GNU Emacs Reference Card



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GNU Emacs Reference Card (for version 20) Starting Emacs To enter GNU Emacs 20, just type its name: emacs To read in a file to edit, see Files, below. Leaving Emacs suspend Emacs (or iconify it under X) C-z exit Emacs permanently C-x C-c Files read a file into Emacs C-x C-f save a file back to disk C-x C-s save all files C-x s insert contents of another file into this buffer C-x i replace this file with the file you really want C-x C-v write buffer to a specified file C-x C-w version control checkin/checkout C-x C-q Getting Help The help system is simple. Type C-h (or F1) and follow the di- rections. If you are a first-time user, type C-h t for a tutorial. remove help window C-x 1 scroll help window C-M-v apropos: show commands matching a string C-h a show the function a key runs C-h c describe a function C-h f get mode-specific information C-h m Error Recovery abort partially typed or executing command C-g recover a file lost by a system crash M-x recover-file undo an unwanted change C-x u or C-_ restore a buffer to its original contents M-x revert-buffer redraw garbaged screen C-l Incremental Search search forward C-s search backward C-r regular expression search C-M-s reverse regular expression search C-M-r select previous search string M-p select next later search string M-n exit incremental search RET undo effect of last character DEL abort current search C-g Use C-s or C-r again to repeat the search in either direction. If Emacs is still searching, C-g cancels only the part not done. c 1997 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permissions on back. v2.2 Motion entity to move over backward forward character C-b C-f word M-b M-f line C-p C-n go to line beginning (or end) C-a C-e sentence M-a M-e paragraph M-{ M-} page C-x [ C-x ] sexp C-M-b C-M-f function C-M-a C-M-e go to buffer beginning (or end) M-< M-> scroll to next screen C-v scroll to previous screen M-v scroll left C-x < scroll right C-x > scroll current line to center of screen C-u C-l Killing and Deleting entity to kill backward forward character (delete, not kill) DEL C-d word M-DEL M-d line (to end of) M-0 C-k C-k sentence C-x DEL M-k sexp M-- C-M-k C-M-k kill region C-w copy region to kill ring M-w kill through next occurrence of char M-z char yank back last thing killed C-y replace last yank with previous kill M-y Marking set mark here C-@ or C-SPC exchange point and mark C-x C-x set mark arg words away M-@ mark paragraph M-h mark page C-x C-p mark sexp C-M-@ mark function C-M-h mark entire buffer C-x h Query Replace interactively replace a text string M-% using regular expressions M-x query-replace-regexp Valid responses in query-replace mode are replace this one, go on to next SPC replace this one, don’t move , skip to next without replacing DEL replace all remaining matches ! back up to the previous match ^ exit query-replace RET enter recursive edit (C-M-c to exit) C-r Multiple Windows When two commands are shown, the second is for “other frame.” delete all other windows C-x 1 split window, above and below C-x 2 C-x 5 2 delete this window C-x 0 C-x 5 0 split window, side by side C-x 3 scroll other window C-M-v switch cursor to another window C-x o C-x 5 o select buffer in other window C-x 4 b C-x 5 b display buffer in other window C-x 4 C-o C-x 5 C-o find file in other window C-x 4 f C-x 5 f find file read-only in other window C-x 4 r C-x 5 r run Dired in other window C-x 4 d C-x 5 d find tag in other window C-x 4 . C-x 5 . grow window taller C-x ^ shrink window narrower C-x { grow window wider C-x } Formatting indent current line (mode-dependent) TAB indent region (mode-dependent) C-M-\ indent sexp (mode-dependent) C-M-q indent region rigidly arg columns C-x TAB insert newline after point C-o move rest of line vertically down C-M-o delete blank lines around point C-x C-o join line with previous (with arg, next) M-^ delete all white space around point M-\ put exactly one space at point M-SPC fill paragraph M-q set fill column C-x f set prefix each line starts with C-x . set face M-g Case Change uppercase word M-u lowercase word M-l capitalize word M-c uppercase region C-x C-u lowercase region C-x C-l The Minibuer The following keys are defined in the minibuffer. complete as much as possible TAB complete up to one word SPC complete and execute RET show possible completions ? fetch previous minibuffer input M-p fetch later minibuffer input or default M-n regexp search backward through history M-r regexp search forward through history M-s abort command C-g Type C-x ESC ESC to edit and repeat the last command that used the minibuffer. Type F10 to activate the menu bar using the minibuffer. 1 2 3 GNU Emacs Reference Card Buers select another buffer C-x b list all buffers C-x C-b kill a buffer C-x k Transposing transpose characters C-t transpose words M-t transpose lines C-x C-t transpose sexps C-M-t Spelling Check check spelling of current word M-$ check spelling of all words in region M-x ispell-region check spelling of entire buffer M-x ispell-buffer Tags find a tag (a definition) M-. find next occurrence of tag C-u M-. specify a new tags file M-x visit-tags-table regexp search on all files in tags table M-x tags-search run query-replace on all the files M-x tags-query-replace continue last tags search or query-replace M-, Shells execute a shell command M-! run a shell command on the region M-| filter region through a shell command C-u M-| start a shell in window *shell* M-x shell Rectangles copy rectangle to register C-x r r kill rectangle C-x r k yank rectangle C-x r y open rectangle, shifting text right C-x r o blank out rectangle C-x r c prefix each line with a string C-x r t Abbrevs add global abbrev C-x a g add mode-local abbrev C-x a l add global expansion for this abbrev C-x a i g add mode-local expansion for this abbrev C-x a i l explicitly expand abbrev C-x a e expand previous word dynamically M-/ Regular Expressions any single character except a newline . (dot) zero or more repeats * one or more repeats + zero or one repeat ? quote regular expression special character c \c alternative (“or”) \| grouping \( . . . \) same text as nth group \n at word break \b not at word break \B entity match start match end line ^ $ word \< \> buffer \‘ \’ class of characters match these match others explicit set [ . . . ] [^ . . . ] word-syntax character \w \W character with syntax c \sc \Sc International Character Sets specify principal language M-x set-language-environment show all input methods M-x list-input-methods enable or disable input method C-\ set coding system for next command C-x RET c show all coding systems M-x list-coding-systems choose preferred coding system M-x prefer-coding-system Info enter the Info documentation reader C-h i find specified function or variable in Info C-h C-i Moving within a node: scroll forward SPC scroll reverse DEL beginning of node . (dot) Moving between nodes: next node n previous node p move up u select menu item by name m select nth menu item by number (1–9) n follow cross reference (return with l) f return to last node you saw l return to directory node d go to any node by name g Other: run Info tutorial h quit Info q search nodes for regexp M-s Registers save region in register C-x r s insert register contents into buffer C-x r i save value of point in register C-x r SPC jump to point saved in register C-x r j Keyboard Macros start defining a keyboard macro C-x ( end keyboard macro definition C-x ) execute last-defined keyboard macro C-x e append to last keyboard macro C-u C-x ( name last keyboard macro M-x name-last-kbd-macro insert Lisp definition in buffer M-x insert-kbd-macro Commands Dealing with Emacs Lisp eval sexp before point C-x C-e eval current defun C-M-x eval region M-x eval-region read and eval minibuffer M-: load from standard system directory M-x load-library Simple Customization customize variables and faces M-x customize Making global key bindings in Emacs Lisp (examples): (global-set-key "\C-cg" ’goto-line) (global-set-key "\M-#" ’query-replace-regexp) Writing Commands (defun command-name (args) "documentation" (interactive "template") body) An example: (defun this-line-to-top-of-window (line) "Reposition line point is on to top of window. With ARG, put point on line ARG." (interactive "P") (recenter (if (null line) 0 (prefix-numeric-value line)))) The interactive spec says how to read arguments interac- tively. Type C-h f interactive for more details. Copyright c 1997 Free Software Foundation, Inc. v2.2 for GNU Emacs version 20, June 1997 designed by Stephen Gildea Permission is granted to make and distribute copies of this card pro- vided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. For copies of the GNU Emacs manual, write to the Free Software Foun- dation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA 4 5 6



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