java加密算法(九)——初探SSL

wubin

贡献于2013-07-16

字数:12656 关键词: Java开发

在Java加密算法(八)中,我们模拟了一个基于RSA非对称加密网络的安全通信。现在我们深度了解一下现有的安全网络通信——SSL。 我们需要构建一个由CA机构签发的有效证书,这里我们使用上文中生成的自签名证书zlex.cer 这里,我们将证书导入到我们的密钥库。 Shell代码 ? keytool -import -alias www.zlex.org -file d:/zlex.cer -keystore d:/zlex.keystore   其中 -import表示导入 -alias指定别名,这里是www.zlex.org -file指定算法,这里是d:/zlex.cer -keystore指定存储位置,这里是d:/zlex.keystore 在这里我使用的密码为654321 控制台输出: Console代码 ? 输入keystore密码: 再次输入新密码: 所有者:CN=www.zlex.org, OU=zlex, O=zlex, L=BJ, ST=BJ, C=CN 签发人:CN=www.zlex.org, OU=zlex, O=zlex, L=BJ, ST=BJ, C=CN 序列号:4a1e48df 有效期: Thu May28 16:18:39 CST2009 至Wed Aug26 16:18:39 CST2009 证书指纹: MD5:19:CA:E6:36:E2:DF:AD:96:31:97:2F:A9:AD:FC:37:6A SHA1:49:88:30:59:29:45:F1:69:CA:97:A9:6D:8A:CF:08:D2:C3:D5:C0:C4 签名算法名称:SHA1withRSA 版本:3 信任这个认证? [否]: y 认证已添加至keystore中   OK,最复杂的准备工作已经完成。 接下来我们将域名www.zlex.org定位到本机上。打开C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts文件,将www.zlex.org绑定在本机上。在文件末尾追加127.0.0.1 www.zlex.org。现在通过地址栏访问http://www.zlex.org,或者通过ping命令,如果能够定位到本机,域名映射就搞定了。 现在,配置tomcat。先将zlex.keystore拷贝到tomcat的conf目录下,然后配置server.xml。将如下内容加入配置文件 Xml代码 注意clientAuth="false"测试阶段,置为false,正式使用时建议使用true。现在启动tomcat,访问https://www.zlex.org/。 显然,证书未能通过认证,这个时候你可以选择安装证书(上文中的zlex.cer文件就是证书),作为受信任的根证书颁发机构导入,再次重启浏览器(IE,其他浏览器对于域名www.zlex.org不支持本地方式访问),访问https://www.zlex.org/,你会看到地址栏中会有个小锁,就说明安装成功。所有的浏览器联网操作已经在RSA加密解密系统的保护之下了。但似乎我们感受不到。 这个时候很多人开始怀疑,如果我们要手工做一个这样的https的访问是不是需要把浏览器的这些个功能都实现呢?不需要! 接着上篇内容,给出如下代码实现: Java代码 ? import java.io.FileInputStream; import java.security.KeyStore; import java.security.PrivateKey; import java.security.PublicKey; import java.security.Signature; import java.security.cert.Certificate; import java.security.cert.CertificateFactory; import java.security.cert.X509Certificate; import java.util.Date; import javax.crypto.Cipher; import javax.net.ssl.HttpsURLConnection; import javax.net.ssl.KeyManagerFactory; import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext; import javax.net.ssl.SSLSocketFactory; import javax.net.ssl.TrustManagerFactory; /** * 证书组件 * */ public abstract class CertificateCoderextends Coder { /** * Java密钥库(Java Key Store,JKS)KEY_STORE */ public static final String KEY_STORE ="JKS"; public static final String X509 ="X.509"; public static final String SunX509 ="SunX509"; public static final String SSL ="SSL"; /** * 由KeyStore获得私钥 * * @param keyStorePath * @param alias * @param password * @return * @throws Exception */ private static PrivateKey getPrivateKey(String keyStorePath, String alias, String password)throws Exception { KeyStore ks = getKeyStore(keyStorePath, password); PrivateKey key = (PrivateKey) ks.getKey(alias, password.toCharArray()); return key; } /** * 由Certificate获得公钥 * * @param certificatePath * @return * @throws Exception */ private static PublicKey getPublicKey(String certificatePath) throws Exception { Certificate certificate = getCertificate(certificatePath); PublicKey key = certificate.getPublicKey(); return key; } /** * 获得Certificate * * @param certificatePath * @return * @throws Exception */ private static Certificate getCertificate(String certificatePath) throws Exception { CertificateFactory certificateFactory = CertificateFactory .getInstance(X509); FileInputStream in =new FileInputStream(certificatePath); Certificate certificate = certificateFactory.generateCertificate(in); in.close(); return certificate; } /** * 获得Certificate * * @param keyStorePath * @param alias * @param password * @return * @throws Exception */ private static Certificate getCertificate(String keyStorePath, String alias, String password)throws Exception { KeyStore ks = getKeyStore(keyStorePath, password); Certificate certificate = ks.getCertificate(alias); return certificate; } /** * 获得KeyStore * * @param keyStorePath * @param password * @return * @throws Exception */ private static KeyStore getKeyStore(String keyStorePath, String password) throws Exception { FileInputStream is =new FileInputStream(keyStorePath); KeyStore ks = KeyStore.getInstance(KEY_STORE); ks.load(is, password.toCharArray()); is.close(); return ks; } /** * 私钥加密 * * @param data * @param keyStorePath * @param alias * @param password * @return * @throws Exception */ public static byte[] encryptByPrivateKey(byte[] data, String keyStorePath, String alias, String password)throws Exception { // 取得私钥 PrivateKey privateKey = getPrivateKey(keyStorePath, alias, password); // 对数据加密 Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(privateKey.getAlgorithm()); cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, privateKey); return cipher.doFinal(data); } /** * 私钥解密 * * @param data * @param keyStorePath * @param alias * @param password * @return * @throws Exception */ public static byte[] decryptByPrivateKey(byte[] data, String keyStorePath, String alias, String password)throws Exception { // 取得私钥 PrivateKey privateKey = getPrivateKey(keyStorePath, alias, password); // 对数据加密 Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(privateKey.getAlgorithm()); cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, privateKey); return cipher.doFinal(data); } /** * 公钥加密 * * @param data * @param certificatePath * @return * @throws Exception */ public static byte[] encryptByPublicKey(byte[] data, String certificatePath) throws Exception { // 取得公钥 PublicKey publicKey = getPublicKey(certificatePath); // 对数据加密 Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(publicKey.getAlgorithm()); cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, publicKey); return cipher.doFinal(data); } /** * 公钥解密 * * @param data * @param certificatePath * @return * @throws Exception */ public static byte[] decryptByPublicKey(byte[] data, String certificatePath) throws Exception { // 取得公钥 PublicKey publicKey = getPublicKey(certificatePath); // 对数据加密 Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(publicKey.getAlgorithm()); cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, publicKey); return cipher.doFinal(data); } /** * 验证Certificate * * @param certificatePath * @return */ public static boolean verifyCertificate(String certificatePath) { return verifyCertificate(new Date(), certificatePath); } /** * 验证Certificate是否过期或无效 * * @param date * @param certificatePath * @return */ public static boolean verifyCertificate(Date date, String certificatePath) { boolean status =true; try { // 取得证书 Certificate certificate = getCertificate(certificatePath); // 验证证书是否过期或无效 status = verifyCertificate(date, certificate); }catch (Exception e) { status =false; } return status; } /** * 验证证书是否过期或无效 * * @param date * @param certificate * @return */ private static boolean verifyCertificate(Date date, Certificate certificate) { boolean status =true; try { X509Certificate x509Certificate = (X509Certificate) certificate; x509Certificate.checkValidity(date); }catch (Exception e) { status =false; } return status; } /** * 签名 * * @param keyStorePath * @param alias * @param password * * @return * @throws Exception */ public static String sign(byte[] sign, String keyStorePath, String alias, String password)throws Exception { // 获得证书 X509Certificate x509Certificate = (X509Certificate) getCertificate( keyStorePath, alias, password); // 获取私钥 KeyStore ks = getKeyStore(keyStorePath, password); // 取得私钥 PrivateKey privateKey = (PrivateKey) ks.getKey(alias, password .toCharArray()); // 构建签名 Signature signature = Signature.getInstance(x509Certificate .getSigAlgName()); signature.initSign(privateKey); signature.update(sign); return encryptBASE64(signature.sign()); } /** * 验证签名 * * @param data * @param sign * @param certificatePath * @return * @throws Exception */ public static boolean verify(byte[] data, String sign, String certificatePath)throws Exception { // 获得证书 X509Certificate x509Certificate = (X509Certificate) getCertificate(certificatePath); // 获得公钥 PublicKey publicKey = x509Certificate.getPublicKey(); // 构建签名 Signature signature = Signature.getInstance(x509Certificate .getSigAlgName()); signature.initVerify(publicKey); signature.update(data); return signature.verify(decryptBASE64(sign)); } /** * 验证Certificate * * @param keyStorePath * @param alias * @param password * @return */ public static boolean verifyCertificate(Date date, String keyStorePath, String alias, String password) { boolean status =true; try { Certificate certificate = getCertificate(keyStorePath, alias, password); status = verifyCertificate(date, certificate); }catch (Exception e) { status =false; } return status; } /** * 验证Certificate * * @param keyStorePath * @param alias * @param password * @return */ public static boolean verifyCertificate(String keyStorePath, String alias, String password) { return verifyCertificate(new Date(), keyStorePath, alias, password); } /** * 获得SSLSocektFactory * * @param password * 密码 * @param keyStorePath * 密钥库路径 * * @param trustKeyStorePath * 信任库路径 * @return * @throws Exception */ private static SSLSocketFactory getSSLSocketFactory(String password, String keyStorePath, String trustKeyStorePath)throws Exception { // 初始化密钥库 KeyManagerFactory keyManagerFactory = KeyManagerFactory .getInstance(SunX509); KeyStore keyStore = getKeyStore(keyStorePath, password); keyManagerFactory.init(keyStore, password.toCharArray()); // 初始化信任库 TrustManagerFactory trustManagerFactory = TrustManagerFactory .getInstance(SunX509); KeyStore trustkeyStore = getKeyStore(trustKeyStorePath, password); trustManagerFactory.init(trustkeyStore); // 初始化SSL上下文 SSLContext ctx = SSLContext.getInstance(SSL); ctx.init(keyManagerFactory.getKeyManagers(), trustManagerFactory .getTrustManagers(),null); SSLSocketFactory sf = ctx.getSocketFactory(); return sf; } /** * 为HttpsURLConnection配置SSLSocketFactory * * @param conn * HttpsURLConnection * @param password * 密码 * @param keyStorePath * 密钥库路径 * * @param trustKeyStorePath * 信任库路径 * @throws Exception */ public static void configSSLSocketFactory(HttpsURLConnection conn, String password, String keyStorePath, String trustKeyStorePath) throws Exception { conn.setSSLSocketFactory(getSSLSocketFactory(password, keyStorePath, trustKeyStorePath)); } }   增加了configSSLSocketFactory方法供外界调用,该方法为HttpsURLConnection配置了SSLSocketFactory。当HttpsURLConnection配置了SSLSocketFactory后,我们就可以通过HttpsURLConnection的getInputStream、getOutputStream,像往常使用HttpURLConnection做操作了。尤其要说明一点,未配置SSLSocketFactory前,HttpsURLConnection的getContentLength()获得值永远都是-1。 给出相应测试类: Java代码 ? import static org.junit.Assert.*; import java.io.DataInputStream; import java.io.InputStream; import java.net.URL; import javax.net.ssl.HttpsURLConnection; import org.junit.Test; /** * * SSL测试 */ public class CertificateCoderTest { private String password ="123456"; private String alias ="www.zlex.org"; private String certificatePath ="d:/zlex.cer"; private String keyStorePath ="d:/zlex.keystore"; private String clientKeyStorePath ="d:/zlex-client.keystore"; private String clientPassword ="654321"; @Test public void test()throws Exception { System.err.println("公钥加密——私钥解密"); String inputStr ="Ceritifcate"; byte[] data = inputStr.getBytes(); byte[] encrypt = CertificateCoder.encryptByPublicKey(data, certificatePath); byte[] decrypt = CertificateCoder.decryptByPrivateKey(encrypt, keyStorePath, alias, password); String outputStr =new String(decrypt); System.err.println("加密前: " + inputStr +"\n\r" +"解密后: " + outputStr); // 验证数据一致 assertArrayEquals(data, decrypt); // 验证证书有效 assertTrue(CertificateCoder.verifyCertificate(certificatePath)); } @Test public void testSign()throws Exception { System.err.println("私钥加密——公钥解密"); String inputStr ="sign"; byte[] data = inputStr.getBytes(); byte[] encodedData = CertificateCoder.encryptByPrivateKey(data, keyStorePath, alias, password); byte[] decodedData = CertificateCoder.decryptByPublicKey(encodedData, certificatePath); String outputStr =new String(decodedData); System.err.println("加密前: " + inputStr +"\n\r" +"解密后: " + outputStr); assertEquals(inputStr, outputStr); System.err.println("私钥签名——公钥验证签名"); // 产生签名 String sign = CertificateCoder.sign(encodedData, keyStorePath, alias, password); System.err.println("签名:\r" + sign); // 验证签名 boolean status = CertificateCoder.verify(encodedData, sign, certificatePath); System.err.println("状态:\r" + status); assertTrue(status); } @Test public void testHttps()throws Exception { URL url =new URL("https://www.zlex.org/examples/"); HttpsURLConnection conn = (HttpsURLConnection) url.openConnection(); conn.setDoInput(true); conn.setDoOutput(true); CertificateCoder.configSSLSocketFactory(conn, clientPassword, clientKeyStorePath, clientKeyStorePath); InputStream is = conn.getInputStream(); int length = conn.getContentLength(); DataInputStream dis =new DataInputStream(is); byte[] data =new byte[length]; dis.readFully(data); dis.close(); System.err.println(new String(data)); conn.disconnect(); } }   注意testHttps方法,几乎和我们往常做HTTP访问没有差别,我们来看控制台输出: Console代码 ? Apache Tomcat Examples

Apache Tomcat Examples

  通过浏览器直接访问https://www.zlex.org/examples/你也会获得上述内容。也就是说应用甲方作为服务器构建tomcat服务,乙方可以通过上述方式访问甲方受保护的SSL应用,并且不需要考虑具体的加密解密问题。甲乙双方可以经过相应配置,通过双方的tomcat配置有效的SSL服务,简化上述代码实现,完全通过证书配置完成SSL双向认证! 来源于:http://snowolf.iteye.com/blog

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