arities… 3. … and insert a call to !! as the first part of the body We’ll talk a bit about the goals of the defn-deprecated macro in the “Discussion” sec‐ tion, but for now you can see how it works in the following: (defn-deprecated memo-fifo :as fifo "DEPRECATED: Please use clojure.core.memoize/fifo instead." ([f] ... ) ([f limit] ... ) ([f limit base] ... ) The only change to the definition of memo-fifo is the use of the defn-deprecated macro instead of defn directly, the use of the :as fifo directive and the addition (or change) of the docstring to describe the deprecation. The defn-deprecated macro takes care of assembling the parts in the macro body to print the warning on use: (def f (memo-fifo identity 32)) ;; WARNING - Deprecated construction method for fifo cache; ;; preferred way is: ;; (clojure.core.memoize/fifo function <:fifo/threshold num>) The warning message will only display once for every call to memo-fifo and due to the nature of that function that should be sufficient. Discussion There are different ways to handle the same situation besides using macros. For example, the !! function could have taken a function and a symbol and wrapped the function, inserting a deprecation warning in passing: (defn depr [fun alt] (fn [& args] ; (println "WARNING - Deprecated construction method for" alt "cache; preferred way is:" (str "(clojure.core.memoize/" alt " function <:" 8.10. Using Macros to Simplify API Deprecations | 367 alt "/threshold num>)")) (apply fun args))) ; 1. Return a function that prints the deprecation message before calling the deprecated function 2. Call the deprecated function This new implementation of !! would work in the following way: (def memo-fifo (depr old-memo-fifo 'fifo)) Thereafter, calling the memo-fifo function will print the deprecation message. Using a higher-order function like this is a reasonable way to avoid the potential complexities of using a macro. However, we chose the macro version for a number of reasons. Preserving stack traces. Let’s be honest, the exception stack traces that Clojure can pro‐ duce can, at times be painful to deal with. If you decide to use a higher order function like depr then be aware that if an exception occurs in its execution that another layer of stack trace will be added. By using a macro like !! that delegates its operation directly to defn you are ensured that the stack trace will remain unadulterated (so to speak). Metadata. Using a near 1-for-1 replacement macro like defn-deprecated allows you to preserve the metadata on a function. Observe: (defn-deprecated ^:private memo-foo :as bar "Does something." ([] 42)) (memo-foo) ;; WARNING - Deprecated construction method for bar cache; ;; preferred way is: ;; (clojure.core.memoize/bar function <:bar/threshold num>) ;;=> 42 Because defn-deprecated defers the bulk of its behavior to defn, any metadata attached to its elements automatically gets forwarded on and attached as expected: (meta #'memo-foo) ;;=> {:arglists ([]), :ns #, ;; :name memo-foo, :private true, :doc "Does something.", ;; ...} Using the higher-order approach does not automatically preserve metadata: (def baz (depr foo 'bar)) (meta #'baz) ;;=> {:ns #, :name baz, ...} 368 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production Of course, you could copy over the metadata if do desired, but why do so when the macro approach takes cares of it for you? Faster call-site. The depr function, because it’s required to handle any function that you give it needed to use apply at its core. While in the case of the core.memoize functions this was not a problem, it may become so in the case of functions requiring higher performance. In reality, though the use of println will likely overwhelm the cost of the apply, so if you really need to deprecate a high-performance function then you might want to consider the following approach instead. Compile time warnings. The operation of defn-deprecated is such that the deprecation warning is printed every time that the function is called. This could be problematic if the function requires high-speed. Very few things slow a function down like a console print. Therefore, we can change defn-deprecate slightly to report its warning at com‐ pile time rather than runtime: (defmacro defn-deprecated [nom _ alt ds & arities] (!! alt) ; `(defn ~nom ~ds ~@arities)) ; 1. Print the warning when the macro is accessed 2. Delegate function definition to defn without adulteration Observe the compile-time warning below: (defn-deprecated ^:private memo-foo :as bar "Does something." ([] 42)) ;; WARNING - Deprecated construction method for bar cache; ;; preferred way is: ;; (clojure.core.memoize/bar function <:bar/threshold num>) ;;=> #'user/memo-foo (memo-foo) 42 This approach will work well if you distribute libraries as source code rather than as compiled programs. Turning it off. The real beauty of macros is not that they allow you to change the se‐ mantics of your programs, but that they allow you to avoid doing so whenever it’s not appropriate. For example, when using macros you can run any code available to Clojure at compile-time. Thankfully, the full Clojure language is available at compile-time. Therefore, we can check a boolean flag attached to a namespace as metadata to decide whether to report a compile-time deprecation warning. We can change the newest defn- deprecated to illustrate this technique: 8.10. Using Macros to Simplify API Deprecations | 369 (defmacro defn-deprecated [nom _ alt ds & arities] (let [silence? (:silence-deprecations (meta clojure.core/*ns*))] ; (when-not silence? ; (!! alt))) `(defn ~nom ~ds ~@arities)) 1. Lookup the metadata on the current namespace 2. Only report the deprecation warning if the flag is not set to silence-mode The defn-deprecated macro checks the status of the :silence-deprecations meta‐ data property on the current namespace and reports (or not) the deprecation warning based on it. If you wind up using this approach then you can turn-off the deprecation warning on a per-namespace basis by adding the following to your ns declaration: (ns ^:silence-deprecations my.awesome.lib) Now, any use of defn-deprecated in that namespace will not print the warning. Future versions of Clojure will provide a cleaner way of creating and managing compile-time flags, but for now this is a decent compromise. 370 | Chapter 8: Performance & Production CHAPTER 9 Distributed Computation 9.0. Introduction With the advent of cheaper and cheaper storage, we’re inclined to store more and more data. As this data grows larger and larger it becomes increasingly difficult to utilize to its full potential. To this end, numerous new techniques have emerged in the last decade or so for dealing with such quantities of data. The primary focus of this chapter is one such technique, MapReduce, developed at Google in the early 2000s. Functional even in name, this technique uses map and reduce in parallel across multiple machines at tremendous scale to process data at phenomenal speed. In this chapter we’ll be covering Cascalog, a data processing library built on top of Hadoop (an open source MapReduce implementation). We’ll also briefly cover Storm, a real-time, stream-processing library in use at several tech giants such as Twitter, Groupon and Yahoo!. Cascalog Cascalog defines a DSL based on Datalog, the same query language that backs Datomic. It might be a strange at first, but you will be thinking in Datalog in no time. Once you’ve wet your feet with these recipes visit the Cascalog wiki for more information on writing your own queries. Cascalog provides a concise syntax for describing data processing jobs. Transformations and aggregates are easy to express in Cascalog. Joins are particularly simple. You might like the Cascalog syntax so much that you use it even for local jobs. You can run your Cascalog jobs in a number of different ways. The easiest way is to run jobs locally. When running jobs locally Cascalog uses Hadoop’s local mode, completing entire job on your own computer. You get the benefit of parallelism, without the hassle of setting up a cluster. 371 Once your jobs outgrow local mode, you’ll need to start running them on a Hadoop cluster. Having your own cluster is a lot of fun, but it can be a fair amount of work (and money!) to setup and maintain. If you don’t need a cluster very often, you might consider running your job on Amazon EMR, Elastic MapReduce. EMR provides on-demand Hadoop clusters the same way EC2 provides on-demand servers. You’ll need an Amazon Web Services account to run the job, but it isn’t difficult. You can read exactly how to do it later in Recipe 9.7. Whether you run your job on EMR or on your own cluster, you will package up your code into an uberjar, then send it to Hadoop for execution. It is surprisingly simple to get hundreds of computers working on your task. 9.1. Building an Activity Feed System with Storm by Travis Vachon Problem Streams are a dominant metaphor for presenting information to users of the modern internet. Used on sites like Facebook and Twitter and mobile apps like Instagram and Tinder, streams are an elegant tool for giving users a window into the deluge of infor‐ mation generated by the applications they use every day. As a developer of these applications, you want tools to process the firehose of raw event data generated by user actions. They must offer powerful tools for filtering and aggre‐ gating data and must be arbitrarily scalable to serve ever growing userbases. Ideally they should provide high level abstractions that help you organize and grow the complexity of your stream processing logic to accommodate new features and a complex world. Clojure offers just such a tool in Storm, a distributed realtime computation system that aims to be for realtime computation what Hadoop is for batch computation. In this section you’ll build a simple activity stream processing system that can be easily exten‐ ded to solve real world problems. Solution First create a new Storm project using its Leiningen template: $ lein new cookbook-storm-project feeds In the project directory, run the default storm topology (which the lein template has generated for you): $ cd feeds $ lein run -m feeds.topology/run! Compiling feeds.TopologySubmitter ... Emitting: spout default [:bizarro] Processing received message source: spout:4, stream: default, id: {}, [:bizarro] 372 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation Emitting: stormy-bolt default ["I'm bizarro Stormy!"] Processing received message source: stormy-bolt:5, stream: default, id: {}, [I'm bizarro Stormy!] Emitting: feeds-bolt default ["feeds produced: I'm bizarro Stormy!"] This generated example topology just babbles example messages incoherently, which probably isn’t what you want, so begin by modifying the “spout” to produce realistic events. In Storm parlance, “spout” is the component that inserts data into the processing system and creats a data stream. Open src/feeds/spouts.clj and replace the defsp out form with a new spout that will periodically produce random user events such as one might see in an online marketplace. (In a real application, of courese, you’d hook this up to some source of real data rather than a random data generator.) (defspout event-spout ["event"] [conf context collector] (let [events [{:action :commented, :user :travis, :listing :red-shoes} {:action :liked, :user :jim, :listing :red-shoes} {:action :liked, :user :karen, :listing :green-hat} {:action :liked, :user :rob, :listing :green-hat} {:action :commented, :user :emma, :listing :green-hat}]] (spout (nextTuple [] (Thread/sleep 1000) (emit-spout! collector [(rand-nth events)]))))) Next, open src/feeds/bolts/clj. Add a bolt that accepts a user and an event and produces a tuple of (user, event) for each user in the system. A bolt consumes a stream, does some processing, and emits a new stream. (defbolt active-user-bolt ["user" "event"] [{event "event" :as tuple} collector] (doseq [user [:jim :rob :karen :kaitlyn :emma :travis]] (emit-bolt! collector [user event])) (ack! collector tuple)) Now add a bolt that accepts a user and an event and emits a tuple if and only if the user is following the user who triggered the event: (defbolt follow-bolt ["user" "event"] {:prepare true} [conf context collector] (let [follows {:jim #{:rob :emma} :rob #{:karen :kaitlyn :jim} :karen #{:kaitlyn :emma} :kaitlyn #{:jim :rob :karen :kaitlyn :emma :travis} :emma #{:karen} :travis #{:kaitlyn :emma :karen :rob}}] (bolt (execute [{user "user" event "event" :as tuple}] (when ((follows user) (:user event)) (emit-bolt! collector [user event])) (ack! collector tuple))))) 9.1. Building an Activity Feed System with Storm | 373 Finally, add a bolt that accepts a user and an event and stores the event in a hash of sets like {:user1 #{event1 event2} :user2 #{event1 event2}} - these are the activity streams you’ll present to users. (defbolt feed-bolt ["user" "event"] {:prepare true} [conf context collector] (let [feeds (atom {})] (bolt (execute [{user "user" event "event" :as tuple}] (swap! feeds #(update-in % [user] conj event)) (println "Current feeds:") (clojure.pprint/pprint @feeds) (ack! collector tuple))))) This gives you all the pieces you’ll need, but you’ll still need to assemble them together into a computational topology. Open up src/feeds/topology.clj and use the topol‐ ogy DSL to wire the spouts and bolts together: (defn storm-topology [] (topology {"events" (spout-spec event-spout)} {"active users" (bolt-spec {"events" :shuffle} active-user-bolt :p 2) "follows" (bolt-spec {"active users" :shuffle} follow-bolt :p 2) "feeds" (bolt-spec {"follows" ["user"]} feed-bolt :p 2)})) You’ll also need to update the :require statement in that file: (:require [feeds [spouts :refer [event-spout]] [bolts :refer [active-user-bolt follow-bolt feed-bolt]]] [backtype.storm [clojure :refer [topology spout-spec bolt-spec]] [config :refer :all]]) Run the topology again. Feeds will be printed to the console by the final bolts in the topology: $ lein run -m feeds.topology/run! Discussion Storm’s Clojure DSL doesn’t look like standard Clojure - instead, it uses Clojure’s macros to extend the language to the domain of stream processing. Storm’s stream processing abstraction consists of 4 core primitives: • tuples are dynamically typed lists of values that allow programmers to provide names for values • spouts produce tuples, often by reading from a distributed queue • bolts accept tuples as input and produce new tuples - these are the core computa‐ tional units of a Storm topology 374 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation • streams are used to wire spouts to bolts and bolts to other bolts, creating a com‐ putational topology. Streams can be configured with rules for routing certain types of tuples to specific instances of bolts. The following section reviews the components of our system to give a better picture of how these primitives work together. event-spout (defspout event-spout ["event"] [conf context collector] defspout looks much like Clojure’s standard defn with one difference - the second argument to defspout is a list of names that will be assigned to elements of each tuple this spout produces. This lets you use tuples like vectors or maps interchangeably. The third argument to defspout is a list of arguments that will be bound various components of Storm’s operational infrastructure - collector is used below, ignoring the other two for now. (let [events [{:action :commented, :user :travis, :listing :red-shoes} {:action :liked, :user :jim, :listing :red-shoes} {:action :liked, :user :karen, :listing :green-hat} {:action :liked, :user :rob, :listing :green-hat} {:action :commented, :user :emma, :listing :green-hat}]] defspout’s body will be evaluated once, when the spout instance is created, which gives you an opportunity to create in-memory state. In this case you’ll create a list of events this spout will produce, but usually this will be a connection to a database or distributed queue. (spout (nextTuple [] (Thread/sleep 1000) (emit-spout! collector [(rand-nth events)]))))) This call to spout creates an instance of a spout with the given implementation of nextTuple. This implementation simply sleeps for one second and then uses emit- spout! to emit a one element tuple consisting of a random event from the list above. nextTuple will be called repeatedly in a tight loop, so if you create a spout that polls an external resource you may need to provide your own backoff algorithm to avoid excess load on that resource. You can also implement the spout’s ack method to implement a “reliable” spout that will provide message processing guarantees. For more information on reliable spouts, see Storm’s spout implementation for the Kestrel queueing system. 9.1. Building an Activity Feed System with Storm | 375 active-user-bolt Every time a user takes an action in this system it needs to determine whether each other user in the system will be interested in it. Given a simple interest system like Twitter, where users express interest in a single way (i.e., user follows), you could simply look at the follower list of the user who took the action and update feeds accordingly. In a more complex system, however, interest might be expressed by having liked the item the action was taken against, following a collection that the item has been added to or following the seller of the item. In this world, you need to consider a variety of factors for each user in the system for every event and determine whether the event should be added to that user’s feed. The first bolt starts this process by generating a tuple of (user, event) for each user in the system every time an event is generated by the event-spout: (defbolt active-user-bolt ["user" "event"] [{event "event" :as tuple} collector] (doseq [user [:jim :rob :karen :kaitlyn :emma :travis]] (emit-bolt! collector [user event])) (ack! collector tuple)) defbolt’s signature looks very similar to defspout - the second argument is a list of names that will be assigned to tuples generated by this bolt, and the third argument is a list of parameters. The first parameter will be bound to the input tuple, and may be destructured as a map or a vector. The body of this bolt iterates through a list of users in the system and emits a tuple for each of them. The last line of the body calls ack! on this tuple, which allows Storm to track message processing and restart processing when appropriate. follow-bolt The next bolt is a prepared bolt, that is, one that maintains in-memory state. In many cases this would mean maintaining a connection to a database or a queue, or a data‐ structure aggregating some aspect of the tuples it processes, but this example maintains a complete list of the followers in the system in memory. This bolt looks more like the spout definition - the second argument is a list of names, the third argument is a map of bolt configuration options (importantly, these set :pre pared to true), and the fourth argument is the same set of operational arguments re‐ ceived in defspout: (defbolt follow-bolt ["user" "event"] {:prepare true} [conf context collector] The body of the bolt first defines the list of followers, and then provides the actual bolt definition inside a call to bolt: (let [follows {:jim #{:rob :emma} :rob #{:karen :kaitlyn :jim} 376 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation :karen #{:kaitlyn :emma} :kaitlyn #{:jim :rob :karen :kaitlyn :emma :travis} :emma #{:karen} :travis #{:kaitlyn :emma :karen :rob}}] (bolt (execute [{user "user" event "event" :as tuple}] (when ((follows user) (:user event)) (emit-bolt! collector [user event])) (ack! collector tuple))))) Note that the tuple argument is inside the bolt’s definition of execute in this case, and may be destructured as usual. In cases where the event’s user is not following the user in the tuple, it does not emit a new tuple and simply acknowledges that it received the input. As noted earlier, this particular system could be implemented much more simply by querying whatever datastore tracked follows and simply adding a story to the feed of each follower. Anticipating a more complicated system, however, provides a massively extensible architecture. This bolt could easily be expanded to a collection of scoring bolts, each of which would evaluate a user/event pair based on its own criteria and emitting a tuple of (user, event, score). A score aggregation bolt would receive scores from each scoring bolt and choose to emit a tuple once it received scores from each type of scoring bolt in the system. In this world, adjusting the factors determining the makeup of a user’s feed and their relative weights would be trivial - indeed, production experience with just such a system was, in the opinion of the authors, delightful. feed-bolt The final bolt aggregates events into feeds. Since it only receives (user, event) tuples that the “scoring system” has approved it needs only add the event to the existing list of events it has received for the given user: (let [feeds (atom {})] (bolt (execute [{user "user" event "event" :as tuple}] (swap! feeds #(update-in % [user] conj event)) (println "Current feeds:") (clojure.pprint/pprint @feeds) (ack! collector tuple)))) This toy topology simply prints the current feeds every time it receives a new event, but in the real world would persist feeds to a durable datastore or a cache that could effi‐ ciently serve the feeds to users. Note that this design can be easily extended to support event digesting - rather than storing each event separately, it could aggregate an incoming event with other similar events for the user’s convenience. 9.1. Building an Activity Feed System with Storm | 377 As currently described, this system has one enormous flaw. By default, storm tuples are delivered to exactly one instance of each bolt, and the number of instances in existence is not defined in the bolt implementation. If the topology operator adds more than one feed-bolt we may have events for the same user delivered to different bolt instances, giving each bolt a different feed for the same user. Happily, this flaw is addressed by the Storm’s support for stream grouping, which is defined in the Storm topology definition. topology The topology definition is where the rubber meets the road. Spouts are wired to bolts which are wired to other bolts, and the flow of tuples between them can be configured to give useful properties to the computation. It is also where you define the component- level parallelism of the topology, which provides a rough sketch of the true operational parallelism of system. A topology definition consists of spout specifications and bolt specifications, each of which is a map from names to specifications. Spout specifications simply give a name to a spout implementation: {"events" (spout-spec event-spout)} Multiple spouts can be configured, and the specification may define the parallelism of the spout: { "events" (spout-spec event-spout) "parallel-spout" (spout-spec a-different-more-parallel-spout :p 2) } This definition means the topology will have one instance of event-spout and two instances of a-different-more-parallel-spout. Bolt definitions get a bit more complicated: "active users" (bolt-spec {"events" :shuffle} active-user-bolt :p 2) "follows" (bolt-spec {"active users" :shuffle} follow-bolt :p 2) As with the spout spec, you must provide a name for this bolt and specify its parallelism. In addition, bolts require specifying a stream grouping, which defines (a) from which component the bolt receives tuples and (b) how the system chooses which in-memory instance of the bolt to send tuples to. Both of these cases specify :shuffle:, which means tuples from “events” will be sent to a random instance of active-user-bolt and tuples from “active users” will be sent to a random instance of follow-bolt. As noted above, feed-bolt needs to be more careful: "feeds" (bolt-spec {"follows" ["user"]} feed-bolt :p 2) 378 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation This bolt spec specifies a fields grouping on "user". This means that the all tuples with the same “user” value will be sent to the same instance of feed-bolt. This stream grouping is configured with a list of field names, so fields groupings may consider the equality of multiple field values when determining which bolt instance should process a given tuple. Storm also supports stream groupings that send tuples to all instances and groupings that let the bolt producing a tuple determine where to send it. Combined with the groupings already seen, these provide an enormous amount of flexibility in determining how data flows through your topology. Each of these component specifications supports a parallelism option. Because the top‐ ology does not specify the physical hardware upon which it will run, these hints cannot be used to determine the true parallelism of the system, but they are used by the cluster to determine how many in-memory instances of the specified components to create. deployment The real magic of Storm comes out in deployment. Storm gives you the tools to build small, independent components that make no assumptions about how many identical instances are running in the same topology. This means that the topology itself is es‐ sentially infinitely scalable. The edges of the system, which receive data from and send data to external components like queues and databases is not necessarily as scalable, but in many cases strategies for scaling these services are well understood. A simple deployment strategy is built into the Storm library: (doto (LocalCluster.) (.submitTopology "my first topology" {TOPOLOGY-DEBUG (Boolean/parseBoolean debug) TOPOLOGY-WORKERS (Integer/parseInt workers)} (storm-topology))) LocalCluster is an in-memory implementation of a Storm cluster. You can specify the number of workers it will use to execute the components of our topology and submit the topology itself, at which point it begins polling the nextTuple methods of the top‐ ology’s spouts. As spouts emit tuples, they are propagated through the system to com‐ plete the topology’s computation. Submitting the topology to a configured cluster is nearly as simple, as you can see in src/feeds/TopologySubmitter.clj: (defn -main [& {debug "debug" workers "workers" :or {debug "false" workers "4"}}] (StormSubmitter/submitTopology "feeds topology" {TOPOLOGY-DEBUG (Boolean/parseBoolean debug) TOPOLOGY-WORKERS (Integer/parseInt workers)} (storm-topology))) 9.1. Building an Activity Feed System with Storm | 379 This file uses Clojure’s Java interop to generate a Java class with a main method. Because the project.clj file specifies that this file should be ahead-of-time compiled, when you use lein uberjar to build a JAR suitable for submission to our cluster this file will be compiled to look like a normal Java classfile. You can upload this JAR to the machine running Storm’s Nimbus daemon and submit it for execution using the storm com‐ mand: $ storm jar path/to/thejariuploaded.jar feeds.TopologySubmitter "workers" 5 This command will tell the cluster to allocate 5 dedicated workers for this topology and begin polling nextTuple on all of its spouts, as it did when you used LocalCluster. A cluster may run any number of topologies simultaneously - each worker is a physical JVM and may end up running instances of many different bolts and spouts. The full details of setting up and running a Storm cluster are out of the scope of this recipe, but they are documented extensively on Storm’s wiki. Conclusion We’ve only touched on a fraction of the functionality Storm has to offer. Built in Dis‐ tributed Remote Procedure Calls allow users to harness the power of a the Storm cluster to make synchronous requests that trigger a flurry of activity across hundreds or thou‐ sands of machines. Guaranteed data processing semantics allow users to build extremely robust systems. Trident, a higher level abstraction over Storm’s primitives, provides breathtakingly simple solutions to complicated realtime computing problems. A details runtime console provides crucial insight into the runtime characteristics of a fully op‐ erational Storm cluster. The power provided by this system is truly remarkable. Storm is also a fantastic example of Clojure’s ability to be extended to a problem domain. Its constructs idiomatically extend Clojure syntax and allow the programmer to stay within the domain of realtime processing, without needing to deal with low-level lan‐ guage formalities. This allows Storm to truly “get out of the way” - the majority of the code in a well written Storm topology’s codebase is focused on the problem at hand. The result is concise, maintainable code and happy programmers. See also • Storm’s website • The Storm project template • storm-deploy, a tool for easy Storm deployment. 380 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation 9.2. Processing Data with an Extract Transform Load (ETL) Pipeline by Alex Robbins Problem You need to change the format of large amounts of data from JSON lists to CSV for later processing. For example: Input. {"name": "Clojure Programming", "authors": ["Chas Emerick", "Brian Carper", "Christophe Grand"]} {"name": "The Joy of Clojure", "authors": ["Michael Fogus", "Chris Houser"]} Output. Chas Emerick,Brian Carper,Christophe Grand Michael Fogus,Chris Houser Solution Cascalog allows you to write distributed processing jobs that can run locally for small jobs or on a Hadoop cluster for larger jobs. To follow along with this recipe, create a new Leiningen project. $ lein new cookbook Modify your new project’s project.clj file by adding the cascalog dependency, setting up the :dev profile, and enabling AOT-compilation for the cookbook.etl namespace. Your project.clj file should now look like this: project.clj. (defproject cookbook "0.1.0-SNAPSHOT" :description "FIXME: write description" :url "" :license {:name "Eclipse Public License" :url ""} :dependencies [[org.clojure/clojure "1.5.1"] [cascalog "1.10.2"] [org.clojure/data.json "0.2.2"]] :profiles {:dev {:dependencies [[org.apache.hadoop/hadoop-core "1.1.2"]]}} :aot [cookbook.etl]) Create the file src/cookbook/etl.clj and add a query to it. src/cookbook/etl.clj. (ns cookbook.etl (:require [cascalog.api :refer :all] 9.2. Processing Data with an Extract Transform Load (ETL) Pipeline | 381 [ :as json])) (defn get-vec "Wrap the result in a vector for Cascalog to consume." [m k] (vector (get m k))) (defn vec->csv "Turn a vector into a csv string. (Not production quality)." [v] (apply str (interpose "," v))) (defmain Main [in out & args] (?<- (hfs-textline out :sinkmode :replace) [?out-csv] ((hfs-textline in) ?in-json) (json/read-str ?in-json :> ?book-map) (get-vec ?book-map "authors" :> ?authors) (vec->csv ?authors :> ?out-csv))) Create a file with input data in samples/books/books.csv. samples/books/books.csv. {"name": "Clojure Cookbook", "authors": ["Ryan", "Luke"]} The full contents of this solution are available on GitHub in the Casca‐ log Samples repository. To retrieve a copy of the working project, clone the project from Git‐ Hub and checkout the etl-sample branch. $ git clone $ cd cascalog-samples $ git checkout etl-sample You can now execute the job locally with lein run, providing an input and output file. $ lein run -m cookbook.etl.Main samples/books/books.json samples/books/output # Or, on a Hadoop cluster $ lein uberjar $ hadoop jar target/cookbook-standalone.jar cookbook.etl.Main books.json books.csv The results in samples/books/output/part-00000 are as follows: Ryan,Luke 382 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation 1. While queries look like regular Clojure, they are in fact a DSL. If you’re not familiar with Cascalog queries, learn more in Nathan Marz’s Introducing Cascalog article Discussion While it would be easy to write a script that converted JSON to CSV, it would be a lot of work to convert the script to run across many computers. Writing the transform script using Cascalog allows it to run in local mode or distributed mode with almost no modification. There are a lot of new concepts and syntax in the small example above, so let us break it down piece by piece. (defmain Main [in out & args] In this recipe, the data flows through the functions roughly in order. The first line uses the defmain macro (from Cascalog) to define a class with a main function which lets you run the query over Hadoop. In this case the class with a main function is called Main, but that is not required. defmain allows you to create several Hadoop enabled queries in the same file. (?<- Inside the Main function is a Cascalog operator, ?, that defines and executes a query 1. This operator takes an output tap, a result vector and a series of logic predicates. (hfs-textline out :sinkmode :replace) This line is the destination, the place the output will be written. This defines a location, called a “tap” in Cascalog. The same functions are used to create input and output taps. This example uses hfs-textline, but many other taps exist. You can even write your own. Use “:sinkmode :replace” in your output tap and Cascalog will replace any existing output. This helps while you are re-running the query to debug it. Otherwise you will have to remove the out‐ put file every time you want to rerun. [?out-csv] This is a list of all the logic variables that should be returned from this query. In this case, these are the logic variables that will be dumped into the output location. Cascalog knows these are special logic variables because their names begin with a “?” or a “!” 9.2. Processing Data with an Extract Transform Load (ETL) Pipeline | 383 When thinking about logic variables, it helps to think of them as con‐ taining all possible valid values. As you add predicates you either in‐ troduce new logic variables which are hopefully linked to existing variables, or you add constraints to existing logic variables. ((hfs-textline in) ?in-json) This line defines the input tap. The json data structures will be read in one line at a time from the location specified by in. Each line will be stored into the ?in-json logic var, which will flow through the rest of the logic predicates. (json/read-str ?in-json ?book-map) read-str parses the json string found in ?in-json into a hash-map, which is stored into ?book-map. (get-vec ?book-map "authors" ?authors) Now you pull the authors out of the map and store the vector into its own logic variable. Cascalog assumes vector output means binding multiple logic vars. To outsmart Cas‐ calog, wrap the output in an extra vector for Cascalog to consume. (vec->csv ?authors ?out-csv))) Finally, you convert the vector of authors into valid csv using the vec→csv function. Since this line produces values for the ?out-csv logic variable, which is named in the output line earlier, the query will produce the output. Cascalog is a great tool for building ETL (Extract Transform Load) pipeline. It allows you to spend more time thinking about your data and less time thinking about the mechanics of reading files, distributing work or managing dependencies. When writing your own ETL pipelines, it might help to follow this process: • Finalize the input format(s) • Finalize the output format(s) • Start working from the input format, keeping track of the current format for each step. See Also • Using Cascalog for Extract Transform and Load. • core.logic - A logic programming library for Clojure 384 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation 9.3. Aggregating Large Files by Alex Robbins Problem You need to generate aggregate statistics from terabytes of log files. For example: Simple input log file (,,). 20130512020202,/,11 20130512020412,/,23 20130512030143,/post/clojure,11 20130512040256,/post/datomic,23 20130512050910,/post/clojure,11 20130512051012,/post/clojure,14 Output aggregate statistics. { "URL" {"/" 2 "/post/datomic" 1 "/post/clojure" 3} "User" {"23" 2 "11" 3 "14" 1} "Day" {"20130512" 6} } Solution Cascalog allows you to write distributed processing jobs that run locally or on a Hadoop cluster. To follow along with this recipe, clone the Cascalog Samples GitHub repository and checkout the aggregation-begin branch. This will give you a basic Cascalog project as created in Recipe 9.2. $ git clone $ cd cascalog-samples $ git checkout aggregation-begin Now add [cascalog/cascalog-more-taps "2.0.0"] to the project’s dependencies and set the cookbook.aggregation namespace to be AOT-compiled. project.clj should look like this: (defproject cookbook "0.1.0-SNAPSHOT" :description "FIXME: write description" :url "" :license {:name "Eclipse Public License" :url ""} :dependencies [[org.clojure/clojure "1.5.1"] 9.3. Aggregating Large Files | 385 [cascalog "2.0.0"] [cascalog/cascalog-more-taps "2.0.0"] [org.clojure/data.json "0.2.2"]] :profiles {:dev {:dependencies [[org.apache.hadoop/hadoop-core "1.1.2"]]}} :aot [cookbook.etl cookbook.aggregation]) Create the file src/cookbook/aggregation.clj and add an aggregation query to it. src/cookbook/aggregation.clj. (ns cookbook.aggregation (:require [cascalog.api :refer :all] [cascalog.more-taps :refer [hfs-delimited]])) (defn init-aggregate-stats [date url user] (let [day (.substring date 0 8)] {"URL" {url 1} "User" {user 1} "Day" {date 1}})) (def combine-aggregate-stats (partial merge-with (partial merge-with +))) (defparallelagg aggregate-stats :init-var #'init-aggregate-stats :combine-var #'combine-aggregate-stats) (defmain Main [in out & args] (?<- (hfs-textline out :sinkmode :replace) [?out] ((hfs-delimited in :delimiter ",") ?date ?url ?user) (aggregate-stats ?date ?url ?user :> ?out))) Add some sample data to the file samples/posts/posts.csv. samples/posts/posts.csv. 20130512020202,/,11 20130512020412,/,23 20130512030143,/post/clojure,11 20130512040256,/post/datomic,23 20130512050910,/post/clojure,11 20130512051012,/post/clojure,14 The full contents of this solution is available in the aggregation- complete branch of the Cascalog Samples repository. Check out that branch to retrieve a full working copy with sample data. $ git checkout aggregation-complete 386 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation You can now execute the job locally: $ lein run -m cookbook.aggregation.Main samples/posts/posts.csv samples/posts/output # Or, on a Hadoop cluster $ lein uberjar $ hadoop jar target/cookbook-standalone.jar \ cookbook.aggregation.Main \ samples/posts/posts.csv samples/posts/output The results in samples/posts/output/part-00000, formatted for readability, are as follows: samples/posts/output/part-00000. { "URL" {"/" 2 "/post/datomic" 1 "/post/clojure" 3} "User" {"23" 2 "11" 3 "14" 1} "Day" {"20130512" 6} } Discussion Cascalog makes it easy to quickly generate aggregate statistics. Aggregate statistics can be tricky on some MapReduce frameworks. In general, the map phase of a MapReduce job is well distributed across the cluster. The reduce phase is often less well distributed. For instance, a naive implementation of the aggregation algorithm would end up doing all of the aggregation work on a single reducer. A 2,000 computer cluster would be as slow as a 1 computer cluster during the reduce phase if all the aggregation happened on one node. Before you start writing your own aggregator, check through the source of casca log.logic.ops. This namespace has many useful functions and probably already does what you want to do. In the example, the goal is to count how many of each url occurs. To create the final map, all of the URLs need to end up in one reducer. A naive MapReduce program implementation would use an aggregation over all the tuples. That means you’d be doing all the work on only one node, with the computation taking just as long as it would on a single computer. The solution is to use Hadoop’s combiner function. Combiners run on the result of the map phase, before the output is sent to the reducers. Most importantly, the combiner runs on the mapper nodes. That means combiner work is spread across the entire cluster, like map work. When the majority of the work is done during the map and combiner phases, the reduce phase can run almost instantly. Cascalog makes this very easy. Many 9.3. Aggregating Large Files | 387 of the built-in Cascalog functions use combiners under the covers, so you’ll be writing highly-optimized queries without even trying. You can even write your own functions to use combiners using the defparallelagg macro. Cascalog often works with Vars instead of the values of those Vars. For example, the call to defparallelagg takes quoted arguments. The #' syntax means that the var is being passed, not the value that the var refers to. Cascalog passes the vars around instead of values so that it doesn’t have to serialize functions to pass them to the mappers and reducers. It just passes the name of the var, which is looked up in the remote execution environment. This means you won’t be able to dy‐ namically construct functions for some parts of the Cascalog work‐ flow. Most functions need to be bound to a var. defparallelagg is kind of confusing at first, but the power to write queries that leverage combiners makes it worth learning. You need to provide two vars which point to func‐ tions to the defparallelagg call: init-var and combine-var. Note that both arguments are being passed as vars, not function values, so you need to prepend a #' to the name. The init-var function needs to take the input data and change it into a format that can be easily processed by the combine-var function. In this case, the recipe changes the data into a map of maps that can easily be merged. Merging maps is an easy way to write parallel aggregators. The combine-var function needs to be commutative and associa‐ tive. The function is called with two instances of the output of the init-var function. The return value will be passed as an argument to later invocations of the combine- var function. Pairs of output will be combined until there is only one output left, which is the final output. What follows is an explanation of the query, bit by bit. Require the Cascalog functions you’ll need. (ns cookbook.aggregation (:require [cascalog.api :refer :all] [cascalog.more-taps :refer [hfs-delimited]])) Define a functions, init-aggregate-stats that takes a date, URL and user and returns a map of maps. The second level of maps has keys that correspond to the observed values. This is the init function, which takes each row and prepares it for aggregation. (defn init-aggregate-stats [date url user] (let [day (.substring date 0 8)] {"URL" {url 1} "User" {user 1} "Day" {date 1}})) 388 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation The combine-aggregate-stats function takes the output of invoking the init- aggregate-stats function on all the inputs and combines them. This function will be called over and over, combining the output of init-aggregate-stats functions and the output of other invokations of itself. Its output should be the same form as its input, since this function will be called on pairs of output until there is only one piece of data left. This function merges the nested maps, adding the values together when they are in the same key. (def combine-aggregate-stats (partial merge-with (partial merge-with +))) aggregate-stats takes the two previous functions and turns them into a Cascalog parallel aggregation operation. Note that you pass the vars, not the functions themselves. (defparallelagg aggregate-stats :init-var #'init-aggregate-stats :combine-var #'combine-aggregate-stats) Finally, setup Main to define and execute a query that invokes the aggregate-stats operation across input from in, writing it to out. (defmain Main [in out & args] ;; This defines and executes a Cascalog query. (?<- ;; Setup the output path (hfs-textline out :sinkmode :replace) ;; Define which logic variables will be output. [?out] ;; Setup the input path, define the logic vars to bind to input. ((hfs-delimited in) ?date ?url ?user) ;; Run the aggregation operation. (aggregate-stats ?date ?url ?user :> ?out))) If the aggregate you are wanting to calculate can’t be defined using defparallelagg, Cascalog provides some other options for defining aggregates. However, many of them don’t use combiners, and could leave you with almost all the computation happening in a small number of reducers. The computation will probably finish, but you are losing a lot of the benefit of distributed computation. Check out the source the casca log.ops to see what the different options are, and how you can use them. See Also • The source of cascalog.logic.ops, a namespace with many pre-defined opera‐ tions (including aggregators.) 9.3. Aggregating Large Files | 389 9.4. Testing Cascalog Workflows by Alex Robbins Problem You love testing your code. You love writing Cascalog jobs. You hate trying to test your Cascalog jobs. Solution Midje-Cascalog provides a small amount of extra functionality that makes writing tests for Cascalog jobs quite easy. To follow along with this recipe, clone the Cascalog Samples GitHub repository and checkout the testing-begin branch. This will give you a basic Cascalog project as created in Recipe 9.2. Now add the Midje plugin and Midje-Cascalog dependency to the :dev profile in your project.clj. The :profiles key should now look like this: (defproject cookbook "0.1.0-SNAPSHOT" ;; ... :profiles {:dev {:dependencies [[org.apache.hadoop/hadoop-core "1.1.2"] [cascalog/midje-cascalog "2.0.0"]] :plugins [[lein-midje "3.1.1"]]}}) Create a simple query in src/cookbook/test_me.clj to write a test against. src/cookbook/test_me.clj. (ns cookbook.test-me (:require [cascalog.api :refer :all])) (defn capitalize [s] (.toUpperCase s)) (defn capitalize-authors-query [author-path] (<- [?capitalized-author] ((hfs-textline author-path) ?author) (capitalize ?author :> ?capitalized-author))) You can now write a test for this query in test/cookbook/test_me_test.clj. test/cookbook/test_me_test.clj. (ns cookbook.test-me-test (:require [cookbook.midje-cascalog :refer :all] [midje [sweet :refer :all] [cascalog :refer :all]])) 390 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation (fact "Query should return capitalized versions of the input names." (capitalize-authors-query :author-path) => (produces [["LUKE VANDERHART"] ["RYAN NEUFELD"]]) (provided (hfs-textline :author-path) => [["Luke Vanderhart"] ["Ryan Neufeld"]])) The full contents of this solution is available in the testing- complete branch of the Cascalog Samples repository. Check out that branch to retrieve a full working copy with sample data. $ git checkout testing-complete Finally, run the tests with lein midje: lein midje 2013-11-09 12:19:27.844 java[3620:1703] Unable to load realm info from SCDynamicStore All checks (1) succeeded. Discussion Unit testing is an important aspect of software craftsmanship. However, unit testing Hadoop workflows is difficult, to say the least. Most distributed computing development is done using trial and error, with only limited manual testing happening before the workflow is “good enough” and put into production use. You shouldn’t let your code quality slip, but testing distributed code can be difficult. Midje-Cascalog makes it easy to test different parts of your Cascalog workflow by making it dead simple to mock out the results of subqueries. In the solution outlined above, you are testing a simple query. It reads lines from the input path, capitalizes and outputs them. Normally, you’d need to make sure part of the test wrote some test data into a file, then reference that file in the test, then cleanup and delete the file. Instead, using Midje-Cascalog, you mock the hfs-textline call. fact is provided by the midje library, which is well worth learning on its own. It is an alternative to deftest from clojure.test. Here, you state the test as a call, an arrow, and then the produces function. produces lets you write out the results of a query as a vector of vectors. Having established the test, you use provided to outline the functions you want to mock. This lets you test only the function in question, and not the functions it depends on. Testing your Cascalog workflows is as important as testing any other part of your ap‐ plication. With Midje-Cascalog, this is actually possible. 9.4. Testing Cascalog Workflows | 391 See Also • Recipe 10.2 9.5. Checkpointing Cascalog Jobs by Alex Robbins Problem Your long running Cascalog jobs throw errors, then need to be completely restarted. You waste time waiting for steps to re-run when the problem was later in the workflow. Solution Cascalog Checkpoint is an excellent library that provides the ability to add checkpoints to your Cascalog job. If a step fails, the job is restarted at that step, instead of restarting from the beginning. In an existing Cascalog project, such as the one generated by Recipe 9.2, add [cascalog/ cascalog-checkpoint "1.10.2"] to your project’s dependencies and set the cook book.checkpoint namespace to be AOT-compiled. Then use Cascalog Checkpoint’s workflow macro to setup your job. A hypothetical four step job would look something like this: (ns cookbook.checkpoint (:require [cascalog.api :refer :all] [cascalog.checkpoint :refer [workflow]])) (defmain Main [in-path out-path & args] (workflow ["/tmp/log-parsing"] step-1 ([:temp-dirs parsed-logs-path] (parse-logs in-path parsed-logs-path)) step-2 ([:temp-dirs [min-path max-path]] (get-min parsed-logs-path min-path) (get-max parsed-logs-path max-path)) step-3 ([:deps step-1 :temp-dirs log-sample-path] (sample-logs parsed-logs-path log-sample-path)) step-4 ([:deps :all] (summary parsed-logs-path min-path max-path log-sample-path out-path)))) 392 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation Discussion Cascalog jobs often take hours to run. There are few things more frustrating than a typo in the last step breaking a job that has been running all weekend. Cascalog Checkpoint provides the workflow macro, which allows you to restart a job from the last step that successfully completed. The workflow macro expects its first argument, checkpoint-dir to be a vector with a path for temporary files. The output of each step is temporarily stored in folders inside this path, along with some files to keep track of what steps have successfully completed. After the first argument, workflow expects pairs of step-names and step-definitions. Step definitions are a vector of options, followed by as many cascalog queries as desired for that step. For example: step-3 ([:deps step-1 :temp-dirs [log-sample-path log-other-sample-path]] (sample-logs parsed-logs-path log-sample-path) (other-sample-logs parsed-logs-path log-other-sample-path)) This step definition defines step-3. It depends on step-1, so it won’t run until step-1 has completed. This step creates two temporary directories for the its queries. Both :deps and :temp-dirs can be either a symbol, a vector of symbols or can be omitted. After the options vector you can include one or many Cascalog queries, in this case there are two queries. :deps takes several different values. It can take :last, which is the default value and makes the step depend on the step before it. :all makes the step depend on all previously defined steps. A symbol, or vector of symbols, makes that step depend on all those steps. A step won’t run until everything it depends upon has completed. If several steps have their dependencies met, they will all run in parallel. Every symbol provided to :temp-dirs is turned into a directory within the temp di‐ rectory. Later steps can use these directories to read data output by earlier steps. These directories are cleaned up once the workflow successfully runs all the way through. Until then, these directories hold the output from the different steps so the workflow can resume from the last incomplete step. If you want to restart a step that successfully completed, delete the file at /. The temp-dirs from the step defi‐ nitions can be found in /data/, in case you need to delete or modify the data there. Another method for dealing with errors is providing error taps for your Cascalog quer‐ ies. Cascalog will put the input tuples that cause errors into the error tap (for different 9.5. Checkpointing Cascalog Jobs | 393 processing or to dump for manual inspection). With error taps in place, a couple of malformed inputs won’t bring down your entire workflow. Checkpointing your Cascalog jobs is a little bit of extra work initially, but it’ll save you a lot of time. Things will go wrong. The cluster will go down. You’ll discover typos and edge cases. It is wonderful to be able to restart your job from the last step that worked, instead of waiting for the entire thing to rerun every time. See Also • The cascalog.checkpoint project page on GitHub. 9.6. Explaining a Cascalog Query by Alex Robbins Problem Your Cascalog job runs very slowly and you aren’t sure why. Solution Use the cascalog.api/explain function to print out a DOT file of your query. You can follow along by launching a REPL in an existing project, such as Recipe 9.2. (require '[cascalog.api :refer [explain <-]]) (explain "" (<- [?a ?b] ([[1 2]] ?a ?b))) Next, you’ll want to view the dotfile. There are many ways to do that, but the easiest is probably by using dot, one of the graphviz tools, to convert a dotfile to a PNG or GIF. $ dot -Tpng -oslow-query.png Now open slow-query.png to see a diagram of your query. 394 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation Figure 9-1. slow-query.png Discussion Cascalog workflows compile into Cascading workflows. Cascading is a Java library that wraps Hadoop, providing a flow-based plumbing abstraction. The query graph in the DOT file will have different Cascading elements as nodes. The explain function here is analogous to the EXPLAIN command in many SQL im‐ plementations. explain causes Cascalog to print out the query plan. Just like the output from a SQL EXPLAIN, you might have to work to understand exactly what you are seeing. The biggest thing to look for is that the basic flow of the query is what you expected. Make sure that you aren’t rerunning some parts of your query. Cascalog makes it easy to reuse queries, but often you want to run the query, save the results, then reference the saved results from other queries instead of running it once for every time its output is used. You can also work to match up the phases from your query plan to a job as it is running. This is tricky, because the phases won’t correspond exactly to your output map. However, when you succeed, you’ll be able be able to track down the slow phases. In general, to keep your Cascalog queries fast, make sure you are using all of the nodes in your cluster. That means keeping the work in small, evenly sized units. If one map input takes 1000 times as long to run as the other 40 inputs, your whole job will wait on the one mapper to finish. Working to split the long map job into 1,000 smaller jobs would make the job run much more quickly, since it could be distributed across the entire cluster instead of running on a single node. It is particularly easy to accidentally have nearly the entire job end up in one reducer. This is easy to see happening in the Hadoop job tracker when nearly all the reducers are done and the job is waiting on one or two reducers to finish. To fix this, do as much reduce work as possible during the map phase using aggregators, and then make sure that the remaining reduce work isn’t all piling up into a small number of reducers. 9.6. Explaining a Cascalog Query | 395 See Also • Recipe 9.3 • The Cascading Flow Visuation article on the Cascalog wiki. 9.7. Running a Cascalog Job on Elastic MapReduce by Alex Robbins Problem You have a large amount of data to process, but you don’t have a Hadoop cluster. Solution Amazon’s Elastic MapReduce (EMR) provides on-demand Hadoop clusters. You’ll need an Amazon Web Services account to use EMR. Create an account at First, write a Cascalog job as you normally would. There are a number of recipes in this chapter that can help you create a complete Cascalog job. If you don’t have your own, you can clone Recipe 9.2. $ git clone $ cd cascalog-samples $ git checkout etl-sample Once you have a Cascalog project, package it into an uberjar. $ lein compile $ lein uberjar Next, upload the generated jar (target/cookbook-0.1.0-SNAPSHOT-standalone.jar if you’re following along with the ETL sample) to S3. If you haven’t ever uploaded a file to S3 follow the S3 documentation to Create a Bucket and Adding an Object to a Buck‐ et. Repeat this process to upload your input data. Take note of the path of jar and input data location. To create your MapReduce job visit‐ duce/ and select “Create New Job Flow.” Once you’re in the new job flow wizard choose the “Custom JAR” job type. Select “Continue” and enter your JAR’s location and arguments. “JAR Location” is the S3 path you noted from earlier. “JAR Arguments are all of the arguments you would normally pass when executing your jar. For example: using the Cascalog Samples repos‐ itory, the arguments would be the fully qualified class name to execute, cook book.etl.Main, an s3n:// URI for input data, and an s3n:// URI for the output. 396 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation Figure 9-2. Specify Parameters The next few wizard windows allow your to specify additional configuration options for the job. Select “Continue” until you reach the review phase and start your job. After your job has run, you should be able to retrieve the results from S3. Elastic Map‐ Reduce also allows you to setup a logging path to help with debugging if your job doesn’t complete like you expect. Discussion Amazon’s EMR is a great solution if you have big Cascalog jobs, but you don’t have them very often. Maintaining your own Hadoop cluster can be a fair amount of time and money. If you can keep the cluster busy, it is a great investment. If you only need it a couple times a month, you might be better off using EMR for on-demand Hadoop clusters. 9.7. Running a Cascalog Job on Elastic MapReduce | 397 See Also • To learn about building a simple Cascalog job, see Recipe 9.2. • Amazon’s Launch a Custom JAR Cluster documentation. 398 | Chapter 9: Distributed Computation CHAPTER 10 Testing 10.0. Introduction It’s one thing to trust your code is correct today, but how will you feel about it in a week? a month? a year? when you’re long and gone? For this kind of trust, we write tests for our code. A well written suite of tests is a statement to yourself and any one that comes after you: “This is how this application works, now and so long as this test passes.” In addition to tests, several other tools have recently sprung up in the Clojure space aimed at improving program reliability. Often, these focus on validating that data looks as expected, to guard programs from receiving input they don’t know how to handle. These solutions range from optional static typing with algabraic types analyzed at com‐ pile time, down to simple preconditions. Admittedly, testing is a bit of hot-button topic in the Clojure community right now. People are starting to question: “are these tests worthwhile, or is there a better way to think about program-verification?” In recent years techniques such as REPL-driven development, property-based testing and optional typing have all popped-up to fill perceived voids in the testing landscape. This chapter covers all of the above. As much as we’d love to push the envelope, nothing beats a good old fashion unit test suite from time-to-time. At the same time, as we build more and more gargantuan applications, it is clear that simple unit tests are not always sufficient. We hope no matter your skill level or focus, you find new tools to add to your testing arsenal in this chapter. 10.1. Unit Testing by Daniel Gregoire 399 Problem You want to test individual units of Clojure code. Solution Clojure includes a unit testing framework in its clojure.test namespace. It provides ways to name and group tests, make assertions, report results and orchestrate test suites. For demonstration, imagine you had a capitalize-entries function that capitalized values in a map. To test this function, define a test using clojure.test/deftest. ;; A function in namespace com.example.core (defn capitalize-entries "Returns a new map with values for keys 'ks' in the map 'm' capitalized." [m & ks] (reduce (fn [m k] (update-in m [k] clojure.string/capitalize)) m ks)) ;; The corresponding test in namespace com.example.core-test (require '[clojure.test :refer :all]) ;; In a real test namespace, you would also :refer all of the target namespace ;; (require '[com.example.core :refer :all]) (deftest test-capitalize-entries (let [employee {:last-name "smith" :job-title "engineer" :level 5 :office "seattle"}] ;; Passes (is (= (capitalize-entries employee :job-title :last-name) {:job-title "Engineer" :last-name "Smith" :office "seattle" :level 5})) ;; Fails (is (= (capitalize-entries employee :office) {})))) Run the test with the clojure.test/run-tests function: (run-tests) ;; -> {:type :summary, :pass 1, :test 1, :error 0, :fail 1} ;; *out* ;; Testing user ;; ;; FAIL in (test-capitalize-entries) (NO_SOURCE_FILE:13) ;; expected: (= (capitalize-entries employee :office) {}) ;; actual: (not (= {:last-name "smith", :office "Seattle", :level 5, :job-title "engineer"} {})) ;; 400 | Chapter 10: Testing ;; Ran 1 tests containing 2 assertions. ;; 1 failures, 0 errors. Discussion The example above only scratches the surface of what clojure.test provides for unit testing. Let us take a bottom-up look at its other features. First, you can improve reporting when an assertion fails by providing a second argument that explains what the assertion is intended to test. When you run this test you will see an extended description of how the code was expected to behave. (is (= (capitalize-entries {:office "space"} :office) {}) "The employee's office entry should be capitalized.") ;; -> false ;; * out* ;; FAIL in clojure.lang.PersistentList$EmptyList@1 (NO_SOURCE_FILE:1) ;; The employee's office entry should be capitalized. ;; expected: (= (capitalize-entries {:office "space"} :office) {}) ;; actual: (not (= {:office "Space"} {})) For testing a function like capitalize-entries thoroughly, several use cases need to be considered. To more concisely test numerous similar cases, use the clojure.test/are macro: (deftest test-capitalize-entries (let [employee {:last-name "smith" :job-title "engineer" :level 5 :office "seattle"}] (are [ks m] (= (apply capitalize-entries employee ks) m) [] employee [:not-a-key] employee [:job-title] {:job-title "Engineer" :last-name "smith" :level 5 :office "seattle"} [:last-name :office] {:last-name "Smith" :office "Seattle" :level 5 :job-title "engineer"}))) The first two parameters to are set up a testing pattern: given a sequence of keys ks and a map m, call capitalize-entries for those keys on the original employee map and assert that the return value equals m. Writing out multiple use cases in a declarative syntax makes it easier to catch errors and untreated edge-cases, such as the NullPoin terException that will be thrown for the [:not-a-key] employee assertion pair in the test above. 10.1. Unit Testing | 401 Unlike testing frameworks for other popular dynamic languages, Clojure’s built-in as‐ sertions are minimal and simple. The is and are macros check test expressions for “truthiness”, i.e., that those expressions return neither false nor nil, in which case they pass. Beyond this, you can also check for thrown? or thrown-with-msg? to test that a certain java.lang.Throwable (error or exception) is expected: (is (thrown? IndexOutOfBoundsException (nth [] 1))) Above the level of individual assertions, clojure.test also provides facilities for calling functions before or after tests run. In the test-capitalize-entries test we defined an ad hoc employee map for testing, but you could also read in external data to be shared across multiple tests by registering a data-loading function as a “fixture.” The clo jure.test/use-fixtures multimethod allows registering Clojure functions to be called either before or after each test, or before or after an entire namespace’s test suite. The following example defines and registers three fixture functions: (require '[clojure.edn :as edn]) (def test-data (atom nil)) ;; Assuming you have a test-data.edn file... (defn load-data "Read a Clojure map from test data in a file." [test-fn] (reset! test-data (edn/read-string (slurp "test-data.edn"))) (test-fn)) (defn add-test-id "Add a unique id to the data before each test." [test-fn] (swap! test-data assoc :id (java.util.UUID/randomUUID)) (test-fn)) (defn inc-count "Increment a counter in the data after each test runs." [test-fn] (test-fn) (swap! test-data update-in [:count] (fnil inc 0))) (use-fixtures :once load-data) (use-fixtures :each add-test-id inc-count) ;; Tests... You can think about fixture functions as forming a pipeline through which each test is passed as a parameter, which we called test-fn in the example above. Take inc- count for example, It is the job of this fixture 1) invoke the test-fn function, continuing the pipeline, and aftewards, 2) increment a count (e.g. “do some work”). Each fixture decides whether to invoke test-fn before or after its own work (compare the add-test- id function with the inc-count function), while the clojure.test/use-fixtures 402 | Chapter 10: Testing multimethod controls whether each registered fixture function is run only once for all tests in a namespace or once for each test. Finally, with a firm understanding of how to develop individual Clojure test suites, it is important to consider how you organize and run those suites as part of your project’s build. Although Clojure allows defining tests for functions anywhere in your code base, you should keep your testing code in a separate directory that is only added to the JVM classpath when needed (e.g., during development and testing). It is conventional to name your test namespaces after the namespaces they test, so that a file located at /src/com/example/core.clj with namespace com.example.core has a cor‐ responding test file at /test/com/example/core_test.clj with namespace com.example.core-test. To control the location of your source and test directories and their inclusion on the JVM classpath, you should use a build tool like Leiningen or Maven to organize your project. In Leiningen, the default directory for your tests is a top-level /test folder and you can run your project’s tests with lein test at the command-line. Without any additional arguments the lein test command will execute all of the tests in a project. $ lein test lein test com.example.core-test lein test com.example.util-test Ran 10 tests containing 20 assertions. 0 failures, 0 errors. To limit the scope of tests Leiningen runs, use the :only option, followed by a fully- qualified namespace or function name. # To run an entire namespace $ lein test :only com.example.core-test lein test com.example.core-test Ran 5 tests containing 10 assertions. 0 failures, 0 errors. # To run one, specific test: $ lein test :only com.example.core-test/test-capitalize-entries lein test com.example.core-test Ran 1 tests containing 2 assertions. 0 failures, 0 errors. See Also • The clojure.test API documentation. 10.1. Unit Testing | 403 • If you are instead using Maven, use the clojure-maven-plugin to run Clojure tests. This plugin will incorporate your Clojure tests located in the Maven standard src/ test/clojure directory as part of the test phase in the Maven build life-cycle. You can optionally use the plugin’s clojure:test-with-junit goal to produce JUnit- style reporting output for your Clojure test runs. 10.2. Testing with Midje by Joseph Wilk Problem You want to unit test a function which integrates with external dependencies such as http services or databases. Solution Use Midje, a testing framework which provides ways to mock functions and return fakes. To follow along with this recipe, start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try midje clj-http Here is an example function that makes an HTTP request. ;; A function in namespace com.example.core (require '[clj-http.client :as http]) (defn github-profile [username] (let [response (http/get (str "" username))] (when (= (:status response) 200) (:body response)))) (github-profile "clojure-cookbook") ;; -> "{\"login\":\"clojure-cookbook\",\"id\":4176246, ...}" To test the github-profile function, define a test using midje.sweet/facts and mid je.sweet/fact in the corresponding test namespace. ;; In the com.example.core-test namespace... (require '[midje.sweet :refer :all]) (facts "about successful requests" (fact "returns the response body" (github-profile "clojure-cookbook") => ..body.. (provided (http/get #"/users/clojure-cookbook") => {:status 200 :body ..body..}))) 404 | Chapter 10: Testing Discussion In Midje facts associate a description with a group of tests, while fact maps to your test. Assertions in your fact take the form of: ;; actual => expected 10 => 10 ; This will pass 10 => 11 ; This will fail Assertions behave a little differently than most testing frameworks. Within a fact body every single assertion is checked irrelevant of if a previous one failed. Midje only provides mocks not stubs. All functions specified in the provided body have to be called for the test to pass. Mocks use the same syntax as assertions but with a slightly different meaning: ;; => (provided (+ 10 10) => 0) It is important to note you are not calling the (+ 10 10) function here, you are setting up a pattern. Every function call occurring in the test is checked to see if it matches this pattern. If it does, do not call the function, but instead return 0. When defining mocks with provided there is a lot of flexibly on how to match mock functions against real calls. In the above solution, for example, regular expressions are used. This expression instructs Midje to mock calls to http/get whose URL ends in "/users/clojure- cookbook". ;; The expectation ... (http/get #"/users/clojure-cookbook$") ;; Would match: (http/get "http://localhost:4001/users/clojure-cookbook") ;; or (http/get "") Midje provides a lot of match-shaping functions that you can use to match against the arguments of a mock. ;; Match an argument list that contains 1 (provided (http/get (contains [1])) => :result) ;; Match against a custom fn that must return true (provided (http/get (as-checker (fn [x] (x == 10)))) => :result) ;; Match against a single argument of any value (provided (http/get anything) => :result) 10.2. Testing with Midje | 405 From within a REPL you can investigate all of Midje’s checkers: (require 'midje.repl) (doc midje-checkers) ;; *out* ;; ------------------------- ;; midje.sweet/midje-checkers ;; ;; (facts "about checkers" ;; (f) => truthy ;; (f) => falsey ;; (f) => irrelevant ; or `anything` ;; (f) => (exactly odd?) ; when you expect a particular function ;; (f) => (roughly 10 0.1) ;; (f) => (throws SomeException #"with message") ;; (f) => (contains [1 2 3]) ; works with strings, maps, etc. ;; (f) => (contains [1 2 3] :in-any-order :gaps-ok) ;; (f) => (just [1 2 3]) ;; (f) => (has every? odd?) ;; (f) => (nine-of odd?) ; must be exactly 9 odd values. ;; (f) => (every-checker odd? (roughly 9)) ; both must be true ;; (f) => (some-checker odd? (roughly 9))) ; one must be true You may have noticed in the solution we used ..body.. instead of an actual response. This is something Midje refers to as a metaconstant. A metaconstant is any name that starts and ends with two dots. It has no properties other than identity. Think of it like a fake or placeholder were do not care about the actual value or we might be referencing something that does not exist yet. In our example we don’t really care what ..body.. is, we just care that it is the thing returned. To add Midje to an existing project, add [midje "1.5.1"] to your development de‐ pendencies and [lein-midje "3.1.2"] to your development plugins. Your project.clj should look something like this: project.clj. (defproject example "1.0.0-SNAPSHOT" :profiles {:dev {:dependencies [[midje "1.5.1"]] :plugins [[lein-midje "3.1.2"]}}) Midje provides two ways to run tests, through a REPL, as you may have been doing, or through a Leiningen. Midje actually encourages you to run everything through the REPL, as you develop them. One very useful way to run your tests is with the mid je.repl/autotest function. This continuously polls the filesystem looking for changes in your project, when it detects these changes it will automatically re-run the relevant tests. (require '[midje.repl :as midje]) (midje/autotest) ; Start auto-testing 406 | Chapter 10: Testing ;; Other options are... (midje/autotest :pause) (midje/autotest :resume) (midje/autotest :stop) There are many more things you can do from the REPL with Midje. To find out more, read the docstring of midje-repl by running (doc midje-repl) in a REPL. You can also run Midje tests through the Leiningen plugin lein-midge (add as noted above in project.clj). lein-midje allows you run tests at a number of granularities; all of your tests, all the tests in a group, or all of the tests in a single namespace: # Run all your tests $ lein midje # Run a group of namespaces $ lein midje com.example.* # Run a specific namespace $ lein midje com.example.t-core See Also • Recipe 10.1 for information on more basic unit testing in Clojure. • The Midje GitHub repository. 10.3. Thoroughly Testing by Randomizing Inputs by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to test a function using randomly generated inputs to ensure that it works in all possible scenarios. Solution Use the test.generative library to specify a function’s inputs, and test it across random generated values. To follow along with this recipe, start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try org.clojure/test.generative "0.5.0" Say you are trying to test the following function, which calculates the arithmatic mean of all the numbers in a sequence. 10.3. Thoroughly Testing by Randomizing Inputs | 407 (defn mean "Calculate the mean of the numbers in a sequence" [s] (/ (reduce + s) (count s))) The following test.generative code then defines a specification for the mean function: (require '[clojure.test.generative :as t] '[clojure.test.generative.runner :as r] '[ :as gen]) (defn number "Returns a random number, of a random type" [] (gen/one-of gen/byte gen/short gen/int gen/long gen/float gen/double)) (defn seq-of-numbers "Returns a list, seq or set of numbers" [] (gen/one-of (gen/list number) (gen/set number) (gen/vec number))) (t/defspec mean-spec mean [^example.generative-tests/seq-of-numbers arg] (assert (number? %))) To run the mean-spec specification, invoke the run function in the clojure.test.gen erative.runner namespace, passing in the number of threads upon which to run the simulation, the number of milliseconds to run, and the var referring to a spec. Running the above example at the REPL: (r/run 2 5000 #'example.generative-tests/mean-spec) ;; -> clojure.lang.ExceptionInfo: Generative test failed This shows the behavior when the generative test fails. The exact details of the failure are returned as the data of a Clojure information-bearing exception; to retrieve it you must retrieve an instance of the exception itself and call ex-data on it to return the data map. In the REPL, if you didn’t explicitly catch the exception, you can use the special *e symbol to retrieve the most recent exception. Calling ex-data on it returns information on the test case that provoked the error: 408 | Chapter 10: Testing (ex-data *e) ;; -> {:exception #, :iter 7, :seed -875080314, ;; :example.generative-tests/mean-spec, :input [#{}]} This states that after only seven iterations, using the random number seed -875080314, the function under test was passed #{} as input and threw a divide by zero error. Once highlighted in this way, the problem is easy to see; the mean function will divide by zero if (count s) is zero. Fix the bug by rewriting the mean function to handle that case: (defn mean [s] (if (zero? (count s)) 0 (/ (reduce + 1.0 s) (count s)))) Rerunning now shows a passing test: (r/run 2 5000 #'example.generative-tests/mean-spec) ;; -> {:iter 3931, :seed -1495229764, :test testgen-test.core/mean-spec} ;; {:iter 3909, :seed -1154113663, :test testgen-test.core/mean-spec} This output indicates that over the allotted five seconds, two threads ran about 3900 iterations of the test each, and did not encounter any errors or assertion failures. Discussion There are two key parts of the test definition above: the defspec form itself, which defines the generative test, and functions used to generate random data. In this case, the data generator functions are built from primitive data generation functions found in the namespace. Generator functions take no arguments, and return a random value. Different functions produce different types of data. The namespace contains generator functions for all of Clojure’s primitive types, as well as collections. It also contains functions for randomly choosing from a set of options; the one-of function used above, for example, takes a number of generator functions and chooses a value from one at random. The defspec macro takes three types of forms: a function to put under test, an argument specification and a body containing one or more assertion forms. The function under test is simply the function to call. Over the course of the generative test it will be called many times, each time with different values. The argument specification is a vector of arguments names, and should match the sig‐ nature of the function under test. Each argument should have metadata attached. Specifically, it should have a :tag metadata key, mapped to the fully qualified name of 10.3. Thoroughly Testing by Randomizing Inputs | 409 a generator function. Each time the test driver calls the function, it will use a random value for each argument pulled from its corresponding generator function. Why :tag? You may find the use of :tag metadata may be a bit confusing. Normally, :tag is a type hint and returns a JVM class. In test.generative, it should be a function that can return any type of value you want to pass to the function under test. The motivation for reusing :tag in this way is mostly historical. test.generative is largely inspired by a library called QuickCheck, which is written in Haskell. Because Haskell is strongly and statically typed, QuickCheck truly can use the type signature as sufficient information on how to generate input data. The link isn’t quite as strong in Clojure, and arguably is more confusing than helpful. Just remember that, in the context of test.generative, :tag refers not to the actual system type, but to a function that returns an object of the type(s) you want to pass to the function to test. The body of a defspec simply contains expressions that may throw an exception if some condition is not met. It is executed on each iteration of the test, with the instantiated arguments available, and with the return value of the function under test bound to %. This example merely has a single assertion that the result is a number, for brevity, but you can have any number of assertions executing arbitrary checks. An interesting difference between test.generative and traditional unit tests is that rather than specifying what tests to run, and having them take as long as they do, in test.generative you specify how long to run, and the system will run as many random permutations of the test as it can fit into that time. This has the property of keeping test run times deterministic, while allowing you to trade off speed and comperehensiveness depending on the situation. For example, you might have tests run for 5 seconds in development, but thoroughly hammer the system for an hour every night on the CI server, allowing you to find that (literally) 1-in-a-million bug. Running generative tests While developing tests, running from the REPL is usually the most convenient. How‐ ever, there are many other scenarios (such as commit hooks or a continuous integration server) where running tests from the command line is required. For this purpose, test.generative provides a -main function in the ner namespace that takes as command line argument one or more directories where generative tests can be found. It searches all the Clojure namespaces in those locations for generative testing specifications, and executes them. 410 | Chapter 10: Testing For example, if you’ve placed your generative tests in a tests/generative directory inside a Leiningen project, you could execute tests by running the following at the shell, from your project’s root directory: lein run -m clojure.test.generative.runner tests/generative If you want to control the intensity of the test run, you can adjust the number of con‐ current threads and the length of the run using the clojure.test.genera tive.threads and clojure.test.generative.msec JVM system properties. Using lei‐ ningen, you must set these options in the :jvm-opts key in project.clj like so: clojure.test.generative.runner/-main will pick up any parameters provided in this way, and run accordingly. See Also • The test.generative page on Github • The QuickCheck Haskell library • Recipe 10.4 on SimpleCheck, a property-based testing library for Clojure with some overlap with test.generative and some unique features. 10.4. Finding Values Which Cause Failure by Luke VanderHart Problem You want to specify properties of a function that should hold true for all inputs, and find input values that violate those properties. Solution Use simple-check, a property specification library for Clojure that is capable of “shrink‐ ing” the input case to find the minimal failing input. To follow along with this recipe, add [reiddraper/simple-check "0.5.3"] to your project’s dependencies, or start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try reiddraper/simple-check Then, find a function to test. This example uses a contrived function which calculates the sum of the reciprocals of a sequence of numbers: (defn reciprocal-sum [s] (reduce + (map (partial / 1) s))) 10.4. Finding Values Which Cause Failure | 411 The test code itself: (require '[simple-check.core :as sc] '[simple-check.generators :as gen] '[ :as prop]) (def seq-of-numbers (gen/one-of [(gen/vector gen/int) (gen/list gen/int)])) (def reciprocal-sum-check (prop/for-all [s seq-of-numbers] (number? (reciprocal-sum s)))) seq-of-numbers is a data generator composed of primitive generators found in the simple-check.generators namespaces. Unlike test.generative, simple-check generators are more complicat‐ ed than a single function which returns a value. Instead, they are a data structure that not only defines how random values are sampled, but how they converge on the “simplest” possible failing case. A full discussion of creating custom simple-check generators (other than simple compositions of primitive generators) is beyond the scope of this recipe, but full documentation is available on the simple- check GitHub page. The actual test is defined using the macro, which emits a property definition. It takes a binding form (similar to let or for) which specifies the possible values to bind to one or more symbols, and a body. The body is what actually specifies the properties that must hold, and must return true if and only if the test passes for a particular set of values. To run the test, invoke the simple-check.core/quick-check function, passing it the defined property. (sc/quick-check 100 reciprocal-sum-check) quick-check takes the number of samples to execute, and the property definition to execute. The body of the property definition will be sampled repeatedly, with random‐ ized values bound to the symbols specified in the binding form. As you may have already observed, the reciprocal-sum function has a problem: it will throw a “divide by zero” error if a zero is present in the input sequence. The quick- check function returns a data structure showcasing the problem. {:result #, :failing-size 8, 412 | Chapter 10: Testing :num-tests 9, :fail [(5 0 0 -8 1 -2)], :shrunk {:total-nodes-visited 10, :depth 5, :result #, :smallest [(0)]}} Fix the function by eliminating zero values: (defn reciprocal-sum [s] (reduce + (map (partial / 1) (filter (complement zero?) s)))) Re-running the test now indicates success. (sc/quick-check 100 reciprocal-sum-check) ;; -> {:result true, :num-tests 100, :seed 1384622907885} Discussion simple-check has the very useful property of not only returning a failing sample input to a test, but returning the minimal failing sample. In the example program above, for instance, any time a zero occurs in the input sequence it causes an error. However, merely from looking at the sequence (5 0 0 -8 1 -2) it might not be apparent that zeros are the problem. Not knowing anything else about the function under test, the problem might be, for example, the negative numbers, or the value 5. simple-check returns not just any arbitratry failing input, but the specific input that will consistently cause the program to fail. As useful as it is to know that there is an input that will provoke failure, it’s even more useful to know the specific problematic value. And, the larger and more complex the inputs to the function, the more useful it is to be able to reduce the failing case. Sidebar test.generative and simple-check You may have observed that test.generative and simple-check cover a lot of the same ground. They both generate a randomized distribution of inputs, and they both specify “success” conditions in terms of properties or qualities that must hold across all inputs and outputs rather than specific examples. However, there are a few key differences. simple-check minimizes the failing input before returning; test.generative bails the first time it sees a failure. However, the data generators of test.generative are simple functions, without any additionally specified behavior, which makes them much more flexible and easy to extend. 10.4. Finding Values Which Cause Failure | 413 test.generative also provides the ability to specify not only how many iterations of the test to run, but how long to test for, running as many tests as it can fit into the allotted timeframe across multiple threads. Ultimately, both are valuable approaches that you should seriously consider when you want to really, thoroughly test something. The decision between them should be medi‐ ated by your own specific needs; how large or complicated the inputs are, how much control you want over runtime, and how likely you are to need to extend the set of generated primitives. See Also • Recipe 10.1 • Recipe 10.3 • QuickCheck, the Haskell library that inspired SimpleCheck (Introduction to QuickCheck). 10.5. Running Browser-based Tests by Matthew Maravillas Problem You want to run browser-based tests. Solution Use Selenium WebDriver via the clj-webdriver library. This will allow you to use clojure.test to test your application’s behavior in actual browser environments. To follow along with this recipe, create a new Leiningen project. $ lein new browser-testing Generating a project called browser-testing based on the 'default' template. Modify the new project’s project.clj file to match the following: (defproject browser-testing "0.1.0-SNAPSHOT" :profiles {:dev {:dependencies [[clj-webdriver "0.6.0"]]}} :test-selectors {:default (complement :browser) :browser :browser}) Next, add a simple Selenium test to test/browser_testing/core_test.clj, overwriting its content. test/browser_testing/core_test.clj. 414 | Chapter 10: Testing (ns browser-testing.core-test (:require [clojure.test :refer :all] [ :as t])) ;; A simple fixture that sets up test driver (defn selenium-fixture [& browsers] (fn [test] (doseq [browser browsers] (println (str "\n[ Testing " browser " ]")) (t/set-driver! {:browser browser}) (test) (t/quit)))) (use-fixtures :once (selenium-fixture :firefox)) (deftest ^:browser test-clojure (t/to "") (is (= (t/title) "Clojure - home")) (is (= (t/current-url) ""))) (deftest ^:browser test-clojure-download (t/to "") (t/click {:xpath "//div[@class='menu']/*/a[text()='Download']"}) (is (= (t/title) "Clojure - downloads")) (is (= (t/current-url) "")) (is (re-find #"Rich Hickey" (t/text {:id "foot"})))) A complete version of this repository is available on GitHub at https:// Checkout a copy locally to catch-up: $ git clone $ cd browser-testing Run the tests on the command line: $ lein test :browser lein test browser-testing.core-test [ Testing :firefox ] lein test :only browser-testing.core-test/test-clojure FAIL in (test-clojure) (core_test.clj:20) expected: (= (t/current-url) "") actual: (not (= "" "")) 10.5. Running Browser-based Tests | 415 Ran 2 tests containing 5 assertions. 1 failures, 0 errors. Tests failed. Discussion Browser tests verify that your application behaves as expected in your targeted browsers. They test the appearance and behavior of your application as rendered in the browser itself. Manually testing applications in a browser is a tedious and repetitive task. The amount of time and effort required for a complete test run can be unwieldy for even a moderately sized project. Automating browser tests ensures they are run consistently and relatively quickly, resulting in reproducible errors and more frequent test runs. However, auto‐ mated tests lack the visual inspection by a human inherent to manual tests. For example, a manual test could easily catch a positioning error that an automated test would likely miss if it were not explicitly tested for. To write browser tests in Clojure, use the clj-webdriver library with your preferred test framework, such as clojure.test. clj-webdriver provides a clean Clojure interface to Selenium WebDriver, a tool used to control and automate browser actions. Some additional configuration may be required to use Selenium WebDriver or clj- webdriver with your browsers of choice. See the Selenium WebDriver documenta‐ tion and the clj-webdriver wiki. Before you dive into testing, you can experiment with clj-webdriver at a REPL. Start up a REPL with clj-webdriver using lein-try: $ lein try clj-webdriver "0.6.0" Use the! function, selecting the Firefox WebDriver implementation (other options include :chrome or :ie, but may require more setup). (require '[ :as t]) (t/set-driver! {:browser :firefox}) ;; -> #clj_webdriver.driver.Driver{:webdriver ...} This will open the browser you picked, ready to receive commands. Try a few functions from the namespace: (t/to "") (t/current-url) ;; -> "" (t/title) ;; -> "Clojure - home" 416 | Chapter 10: Testing (t/click {:xpath "//div[@class='menu']/*/a[text()='Download']"}) (t/current-url) ;; -> "" (t/text {:id "foot"}) ;; -> "Copyright 2008-2012 Rich Hickey" When you’re finished, close the browser from the REPL: (t/quit) Your tests will use these functions to start up and run against the browser. To save yourself some work, you should set up the browser startup and teardown using a clo jure.test fixture. clojure.test/use-fixtures allows you to run functions around each individual test or once around the namespace’s test run as a whole. Use the latter, as restarting the browser for each test will be far too slow. The selenium-fixture function uses clj-webdriver’s set-driver! and quit func‐ tions to start up a browser for each of the keywords it’s provided and run the namespace’s tests inside that browser. (defn selenium-fixture [& browsers] (fn [test] (doseq [browser browsers] (t/set-driver! {:browser browser}) (test) (t/quit)))) (use-fixtures :once (selenium-fixture :firefox)) It’s important to note that using a :once fixture means the state of the browser will persist between tests. Depending on your particular application’s behavior, you may need to guard against this when you write your tests by beginning from a common browser state for each test. For example, you might delete all cookies or return to a certain top- level page. If this is necessary, you may find it useful to write this common reset behavior as an :each fixture. To begin writing tests, modify your project’s project.clj file to include the clj- webdriver dependency in the :dev profile and :test-selectors for :default and browser convenience. Your own project.clj. (defproject my-project "1.0.0-SNAPSHOT" ;; ... :profiles {:dev {:dependencies [[clj-webdriver "0.6.0"]]}} 10.5. Running Browser-based Tests | 417 :test-selectors {:default (complement :browser) :browser :browser}) Test selectors let you run groups of tests independently. This prevents slower browser tests from impacting the faster, more frequently run unit and lower level integration tests. In this case, you’ve added a new selector and modified the default. The new :browser selector will only match tests that have been annotated with a :browser metadata key. The default selector will now exclude any tests with this annotation. With the fixture and test selectors in place, you can begin writing your tests. Start with something simple: (deftest ^:browser test-clojure (t/to "") (is (= (t/title) "Clojure - home")) (is (= (t/current-url) ""))) Note the ^:browser metadata attached to the test. This test is annotated as a browser test, and will only run when that test selector is chosen. In this test, as in the REPL experiment, you navigate to a URL and check its title and URL. Run this test at the command line, passing the additional test selector argument to lein test: $ lein test :browser lein test browser-testing.core-test [ Testing :firefox ] lein test :only browser-testing.core-test/test-clojure FAIL in (test-clojure) (core_test.clj:20) expected: (= (t/current-url) "") actual: (not (= "" "")) Ran 2 tests containing 5 assertions. 1 failures, 0 errors. Tests failed. Clearly, this test was bound to fail - replace with http:// and it will pass. This test is very basic. In most real tests, you’ll load a URL, interact with the page, and verify that the application behaved as expected. Write another test that interacts with the page: (deftest ^:browser test-clojure-download (t/to "") 418 | Chapter 10: Testing (t/click {:xpath "//div[@class='menu']/*/a[text()='Download']"}) (is (= (t/title) "Clojure - downloads")) (is (= (t/current-url) "")) (is (re-find #"Rich Hickey" (t/text {:id "foot"})))) In this test, after loading the URL, the browser is directed to click on an anchor located with an XPath selector. To verify that the expected page has loaded, the test compares the title and URL as in the first test. Lastly, it finds the text content of the #foot element containing the copyright and verifies that the text includes the expected name. clj-webdriver provides many other capabilities for interacting with your application. For more information, see the clj-webdriver wiki. See also • The clj-webdriver GitHub repository and wiki. • Selenium • Recipe 10.1 to learn more about unit testing in Clojure. 10.6. Tracing Code Execution by Stefan Karlsson Problem You want to trace the execution of your code, in order to see what it is doing. Solution Use the tools.trace library’s bevy of “trace” functions and macros to help examine your code as it runs. Before starting, add [org.clojure/tools.trace "0.7.6"] to your project’s depen‐ dencies under the :development profile (in the vector at the [:profiles :dev :depen dencies] path instead of the [:dependencies] path). Alternatively, start a REPL using lein-try: $ lein try org.clojure/tools.trace To examine a single value at execution, wrap that value in an invocation of clo (require '[ :as t]) (map #(inc (t/trace %)) 10.6. Tracing Code Execution | 419 (range 3)) ;; -> (1 2 3) ;; *out* ;; TRACE: 0 ;; TRACE: 1 ;; TRACE: 2 To examine multiple values without losing context of which trace is which, supply a descriptive name string as the first argument to trace. (defn divide [n d] (/ (t/trace "numerator" n) (t/trace "denominator" d))) (divide 4 6) ;; -> 2/3 ;; *out* ;; TRACE numerator: 4 ;; TRACE denominator: 6 Discussion At its core, the tools.trace library is all about introspecting upon the execution of a body of code. The trace function is the simplest and most low-level tracing operation. Wrapping a value in an invokation of trace does two things: it logs a tracer message to STDOUT, and, most importantly, returns the original value unadultered. tools.trace provides a number of other granularities for tracing execution. Stepping up a level from simple values, you can define functions with clo instead of defn to trace the input and output to the func‐ tion you define. It is not advisable to deploy production code with tracing in place. Tracing is most suited to development and debugging, particularly from the REPL. Include tools.trace in your project.clj’s :dev pro‐ file to make tracing available only to development tasks. (t/deftrace pow [x n] (Math/pow x n)) (pow 2 3) ;; -> 8.0 ;; *out* ;; TRACE t815: (pow 2 3) ;; TRACE t815: => 8.0 420 | Chapter 10: Testing If you’re trying to diagnose a difficult-to-understand exception, use the clo macro to wrap an expression and pinpoint the origin of the exception. When no exception occurs, trace-forms prints no output, and returns normally. (t/trace-forms (* (pow 2 3) (divide 1 (- 1 1)))) ;; *out* ;; ... ;; ArithmeticException Divide by zero ;; Form failed: (divide 1 (- 1 1)) ;; Form failed: (* (pow 2 3) (divide 1 (- 1 1))) ;; clojure.lang.Numbers.divide ( Apart from explicitly tracing values or functions, tools.trace also allows you to dy‐ namically trace vars or entire namespaces. To add a trace function to a var, use clo To remove such a trace, use untrace-vars. (defn add [x y] (+ x y)) (t/trace-vars add) (add 2 2) ;; -> 4 ;; *out* ;; TRACE t1309: (user/add 2 2) ;; TRACE t1309: => 4 (t/untrace-vars add) (add 2 2) ;; -> 4 To trace or untrace an entire namespace, use and, respectively. This will dynamically add or remove tracing from all functions and vars in a namespace. Even things defined after trace- ns is invoked will be traced. (def my-inc inc) (defn my-dec [n] (dec n)) (t/trace-ns 'user) (my-inc (my-dec 0)) ;; -> 0 ;; TRACE t1217: (user/my-dec 0) ;; TRACE t1218: | (user/my-dec 0) ;; TRACE t1218: | => -1 ;; TRACE t1217: => -1 ;; TRACE t1219: (user/my-inc -1) ;; TRACE t1220: | (user/my-inc -1) ;; TRACE t1220: | => 0 10.6. Tracing Code Execution | 421 ;; TRACE t1219: => 0 (t/untrace-ns 'user) (my-inc (my-dec 0)) ;; -> 0 See Also • The tools.trace GitHub repository for a full list of trace functions/macros. 10.7. Avoiding Null-Pointer Exceptions with core.ty ped by Ambrose Bonnaire-Sergeant Problem You want to verify that your code handles nil correctly, eliminating potential null- pointer exceptions. Solution Use core.typed, an optional type system for Clojure, to annotate and check a name‐ space for misuses of nil. To follow along with this recipe, create a file core_typed_samples.clj and start a REPL using lein-try: $ touch core_typed_samples.clj $ lein try org.clojure/core.typed This recipe is a little different than others because core.typed uses on- disk files to check namespaces. Consider, for example, that you are writing a function handle-number to process num‐ bers. To verify handle-number handles nil correctly annotate it with clojure.core.ty ped/ann to accept the union (U) of the nil and Number types, returning a Number. core_typed_samples.clj. (ns core-typed-samples (:require [clojure.core.typed :refer [ann] :as t])) 422 | Chapter 10: Testing (ann handle-number [(U nil Number) -> Number]) (defn handle-number [a] (+ a 20)) Verify the function’s correctness at the REPL using clojure.core.typed/check-ns. user=> (require '[clojure.core.typed :as t]) user=> (t/check-ns 'core-typed-samples) # ... Type Error (core-typed-samples:6:3) Static method clojure.lang.Numbers/add could not be applied to arguments: Domains: t/AnyInteger t/AnyInteger java.lang.Number java.lang.Number Arguments: (U nil java.lang.Number) (Value 20) Ranges: t/AnyInteger java.lang.Number with expected type: java.lang.Number in: (clojure.lang.Numbers/add a 20) in: (clojure.lang.Numbers/add a 20) ExceptionInfo Type Checker: Found 1 error clojure.core/ex-info (core.clj:4327) The current definition is unsafe, check-ns recognizes that + can only handle numbers, while the handle-number function accepts numbers or nil. Protect the call to + by wrapping it in an if statement, returning 0 in the absence of a. core_typed_samples.clj. (ns core-typed-samples (:require [clojure.core.typed :refer [ann] :as t])) (ann handle-number [(U nil Number) -> Number]) (defn handle-number [a] (if a (+ a 20) 0)) Check the namespace with check-ns again. 10.7. Avoiding Null-Pointer Exceptions with core.typed | 423 user=> (t/check-ns 'core-typed-samples) # ... :ok Now that there is no way nil could accidentally be passed to + by this code, a null- pointer exception is impossible. Discussion core.typed is designed to avoid all misuses of nil or null in typed code. To achieve this, the concepts of the null-pointer and reference types are separated. This is unlike Java, where a type like java.lang.Number implies a “nullable” type. In core.typed, reference types are implicitly non-nullable. To express a nullable type (such as in the example above) construct a union type of the desired type and nil. For example, a java.lang.Number in core.typed syntax is non-nullable; the union type (U nil java.lang.Number) expresses the equivalent to a nullable java.lang.Number (the latter is closest to what java.lang.Number implies in Java type syntax). This separation of concepts allows core.typed to throw a type error on any potential misuse of nil. The solution above threw a type error when type checking the equivalent expression: (+ nil 20). To better understand core.typed type errors, it is useful to note that some functions have inline definitions. core.typed fully expands all code before type checking, so it is common to see calls to the Java method clojure.lang.Numbers/add in type errors when user code invokes clojure.core/+. It is also common to see ordered intersection function types in type errors. Our first type error claims that the arguments (U Number nil) and (Value 20) are not under either of the ordered intersection function domains, listed under “Domains”. Notice two “Ranges” are provided, which correspond to the listed domains. The full type of clojure.lang.Numbers/add is: (Fn [t/AnyInteger t/AnyInteger -> t/AnyInteger] [Number Number -> Number]) Briefly, the function is “ordered” because it tries to match the argument types with each arity until one matches. See also • core.typed Home • core.typed API Reference 424 | Chapter 10: Testing • The list of core type aliases in the API reference. For example, the entry for clo‐ jure.core.typed/AnyInteger. • Valid types are documented on the Types wiki page. • Recipes Recipe 10.8 and Recipe 10.9 for further examples of how to use core.typed. 10.8. Verifying Java Interop using core.typed by Ambrose Bonnaire-Sergeant Problem You want to verify that we are using Java libraries safely and unambiguously. Java provides a vast ecosystem that is a major draw for Clojure developers, however, it can be often be complex to use large, cumbersome Java APIs from Clojure. Solution Use core.typed to type check Java interop calls. To follow along with this recipe, create a file core_typed_samples.clj and start a REPL using lein-try: $ touch core_typed_samples.clj $ lein try org.clojure/core.typed This recipe is a little different than others because core.typed uses on- disk files to check namespaces. To demonstrate, choose a standard Java API function such as the con‐ structor. Using the dot constructor to create new Files can be annoying, wrap it in a Clojure function that takes a string new-file. core_typed_samples.clj. (ns core-typed-samples (:require [clojure.core.typed :refer [ann] :as t]) (:import ( File))) (ann new-file [String -> File]) (defn new-file [s] (File. s)) 10.8. Verifying Java Interop using core.typed | 425 Setting *warn-on-reflection* when compiling this namespace will tell us that there is a reflective call to the constructor. Checking this namespace at the REPL with clojure.core.typed/check-ns will tell report the same information, albeit in the form of a type error. user=> (require '[clojure.core.typed :as t]) user=> (t/check-ns 'core-typed-samples) # ... ExceptionInfo Internal Error (core-typed-samples:6) Unresolved constructor invocation Hint: add type hints. in: (new s) clojure.core/ex-info (core.clj:4327) Add a type hint to call the public File(String pathname) constructor (Javadoc). core_typed_samples.clj. (ns core-typed-samples (:require [clojure.core.typed :refer [ann] :as t]) (:import ( File))) (ann new-file [String -> File]) (defn new-file [^String s] (File. s)) Checking again, core.type is satisfied. user=> (t/check-ns 'core-typed-samples) # ... :ok File has a second single-argument constructor: public File(URI uri). Enhance new- file to support URI or String file names. core_typed_samples.clj. (ns core-typed-samples (:require [clojure.core.typed :refer [ann] :as t]) (:import ( File) ( URI))) (ann new-file [(U URI String) -> File]) (defn new-file [s] (if (string? s) (File. ^String s) (File. ^URI s))) Even after relaxing the input type to (U URI String), core.typed is able to infer that each branch has the correct types by following the string? predicate. 426 | Chapter 10: Testing Discussion While is a relatively small API, careful inspection of Java types and documentation is needed to confidently use foreign Java code correctly. Though the File constructor is fairly innocous, consider writing file-parent, a thin wrapper over the getParent method. core_typed_samples.clj. (ns core-typed-samples (:require [clojure.core.typed :refer [ann] :as t]) (:import ( File))) (ann file-parent [File -> String]) (defn file-parent [^File f] (.getParent f)) The above implementation is free from reflective calls, so… all good? No. Checking this function with core.typed tells another story; Java’s return types are nullable and core.typed knows it. It is possible that getParent will return nil instead of a String. user=> (t/check-ns 'core-typed-samples) # ... Type Error (core-typed-samples:7:3) Return type of instance method is (U java.lang.String nil), expected java.lang.String. Hint: Use `non-nil-return` and `nilable-param` to configure where `nil` is allowed in a Java method call. `method-type` prints the current type of a method. in: (.getParent f) Type Error (core-typed-samples:6) Type mismatch: Expected: java.lang.String Actual: (U String nil) in: (.getParent f) Type Error (core-typed-samples:6:1) Type mismatch: Expected: (Fn [ -> java.lang.String]) Actual: (Fn [ -> (U String nil)]) in: (def file-parent (fn* ([f] (.getParent f)))) ExceptionInfo Type Checker: Found 3 errors clojure.core/ex-info ... 10.8. Verifying Java Interop using core.typed | 427 core.typed assumes all methods return nullable types, so it is a type error to annotate parent as [File -> String]. Each type error above reiterates that the annotation tried to claim a (U nil String) was a String, with the most specific (and useful) error being the first. core.typed is designed to be pessimistic about Java code, while being accurate enough to avoid adding arbitrary code to “please” the type checker. For example, core.typed distrusts Java methods enough to assume all method parameters are non-nullable and the return type is nullable by default. On the other hand, core.typed knows Java con‐ structors never return null. If core.typed is too pessimistic for you with its nullable return types, you can override particular methods with clojure.core.typed/non-nil-return. Adding the following to the above code would result in a successful type check (check omitted for brevity). (t/non-nil-return :all) As of this writing, core.typed does not enforce static type overrides at runtime, so use non-nil-return and similar features with caution. Sometimes the type checker might seem overly picky; in the solution two type-hinted constructors are necessary. It might seem normal in a dynamically typed language to simply call (File. s) and allow reflection to resolve any ambiguity. By conforming to what core.typed expects, however, all ambiguity is eliminated from the constructors, and the type hints inserted have enabled the Clojure compiler to generate efficient bytecode. It is valid to wonder why both type hints and core.typed annotations are needed to type check ambiguous Java calls. A type hint is a directive to the compiler, while type annotations are merely for core.typed to consume during type checking. core.ty ped does not have influence over resolving reflection calls at compile time, so it chooses to assume all reflective calls to be ambiguous instead of trying to guess what the reflec‐ tion might resolve to at runtime. This simple rule usually results in faster, more explicit code, often desirable in larger code bases. See also • core.typed Home • core.typed API Reference, particularly documentation for non-nil-return and nilable-param. 428 | Chapter 10: Testing • Recipes Recipe 10.7 and Recipe 10.9 for further examples of how to use core.typed. 10.9. Type Checking Higher-order Functions with core.typed by Ambrose Bonnaire-Sergeant Problem Clojure strongly encourages higher-order functions, but tools for verifying their use focus on runtime verification. You want earlier feedback: compile time. Solution Use core.typed to type check higher-order functions. To follow along with this recipe, create a file core_typed_samples.clj and start a REPL using lein-try: $ touch core_typed_samples.clj $ lein try org.clojure/core.typed This recipe is a little different than others because core.typed uses on- disk files to check namespaces. To demonstrate core.typed’s abilities, define a typed higher-order function hash-of?, which accepts two predicates and returns a new predicate. Use clojure.core.typed/fn> to return an anonymous function with type annotations at‐ tached. core_typed_samples.clj. (ns core-typed-samples (:require [clojure.core.typed :refer [ann fn>] :as t])) (ann hash-of? [[Any -> Any] [Any -> Any] -> [Any -> Any]]) (defn hash-of? [ks? vs?] (fn> [m :- Any] (when (map? m) (and (every? ks? (keys m)) (every? ks? (vals m)))))) Each argument to hash-of? has type [Any -> Any]: a single argument function taking anything and returning anything. 10.9. Type Checking Higher-order Functions with core.typed | 429 Verifying hash-of? confirms that the type annotations above are correct. user=> (require '[clojure.core.typed :as t]) user=> (t/check-ns 'core-typed-samples) # ... :ok Using the clojure.core.typed/cf macro you can type check individual forms at the REPL (or under test). Invoking hash-of? with two predicates verifies as expected, out‐ putting the resulting type. user=> (require '[core-typed-samples :refer [hash-of?]]) user=> (t/cf (hash-of? number? number?)) (Fn [Any -> Any]) Passing + as a predicate, however, is a type error. user=> (t/cf (hash-of? + number?)) Type Error (user:1:7) Type mismatch: Expected: (Fn [Any -> Any]) Actual: (Fn [t/AnyInteger * -> t/AnyInteger] [java.lang.Number * -> java.lang.Number]) ExceptionInfo Type Checker: Found 1 error clojure.core/ex-info (core.clj:4327) Because hash-of? takes a function with an Any parameter and + takes at most a Num ber this is a type error. Discussion While Clojure’s built-in pre/post conditions are useful for defining anonymous func‐ tions that fail fast, these checks only provide feedback at runtime. Why not type-check our higher-order functions as well? core.typed’s type checking abilities aren’t limited to only data types—it can also type-check functions as types themselves. By writing returning anonymous functions created with the clojure.core.typed/fn> form instead of fn, it is possible to annotate function objects with core.typed’s rich type-checking system. When defining functions with fn>, annotate types to its argu‐ ments with the :- operator. For example, (t/fn> [m :- Map] …) would indicate an anonymous function that accepted a Map as its sole argument. Beyond definition, it can also be useful to check the types of forms at the REPL. The ‘clojure.core.typed/cf` macro is a versatile, REPL-oriented tool for on-demand type checking. This proves useful not only for checking your code, but investigating built- in functions. Invoking cf on any of Clojure’ higher-order functions reveals their type signatures. 430 | Chapter 10: Testing user=> (t/cf iterate) (All [x] (Fn [(Fn [x -> x]) x -> (clojure.lang.LazySeq x)])) The All around iterate’s type indicates that it is polymorphic in x. It reads, “for all types x, takes a function that accepts an x and returns an x, and takes an x, and returns a lazy sequence of x”. The cf macro can also detect when the wrong number of arguments are being passed to a function returned by another function. user=> (t/cf (fn [] ((hash-of? + number?)))) Type Error (user:1:15) Type mismatch: Expected: (Fn [Any -> Any]) Actual: (Fn [t/AnyInteger * -> t/AnyInteger] [java.lang.Number * -> java.lang.Number]) in: ((core-typed-samples/hash-of? clojure.core/+ clojure.core/number?)) Type Error (user:1:14) Wrong number of arguments, expected 1 fixed parameters, and got 0 for function [Any -> Any] and arguments [] in: ((core-typed-samples/hash-of? clojure.core/+ clojure.core/number?)) ExceptionInfo Type Checker: Found 2 errors clojure.core/ex-info (core.clj:4327) In this experiment, the faulty invokation of hash-of? is wrapped in an anonymous function. At the time of this writing, core.typed evalu‐ ates code before it type checks it. Without this, the raw invokation ((hash-of? + number?)) woudl return a regular Clojure ArityException. See also • The core.typed repository on GitHub. • The core.typed user guide, in particular its sections on polymorphism and func‐ tion annotations. • Recipes Recipe 10.8 and Recipe 10.7 for further examples of how to use core.typed. 10.9. Type Checking Higher-order Functions with core.typed | 431 We’d like to hear your suggestions for improving our indexes. Send email to Index 433 About the Authors Luke VanderHart is a Clojure/ClojureScript developer, a member of Clojure/core, and a co-author of Practical Clojure (Apress, 2010). Luke lives in Maryland. Ryan Neufeld is an experienced software developer with Relevance, Inc. Although a first-time author, Ryan has worked at a number of established startups. Colophon The animal on the cover of FILL IN TITLE is FILL IN DESCRIPTION. The cover image is from FILL IN CREDITS. The cover fonts are URW Typewriter and Guardian Sans. The text font is Adobe Minion Pro; the heading font is Adobe Myriad Condensed; and the code font is Dalton Maag’s Ubuntu Mono.



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