| 注册
请输入搜索内容

热门搜索

Java Linux MySQL PHP JavaScript Hibernate jQuery Nginx
zq_2013
5年前发布

MySQL利用binlog恢复误操作数据

   <p>在人工手动进行一些数据库写操作的时候(比方说数据订正),尤其是一些不可控的批量更新或删除,通常都建议备份后操作。不过不怕万一,就怕一万,有备无患总是好的。在线上或者测试环境误操作导致数据被删除或者更新后,想要恢复,一般有两种方法。</p>    <p>方法一、利用最近的全量备份+增量binlog备份,恢复到误操作之前的状态,但是随着数据量的增大,binlog的增多,恢复起来很费时。<br> 方法二、如果binlog的格式为row,那么就可以将binlog解析出来生成反向的原始SQL</p>    <p>以下是利用方法二写的一个python脚本binlog_rollback.py,可利用此脚本生成反向的原始SQL。</p>    <h2><strong>说明:</strong></h2>    <p>0、前提是binlog的格式为row</p>    <p>1、要恢复的表操作前后表结构没有发生变更,否则脚本无法解析</p>    <p>2、只生成DML(insert/update/delete)的rollback语句</p>    <p>3、最终生成的SQL是逆序的,所以最新的DML会生成在输入文件的最前面,并且带上了时间戳和偏移点,方便查找目标</p>    <p>4、需要提供一个连接MySQL的只读用户,主要是为了获取表结构</p>    <p>5、如果binlog过大,建议带上时间范围,也可以指定只恢复某个库的SQL</p>    <p>6、SQL生成后,请务必在测试环境上测试恢复后再应用到线上</p>    <h2><strong>演示</strong></h2>    <pre>  <code class="language-sql">#首先创建一个只读账号  root:test> grant select on *.* to 'query'@'127.0.0.1' identified by '123456';  Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.01 sec)</code></pre>    <pre>  <code class="language-sql">#测试表结构如下  root:test> CREATE TABLE `table1` (      ->   `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,      ->   `c1` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,      ->   `c2` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,      ->   `c3` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,      ->   PRIMARY KEY (`id`)      -> );  Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)    #插入三条数据  root:test> insert into table1(c1,c2,c3) values (1,'a',1),(2,'b',2),(3,'c',3);  Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.01 sec)  Records: 3  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0    root:test> select * from table1;  +----+------+------+------+  | id | c1   | c2   | c3   |  +----+------+------+------+  |  1 |    1 | a    |    1 |  |  2 |    2 | b    |    2 |  |  3 |    3 | c    |    3 |  +----+------+------+------+  3 rows in set (0.00 sec)    #更新一条数据  root:test> update table1 set c3=10 where id=3;  Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)  Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0    root:test> select * from table1;  +----+------+------+------+  | id | c1   | c2   | c3   |  +----+------+------+------+  |  1 |    1 | a    |    1 |  |  2 |    2 | b    |    2 |  |  3 |    3 | c    |   10 |  +----+------+------+------+  3 rows in set (0.00 sec)    #删除一条数据    root:test> delete from table1 where id=1;  Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)    root:test> select * from table1;  +----+------+------+------+  | id | c1   | c2   | c3   |  +----+------+------+------+  |  2 |    2 | b    |    2 |  |  3 |    3 | c    |   10 |  +----+------+------+------+  2 rows in set (0.00 sec)</code></pre>    <p>接下来利用脚本来生成反向SQL</p>    <pre>  <code class="language-sql">[root@diandi ~]# python binlog_rollback.py -f /log/mysql/bin/mysql-bin.000002  -o rollback.sql -u query -p 123456 --start-datetime='2016-10-28 00:00:00' -d test  正在获取参数.....  正在解析binlog.....  正在初始化列名.....  正在开始拼凑sql.....  done!    #查看反向SQL,最新的DML会生成在输入文件的最前面  [root@diandi ~]# cat rollback.sql   ## at 155848  ##161028 17:07:10 server id 22100  end_log_pos 155898 CRC32 0x5000bca7  Delete_rows: table id 351 flags: STMT_END_F  INSERT INTO `test`.`table1`  SET    id=1    ,c1=1    ,c2='a'    ,c3=1;  ## at 155560  ##161028 17:04:56 server id 22100  end_log_pos 155626 CRC32 0x11d91e2d  Update_rows: table id 351 flags: STMT_END_F  UPDATE `test`.`table1`  SET    id=3    ,c1=3    ,c2='c'    ,c3=3  WHERE    id=3    AND c1=3    AND c2='c'    AND c3=10;  ## at 155258  ##161028 16:59:31 server id 22100  end_log_pos 155338 CRC32 0x3978c1c1  Write_rows: table id 351 flags: STMT_END_F  DELETE FROM `test`.`table1`  WHERE    id=3    AND c1=3    AND c2='c'    AND c3=3;  DELETE FROM `test`.`table1`  WHERE    id=2    AND c1=2    AND c2='b'    AND c3=2;  DELETE FROM `test`.`table1`  WHERE    id=1    AND c1=1    AND c2='a'    AND c3=1;</code></pre>    <p>执行回滚操作</p>    <pre>  <code class="language-sql">#直接source整个文件,table1将恢复到原来的空表状态(实际情况,在测试环境上按需索取,然后再恢复线上)  root:test> source /root/rollback.sql  Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)    Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)  Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0    Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)    Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)    Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)    root:test> select * from table1;  Empty set (0.00 sec)</code></pre>    <p>具体的参数使用方法如下:</p>    <pre>  <code class="language-sql">[root@diandi ~]# python binlog_rollback.py   ==========================================================================================  Command line options :      --help                  # OUT : print help info      -f, --binlog            # IN  : binlog file. (required)      -o, --outfile           # OUT : output rollback sql file. (default 'rollback.sql')      -h, --host              # IN  : host. (default '127.0.0.1')      -u, --user              # IN  : user. (required)      -p, --password          # IN  : password. (required)      -P, --port              # IN  : port. (default 3306)      --start-datetime        # IN  : start datetime. (default '1970-01-01 00:00:00')      --stop-datetime         # IN  : stop datetime. default '2070-01-01 00:00:00'      --start-position        # IN  : start position. (default '4')      --stop-position         # IN  : stop position. (default '18446744073709551615')      -d, --database          # IN  : List entries for just this database (No default value).      --only-primary          # IN  : Only list primary key in where condition (default 0)    Sample :     shell> python binlog_rollback.py -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/rollback.sql' -h 192.168.0.1 -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -P 3307 -d dbname</code></pre>    <h2><strong>脚本代码</strong></h2>    <pre>  <code class="language-sql">#!/bin/env python  # -*- coding:utf-8 -*-    import os,sys,re,getopt  import MySQLdb      host = '127.0.0.1'  user = ''  password = ''  port = 3306  start_datetime = '1971-01-01 00:00:00'  stop_datetime = '2037-01-01 00:00:00'  start_position = '4'  stop_position = '18446744073709551615'  database = ''  mysqlbinlog_bin = 'mysqlbinlog -v'  binlog = ''  fileContent = ''  output='rollback.sql'  only_primary = 0      # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  # 功能:获取参数,生成相应的binlog解析文件  # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  def getopts_parse_binlog():      global host      global user      global password      global port      global fileContent      global output      global binlog      global start_datetime      global stop_datetime      global start_position      global stop_position      global database      global only_primary      try:          options, args = getopt.getopt(sys.argv[1:], "f:o:h:u:p:P:d:", ["help","binlog=","output=","host=","user=","password=","port=","start-datetime=", \                                                                        "stop-datetime=","start-position=","stop-position=","database=","only-primary="])      except getopt.GetoptError:          print "参数输入有误!!!!!"          options = []      if options == [] or options[0][0] in ("--help"):          usage()          sys.exit()      print "正在获取参数....."      for name, value in options:          if name == "-f" or name == "--binlog":              binlog = value          if name == "-o" or name == "--output":              output = value          if name == "-h" or name == "--host":              host = value          if name == "-u" or name == "--user":              user = value          if name == "-p" or name == "--password":              password = value          if name == "-P" or name == "--port":              port = value          if name == "--start-datetime":              start_datetime = value          if name == "--stop-datetime":              stop_datetime = value          if name == "--start-position":              start_position = value          if name == "--stop-position":              stop_position = value          if name == "-d" or name == "--database":              database = value          if name == "--only-primary" :              only_primary = value        if binlog == '' :          print "错误:请指定binlog文件名!"          usage()      if user == '' :          print "错误:请指定用户名!"          usage()      if password == '' :          print "错误:请指定密码!"          usage()      if database <> '' :         condition_database = "--database=" + "'" + database + "'"      else:          condition_database = ''      print "正在解析binlog....."      fileContent=os.popen("%s %s  --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS --start-datetime='%s' --stop-datetime='%s' --start-position='%s' --stop-position='%s' %s\                     |grep '###' -B 2|sed -e 's/### //g' -e 's/^INSERT/##INSERT/g' -e 's/^UPDATE/##UPDATE/g' -e 's/^DELETE/##DELETE/g' " \                     %(mysqlbinlog_bin,binlog,start_datetime,stop_datetime,start_position,stop_position,condition_database)).read()      #print fileContent        # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  # 功能:初始化binlog里的所有表名和列名,用全局字典result_dict来储存每个表有哪些列  # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  def init_col_name():      global result_dict      global pri_dict      global fileContent      result_dict = {}      pri_dict = {}      table_list = re.findall('`.*`\\.`.*`',fileContent)      table_list = list(set(table_list))      #table_list 为所有在这段binlog里出现过的表      print "正在初始化列名....."      for table in table_list:          sname = table.split('.')[0].replace('`','')          tname = table.split('.')[1].replace('`','')          #连接数据库获取列和列id          try:              conn = MySQLdb.connect(host=host,user=user,passwd=password,port=int(port))              cursor = conn.cursor()              cursor.execute("select ordinal_position,column_name \                                                         from information_schema.columns \                                                         where table_schema='%s' and table_name='%s' " %(sname,tname))                result=cursor.fetchall()              if result == () :                  print 'Warning:'+sname+'.'+tname+'已删除'                  #sys.exit()              result_dict[sname+'.'+tname]=result              cursor.execute("select ordinal_position,column_name   \                                 from information_schema.columns \                                 where table_schema='%s' and table_name='%s' and column_key='PRI' " %(sname,tname))              pri=cursor.fetchall()              #print pri              pri_dict[sname+'.'+tname]=pri              cursor.close()              conn.close()          except MySQLdb.Error, e:              try:                  print "Error %d:%s" % (e.args[0], e.args[1])              except IndexError:                  print "MySQL Error:%s" % str(e)                sys.exit()      #print result_dict      #print pri_dict    # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  # 功能:拼凑回滚sql,逆序  # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  def gen_rollback_sql():      global only_primary      fileOutput = open(output, 'w')      #先将文件根据'--'分块,每块代表一个sql      area_list=fileContent.split('--\n')      #逆序读取分块      print "正在开始拼凑sql....."      for area in area_list[::-1]:          #由于一条sql可能影响多行,每个sql又可以分成多个逐条执行的sql          sql_list = area.split('##')          #先将pos点和timestamp传入输出文件中          for sql_head in sql_list[0].splitlines():              sql_head = '#'+sql_head+'\n'              fileOutput.write(sql_head)          #逐条sql进行替换更新,逆序          for sql in sql_list[::-1][0:-1]:              try:                  if sql.split()[0] == 'INSERT':                      rollback_sql = re.sub('^INSERT INTO', 'DELETE FROM', sql, 1)                      rollback_sql = re.sub('SET\n', 'WHERE\n', rollback_sql, 1)                      tablename_pos = 2                      table_name = rollback_sql.split()[tablename_pos].replace('`', '')                      # 获取该sql中的所有列                      col_list = sorted(list(set(re.findall('@\d+', rollback_sql))))                      # 因为第一个列前面没有逗号或者and,所以单独替换                      rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace('@1=', result_dict[table_name][0][1]+'=')                      for col in col_list[1:]:                          i = int(col[1:]) - 1                          rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace(col+'=', 'AND ' + result_dict[table_name][i][1]+'=',1)                      # 如果only_primary开启且存在主键,where条件里就只列出主键字段                      if int(only_primary) == 1 and pri_dict[table_name] <> ():                          sub_where = ''                          for primary in pri_dict[table_name]:                              primary_name = primary[1]                              for condition in rollback_sql.split('WHERE', 1)[1].splitlines():                                  if re.compile('^\s*'+primary_name).match(condition) or re.compile('^\s*AND\s*'+primary_name).match(condition):                                      sub_where = sub_where + condition + '\n'                          sub_where = re.sub('^\s*AND', '', sub_where, 1)                          rollback_sql = rollback_sql.split('WHERE', 1)[0] + 'WHERE\n' + sub_where                  if sql.split()[0] == 'UPDATE':                      rollback_sql = re.sub('SET\n', '#SET#\n', sql, 1)                      rollback_sql = re.sub('WHERE\n', 'SET\n', rollback_sql, 1)                      rollback_sql = re.sub('#SET#\n', 'WHERE\n', rollback_sql, 1)                      tablename_pos = 1                      table_name = rollback_sql.split()[tablename_pos].replace('`', '')                      # 获取该sql中的所有列                      col_list = sorted(list(set(re.findall('@\d+', rollback_sql))))                      # 因为第一个列前面没有逗号或者and,所以单独替换                      rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace('@1=', result_dict[table_name][0][1] + '=')                      for col in col_list[1:]:                          i = int(col[1:]) - 1                          rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace(col+'=', ',' + result_dict[table_name][i][1]+'=', 1).replace(col+'=','AND ' +result_dict[table_name][i][1]+'=')                      # 如果only_primary开启且存在主键,where条件里就只列出主键字段                      if int(only_primary) == 1 and pri_dict[table_name] <> ():                          sub_where = ''                          for primary in pri_dict[table_name]:                              primary_name = primary[1]                              for condition in rollback_sql.split('WHERE', 1)[1].splitlines():                                  if re.compile('^\s*' + primary_name).match(condition) or re.compile('^\s*AND\s*'+primary_name).match(condition):                                      sub_where = sub_where + condition + '\n'                          sub_where = re.sub('^\s*AND', '', sub_where, 1)                          rollback_sql = rollback_sql.split('WHERE', 1)[0] + 'WHERE\n' + sub_where                    if sql.split()[0] == 'DELETE':                      rollback_sql = re.sub('^DELETE FROM', 'INSERT INTO', sql, 1)                      rollback_sql = re.sub('WHERE\n', 'SET\n', rollback_sql, 1)                      tablename_pos = 2                      table_name = rollback_sql.split()[tablename_pos].replace('`', '')                      # 获取该sql中的所有列                      col_list = sorted(list(set(re.findall('@\d+', rollback_sql))))                      # 因为第一个列前面没有逗号或者and,所以单独替换                      rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace('@1=', result_dict[table_name][0][1] + '=')                      for col in col_list[1:]:                          i = int(col[1:]) - 1                          rollback_sql = rollback_sql.replace(col+'=', ',' + result_dict[table_name][i][1]+'=',1)                    rollback_sql = re.sub('\n$',';\n',rollback_sql)                  #print rollback_sql                  fileOutput.write(rollback_sql)              except IndexError,e:                  print "Error:%s" % str(e)                  sys.exit()      print "done!"    def usage():      help_info="""==========================================================================================  Command line options :      --help                  # OUT : print help info      -f, --binlog            # IN  : binlog file. (required)      -o, --outfile           # OUT : output rollback sql file. (default 'rollback.sql')      -h, --host              # IN  : host. (default '127.0.0.1')      -u, --user              # IN  : user. (required)      -p, --password          # IN  : password. (required)      -P, --port              # IN  : port. (default 3306)      --start-datetime        # IN  : start datetime. (default '1970-01-01 00:00:00')      --stop-datetime         # IN  : stop datetime. default '2070-01-01 00:00:00'      --start-position        # IN  : start position. (default '4')      --stop-position         # IN  : stop position. (default '18446744073709551615')      -d, --database          # IN  : List entries for just this database (No default value).      --only-primary          # IN  : Only list primary key in where condition (default 0)    Sample :     shell> python binlog_rollback.py -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/rollback.sql' -h 192.168.0.1 -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -P 3307 -d dbname  =========================================================================================="""        print help_info      sys.exit()        if __name__ == '__main__':      getopts_parse_binlog()      init_col_name()      gen_rollback_sql()</code></pre>    <p> </p>    <p>来自:http://www.cnblogs.com/prayer21/p/6018736.html</p>    <p> </p>    
 本文由用户 zq_2013 自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流。所有权归原作者,若您的权利被侵害,请联系管理员。
 转载本站原创文章,请注明出处,并保留原始链接、图片水印。
 本站是一个以用户分享为主的开源技术平台,欢迎各类分享!
 本文地址:https://www.open-open.com/lib/view/open1477987055216.html
MySQL 数据库服务器