OpenVPN 经典教程

x386

贡献于2013-05-08

字数:10893 关键词: 网络技术

一. OpenVPN 安装环境 Server 端的环境 1. redhat, kernel版本: 2.4.20-31.9, IP 为 70.8.7.6 2. kernel 需要支持 tun 设备, 需要加载 iptables 模块. 检查 tun 是否安装: 代码: 3. root@a [/]# modinfo tun 4. filename: /lib/modules/2.4.20-31.9/kernel/drivers/net/tun.o 5. description: 6. author: 7. license: "GPL" 如果没有 modinfo 命令, 直接找一下, 看看 kernel 里是否有 tun.o 文件: 代码: find -name tun.o ./lib/modules/2.4.20/kernel/drivers/net/tun.o 检查iptables 模块, 查看是否有下列文件: /etc/init.d/iptables 8. 安装的 OpenVPN 的版本: 2.0.5. 现在似乎已经有一个更新的版本了. 可在http://openvpn.net 上下载. Client 端的环境: 1. Windows XP PRO SP2 2. OpenVPN GUI For windows 1.0.3 , 可在 openvpn.se 下载 注意: OpenVPN GUI for windows 的版本要和 OpenVPN Server 的版本配套. 例如, 服务器装的是 OpenVPN 2.0.5, 那么下载的 OpenVPN GUI fow windows 应该是: openvpn-2.0.5-gui-1.0.3-install.exe OpenVPN GUI的所有历史版本: http://openvpn.se/files/install_packages/ 二. OpenVPN 服务端安装过程 http://www.xiaohui.com/dev/server/20070514-install-openvpn.htm 1. 用 SecureCRT 登录到 host, 进入根目录 代码: cd / 2. 下载 LZO,解压到lzo-2.02. 地址: http://www.oberhumer.com/opensource/lzo/download/ 代码: wget http://www.oberhumer.com/opensource/lzo/download/lzo-2.02.tar.gz 3. 下载 OpenVPN, 解压到openvpn-2.0.5 地址: http://openvpn.net/download.html 代码: wget http://openvpn.net/release/openvpn-2.0.5.tar.gz 4. 安装 LZO 代码: 5. cd /lzo-2.02 6. ./configure 7. make 8. make check make install 9. 安装 OpenVPN 代码: cd /openvpn-2.0.5 ./configure # 或用指定dir: (注:下述命令, 应该在一行写完. 为了方便显示, 这里分成了四行) # ./configure --with-lzo-headers=/usr/local/include # --with-lzo-lib=/usr/local/lib # --with-ssl-headers=/usr/local/include/openssl # --with-ssl-lib=/usr/local/lib make make install 10. 生成证书Key 初始化 PKI (如果没有 export 命令也可以用 setenv [name] [value] 命令) 代码: cd /openvpn-2.0.5/easy-rsa export D=`pwd` export KEY_CONFIG=$D/openssl.cnf export KEY_DIR=$D/keys export KEY_SIZE=1024 export KEY_COUNTRY=CN export KEY_PROVINCE=GD export KEY_CITY=SZ export KEY_ORG="dvdmaster" export KEY_EMAIL="support@cooldvd.com" 也可以直接修改配置文件, # easy-rsa parameter settings # NOTE: If you installed from an RPM, # don't edit this file in place in # /usr/share/openvpn/easy-rsa -- # instead, you should copy the whole # easy-rsa directory to another location # (such as /etc/openvpn) so that your # edits will not be wiped out by a future # OpenVPN package upgrade. # This variable should point to # the top level of the easy-rsa # tree. export D=`pwd` # This variable should point to # the openssl.cnf file included # with easy-rsa. export KEY_CONFIG=$D/openssl.cnf # Edit this variable to point to # your soon-to-be-created key # directory. # # WARNING: clean-all will do # a rm -rf on this directory # so make sure you define # it correctly! export KEY_DIR=$D/keys # Issue rm -rf warning echo NOTE: when you run ./clean-all, I will be doing a rm -rf on $KEY_DIR # Increase this to 2048 if you # are paranoid. This will slow # down TLS negotiation performance # as well as the one-time DH parms # generation process. export KEY_SIZE=1024 # These are the default values for fields # which will be placed in the certificate. # Don't leave any of these fields blank. export KEY_COUNTRY=CN -----国家 export KEY_PROVINCE=GD -----省 export KEY_CITY=SZ ------城市 export KEY_ORG=dvdmaster -----组织 export KEY_EMAIL=aa@myhost.mydomain -----邮箱 . vars #使修改的变量生效 Build: 代码: ./clean-all ./build-ca Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key ................++++++ ........++++++ writing new private key to 'ca.key' ----- You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request. What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter '.', the field will be left blank. ----- Country Name (2 letter code) [CN]: State or Province Name (full name) [GD]: Locality Name (eg, city) [SZ]: Organization Name (eg, company) [dvdmaster]: Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:dvdmaster Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:server Email Address [support@cooldvd.com]: # 建立 server key 代码: 代码: ./build-key-server server Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key ......++++++ ....................++++++ writing new private key to 'server.key' ----- You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request. What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter '.', the field will be left blank. ----- Country Name (2 letter code) [CN]: State or Province Name (full name) [GD]: Locality Name (eg, city) [SZ]: Organization Name (eg, company) [dvdmaster]: Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:dvdmaster Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:server Email Address [support@cooldvd.com]: Please enter the following 'extra' attributes to be sent with your certificate request A challenge password []:abcd1234 An optional company name []:dvdmaster Using configuration from /openvpn-2.0.5/easy-rsa/openssl.cnf Check that the request matches the signature Signature ok The Subject's Distinguished Name is as follows countryName :PRINTABLE:'CN' stateOrProvinceName :PRINTABLE:'GD' localityName :PRINTABLE:'SZ' organizationName :PRINTABLE:'dvdmaster' organizationalUnitName:PRINTABLE:'dvdmaster' commonName :PRINTABLE:'server' emailAddress :IA5STRING:'aa@cooldvd.com' Certificate is to be certified until Mar 19 08:15:31 2016 GMT (3650 days) Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y 1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y Write out database with 1 new entries Data Base Updated #生成客户端 key 代码: ./build-key client1 Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key .....++++++ ......++++++ writing new private key to 'client1.key' ----- You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request. What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter '.', the field will be left blank. ----- Country Name (2 letter code) [CN]: State or Province Name (full name) [GD]: Locality Name (eg, city) [SZ]: Organization Name (eg, company) [dvdmaster]: Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:dvdmaster Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:client1 #重要: 每个不同的 client 生成的证书, 名字必须不同. Email Address [support@cooldvd.com]: Please enter the following 'extra' attributes to be sent with your certificate request A challenge password []:abcd1234 An optional company name []:dvdmaster Using configuration from /openvpn-2.0.5/easy-rsa/openssl.cnf Check that the request matches the signature Signature ok The Subject's Distinguished Name is as follows countryName :PRINTABLE:'CN' stateOrProvinceName :PRINTABLE:'GD' localityName :PRINTABLE:'SZ' organizationName :PRINTABLE:'dvdmaster' organizationalUnitName:PRINTABLE:'dvdmaster' commonName :PRINTABLE:'client1' emailAddress :IA5STRING:'support@cooldvd.com' Certificate is to be certified until Mar 19 08:22:00 2016 GMT (3650 days) Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y 1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y Write out database with 1 new entries Data Base Updated 依次类推生成其他客户端证书/key 代码: ./build-key client2 ./build-key client3 注意在进入 Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []: 的输入时, 每个证书输入的名字必须不同. 11. build: 代码: 12. ./build-dh 13. 将 keys 下的所有文件打包下载到本地 代码: tar -cf mykeys.tar /openvpn-2.0.5/easy-rsa/keys cp mykeys.tar /home/dvdmastersys/public_html/mykeys.tar 将 mykeys.tar 移到 web public(绝对路径因人而异) 上, 然后用 http://www.a.com/mykeys.tar 方式将其下载到本地保存, 然后将其从server删除: 代码: rm /home/dvdmastersys/public_html/mykeys.tar 也可以用其他方法把 key file搞到本地,例如 ftp. 14. 创建服务端配置文件 从样例文件创建: 代码: cd $dir/sample-config-files/ # 进入源代码解压目录下的sample-config-files子目录 cp server.conf /usr/local/etc # cp服务器配置文件到/usr/local/etc vi /usr/local/etc/server.conf 我建立的server.conf 的内容稍后另附. 15. 创建客户端配置文件 代码: cd $dir/sample-config-files/ #进入源代码解压目录下的sample-config-files子目录 cp client.conf /usr/local/etc #cp客户端配置文件到/usr/local/etc vi /usr/local/etc/client.conf 我建立的client.conf 的内容稍后另附. 16. 启动Openvpn: openvpn [server config file] 代码: /usr/local/sbin/openvpn --config /usr/local/etc/server.conf 三. OpenVPN GUI For Windows 客户端安装过程 1. 安装 OpenVPN GUI For Windows, 到 http://openvpn.se 下载. 目前的版本是 1.0.3. 注意: OpenVPN GUI 的版本要和 OpenVPN Server 的版本配套. 详见第一节一. 安装环境中的说明. 2. 依屏幕指示安装openvpn gui. 3. 配置 openvpn gui 安装结束后, 进入安装文件夹下的 config 目录, 然后将上面第 10 步建立的 client.conf 文件从 server 上下载到此文件夹, 并更名为 client.ovpn 同时, 将第8 步打包的 mykeys.tar 中的下列证书文件解压到此文件夹: 代码: ca.crt ca.key client1.crt client1.csr client1.key 然后双击 client.ovpn 即可启动 openvpn, 或者通过 OpenVPN GUI 的控制启动 VPN. 如果双击 client.ovpn 没有反应, 则在任务栏点 OpenVPN GUI 的小图标右键, 选择 edit config, 将内容复制过去再保存. 然后再点右键中的 connect即可. 如果需要第二台机器上使用 vpn , 进行同样的配置, 只需要将 client1.crt, client1.csr, client1.key 换成对应的 client2.xxx 即可, 然后将 client.ovpn 中的对应key文件值改掉. 另外客户端的启动: /usr/local/sbin/openvpn --config /usr/local/etc/client.conf > /dev/null 2>&1 & 四. OpenVPN 配置样例文件 1. OpenVPN 服务端:server.conf 代码: local 70.8.7.6 ---设置本地地址 port 1194 proto udp -----申明使用的协议,默认使用UDP,如果使用HTTP proxy必须使用TCP协议 dev tun #申明使用的设备可选tap和tun,tap是二层设备,支持链路层协议。 #tun是ip层的点对点协议,限制稍微多一些,本人习惯使用TAP设备 ca /openvpn-2.0.5/easy-rsa/keys/ca.crt ----Server使用的证书文件 cert /openvpn-2.0.5/easy-rsa/keys/server.crt key /openvpn-2.0.5/easy-rsa/keys/server.key # This file should be kept secret dh /openvpn-2.0.5/easy-rsa/keys/dh1024.pem server 10.8.0.0 255.255.255.0 client-to-client keepalive 10 120 comp-lzo persist-key persist-tun status /openvpn-2.0.5/easy-rsa/keys/openvpn-status.log verb 4 push "dhcp-option DNS 10.8.0.1" push "dhcp-option DNS 70.88.98.10" # name server 地址, 如何获取见随后说明 push "dhcp-option DNS 70.88.99.11" # name server 地址, 如何获取见随后说明 说明: 有些 domain 被 GFW 封掉了, 这时, 如果要访问这些网站, 应该将 server 上的 dns push 到 client. 上面示例中的 dns ip: 70.88.98.10, 70.88.99.10, 可以在 /etc/resolv.conf 中找到: 代码: vi /etc/resolv.conf nameserver 70.88.98.10 nameserver 70.88.99.11 2. OpenVPN 客户端: client.ovpn 代码: client dev tun proto udp remote 70.8.7.6 1194 persist-key persist-tun ca ca.crt cert client1.crt key client1.key ns-cert-type server comp-lzo verb 3 redirect-gateway def1 五. OpenVPN 访问外网的设置 1. 打开路由 VPN连接成功后, 还需要设置路由, 才能透过VPN访问Internet. 在 linux host 上添加路由: 代码: 2. iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 10.8.0.0/24 -o eth0 -j SNAT --to-source 70.8.7.6 3. /etc/init.d/iptables save 4. /etc/init.d/iptables restart 不同的机器,-o eth0 参数可能不一样,具体可输入 ifconfig 查看,搞清 ip(70.8.7.6)所在的网卡号. 同时, 需要将 ip forward 打开. 不要用 echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward 的方式, 这种方式重启后无效. 先查看一下: 代码: sysctl -a | grep for #查看结果: net.ipv4.conf.tun0.mc_forwarding = 0 net.ipv4.conf.tun0.forwarding = 1 net.ipv4.conf.eth0.mc_forwarding = 0 net.ipv4.conf.eth0.forwarding = 1 net.ipv4.conf.lo.mc_forwarding = 0 net.ipv4.conf.lo.forwarding = 1 net.ipv4.conf.default.mc_forwarding = 0 net.ipv4.conf.default.forwarding = 1 net.ipv4.conf.all.mc_forwarding = 0 net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding = 1 net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1 如果你的主机上列数值不是为1, 则要将其改成1, 例如: 代码: sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1 依此类推. 5. 开启域名服务器 如果你需要访问一些已经被GFW封掉了域名的网站, 但你的 OpenVPN 服务器没有被封的话,那么你需要在你的主机上开启 name server, 并将 dns push 给 client。 一般的独立主机, 都带有 private dns server. 代码: rpm -qa | grep bind /etc/init.d/named start 另外, 必须保证 server.conf 配置中, 有这三个配置: 代码: push "dhcp-option DNS 10.8.0.1" push "dhcp-option DNS 70.88.98.10" # name server 地址 push "dhcp-option DNS 70.88.99.11" # name server 地址 当 client 连接成功后, 在 cmd 下执行 ipconfig /all, 应该有这类似这样的输出: 代码: Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection 3: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : Description . . . . . . . . . . . : TAP-Win32 Adapter V8 Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-FF-AA-B0-60-2B Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 10.8.0.6 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.252 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 10.8.0.5 DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 10.8.0.5 DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 10.8.0.1 70.88.98.10 70.88.99.11 Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : 2006年5月25日 5:13:52 Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : 2007年5月25日 5:13:52 六. 设置 OpenVPN 服务器 reboot后自动启动 openvpn 执行命令: 代码: vi /etc/rc.local 然后在最后面加入此行: 代码: /usr/local/sbin/openvpn --config /usr/local/etc/server.conf > /dev/null 2>&1 & 七. OpenVPN 测试 你可以用 VPN 登录上去之后, 测试 MSN, QQ, IE 等网络应用, 也可以尝试访问一些被 GFW 禁掉的网站, 当然, 前提是你的 VPN 服务器不在境内. 八. 使用 OpenVPN 的强烈注意事项 不建议用 VPN 登录 paypal 帐户和 google adsense 帐户. 否则有可能导致帐户受限或带来其他风险. openvpn 出现 TLS Error: Unroutable control packet received from 是由于 客户端与server端的时间不同步所致。同步时间后,重新生成client的key文件即可。 客户端的启动: /usr/local/sbin/openvpn --config /usr/local/etc/client.conf > /dev/null 2>&1 &

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